Nature 442: 908-911, 2006.


8. A.D. Anbar, Y. Duan, T.W. Lyons, G.L. Arnold, B. Kendall, R.A. Creaser, A.J. Kaufman, G. Gordon, C. Scott, J. Garvin, and R. Buick, “A Whiff of Oxygen Before the Great Oxidation Event?” Science 317: 1903-1906, 2007.


9. G.P. Halverson, P.F. Hoffman, D.P. Schrag, A.C. Maloof, and A.H.N. Rice, “Toward a Neoproterozoic Composite Carbon-isotope Record,” Bulletin of the Geological Society of America 117: 1181-1207, 2005.


10. P.F. Hoffman and D.P. Schrag, “The Snowball Earth Hypothesis: Testing the Limits of Global Change,” Terra Nova 14: 129-155, 2002.


11. D. Condon, M.Y. Zhu, S. Bowring, W. Wang, A. Yang, and Y. Jin, “U-Pb Ages from the Neoproterozoic Doushantuo Formation, China,” Science 308: 95-98, 2005.


12. M.-C. Liang, H. Hartman, R.E. Kopp, J. Kirschvink, and Y.L. Yung, “Production of Hydrogen Peroxide in the Atmosphere of a Snowball Earth and the Origin of Oxygenic Photosynthesis,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 10: 18896-18899, 2006.


13. T.M. Hoehler, B.M. Bebout, and D.J. Des Marais, “The Role of Microbial Mats in the Production of Reduced Gases on the Early Earth,” Nature 412: 324-327, 2001.


14. D.C. Catling, K.J. Zahnle, and C.P. McKay, “Biogenic Methane, Hydrogen Escape, and the Irreversible Oxidation of Early Earth,” Science 293: 839-843, 2001.


15. D.J. Des Marais, “The Biogeochemistry of Hypersaline Microbial Mats Illustrates the Dynamics of Modern Microbial Ecosystems and the Early Evolution of the Biosphere,” The Biological Bulletin 204: 160-167, 2003.


16. R.E. Ley, J.K. Harris, J. Wilcox, J.R. Spear, S.M. Miller, B.M. Bebout, J.A. Maresca, D.A. Bryant, M.L. Sogin, and N.R. Pace, “Unexpected Diversity and Complexity of the Guerrero Negro Hypersaline Microbial Mat,” Applied and Environmental Microbiology 72: 3685-3695, 2006.


17. V.P. Edgecombe, D.T. Cypsela, A. Tasked, A. de Vera Gomez, and M.L. Sogin, “Benthic Eukaryotic Diversity in a Hydrothermal Vent,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 99: 7658-7662, 2002.


18. L.A. Zettler, F. Gomez, E. Settler, B.G. Keenan, R. Amils, and M.L. Sogin, “Heavy-metal, Acid-loving Eukaryotes from Spain’s ‘River of Fire’,” Nature 417: 137, 2002.


19. M.L. Sogin, H.G. Morrison, J.A. Huber, D. Mark Welch, S.M. Huse, P.R. Neal, J.M. Arietta, and G.J. Herd, “Microbial Diversity in the Deep Sea and the Under-explored ‘Rare Biosphere’,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 103: 12115-12120, 2006.


20. B.J. Baker, G.W. Tyson, R.I. Webb, J. Flanagan, P. Huguenots, E.E. Allen, and J.F. Banfield, “Lineages of Acidophilic Archaea Revealed by Community Genomic Analysis,” Science 314: 1933-1935, 2006.


21. J.F. Biddle, J.S. Lipp, M.A. Lever, K.G. Lloyd, K.B. Sørensen, R. Anderson, H.F. Fredricks, M. Elvert, T.J. Kelly, D.P. Schrag, M.L. Sogin, J.E. Brenchley, A. Teske, C.H. House, and K-U. Hinrichs, “Heterotrophic Archaea Dominate Sedimentary Subsurface Ecosystems Off Peru,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 103: 3846-3851, 2006.


22. S. D’Hondt, S. Rutherford, and A.J. Spivack, “Metabolic Activity of Subsurface Life in Deep-sea Sediments,” Science 295: 2067-2070, 2002.


23. S. D’Hondt et al., “Distributions of Microbial Activities in Deep Subseafloor Sediments,” Science 306: 2216-2221, 2004.


24. K.-U. Hinrichs, J.M. Hayes, W. Bach, A.J. Spivack, C.G. Johnson, and S.P. Sylva, “Biological Formation of Ethane and Propane in the Deep Marine Subsurface,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 103: 14684-14689, 2006.


25. F. Inagaki, T. Nunoura, S. Nakagawa, A. Teske, M. Lever, A. Lauer, M. Suzuki, K. Takai, M. Delwiche, F.S. Colwell, K.H. Nealson, K. Horikoshi, S. D’Hondt, and B.B. Jørgensen, “Biogeographical Distribution and Diversity of Microbes in Methane Hydrate-bearing Deep Marine Sediments on the Pacific Ocean Margin,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 103: 2815-2820, 2006.


26. B.L. Beard, C.M. Johnson, L. Cox, H. Sun, and K.H. Nealson, “Iron Isotope Biosignatures,” Science 285: 1889-1892, 1999.


27. G.L. Arnold, A.D. Anbar, J. Barling, and T.W. Lyons, “Molybdenum Isotope Evidence for Widespread Anoxia in Mid-Proterozoic Oceans,” Science 304: 87-90, 2004.


28. O.J. Rouxel, A. Bekker, and K.J. Edwards, “Iron Isotope Constraints on the Archean and Paleoproterozoic Ocean Redox State,” Science 307: 1088-1091, 2005.


29. C.M. Johnson and B.L. Beard, “Biogeochemical Cycling of Iron Isotopes,” Science 309: 1025-1027, 2005.


30. A.D. Anbar and O. Rouxel, “Metal Stable Isotopes in Paleoceanography,” Annual Reviews of Earth and Planetary Science 35: 717-746, 2007.


31. C.M. Johnson, B.L. Beard, and E.E. Roden, “The Iron Isotope Fingerprints of Redox and Biogeochemical Cycling in the Modern and Ancient Earth,” Annual Reviews of Earth and Planetary Sciences, 2008 (in press).


32. L-H. Lin, P-L. Wang, D. Rumble, J. Lippmann-Pipke, E. Boice, L.M. Pratt, B. Sherwood Lollar, E.L. Brodie, T.C. Hazen, G.L. Andersen, T.Z. DeSantis, D.P. Moser, D. Kershaw, and T.C. Onstott, “Long-Term Sustainability of a High-Energy, Low-Diversity Crustal Biome,” Science 314: 479-482, 2006.


33. M.J. Mumma, R.E. Novak, M.A. DiSanto, B.P. Boner, and N. Dello Russo, “Detection and Mapping of Methane and Water on Mars,” Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society 36: 1127, 2004.


34. M. Allen, B. Sherwood Lollar, B. Runnegar, D.Z. Oehlar, J.R. Lyons, C.E. Manning, and M.E. Summers, “Is Mars Alive?” EOS 87: 433-448, 2006.


35. T.C. Onstott, D. McGowan, J. Kessler, B. Sherwood Lollar, K.K. Lehmann, and S. Clifford, “Martian CH4: Sources, Flux, and Detection,” Astrobiology 6: 377-395, 2006.


36. M.E. Elwood Madden, S.M. Ulrich, T.C. Onstott, and T. J. Phelps, “Salinity-induced Hydrate Dissociation: A Mechanism for Recent

The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine
500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001

Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement