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Glossary Activities  efforts and work of the program, staff, grantees, and contractors (for example, surveillance, health effects research, intervention research, health services research, information dissemination, training, and technical assistance). Agricultural engineering  the development of engineering science and technol- ogy in the context of agricultural production and processing and for the manage- ment of natural resources. End outcomes  improvements in safety and health in the workplace. Defined by measures of health and safety and of impact on processes and programs (for exam- ple, changes related to health, including decreases in injuries, illnesses, or deaths and decreases in exposures due to research in a specific program or subprogram). Epidemiology  the study of factors affecting the health and illness of populations. Ergonomics  the application of scientific information concerning humans to the design of objects, systems, and environment for human use. Exposure assessment  an evaluation of the potential exposures to humans and the environment from the production, distribution, use, disposal, and recycle of a chemical substance. 211

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212 A g r i c u lt u r e , F o r e s t r y , and Fishing Research at NIOSH External factors  actions or forces beyond NIOSH’s control (for example, by industry, labor, regulators, and other entities) with important bearing on the in- corporation in the workplace of NIOSH’s outputs to enhance safety and health. Extramural research  research supported by funds from NIOSH to research- ers and organizations outside NIOSH through a grant, contract, or cooperative agreement. Health effects research  research that investigates physical, chemical, and biologic hazards (injuries and exposures, illness, and death). Hired farm worker  persons that are paid to perform duties on a farm. Farmworker  adjective used to describe a noun, such as “farmworker health” or “farmworker families.” Farm worker  any person (self-employed, unpaid, or paid) that performs tasks on a farm. Industrial hygiene  the science of anticipating, recognizing, evaluating, and con- trolling workplace conditions that may cause workers’ injury or illness. Intermediate outcomes  related to the research program’s association with behav- iors and changes at individual, group, and organization levels in the workplace. An assessment of the worth of NIOSH research and its products by outside stakehold- ers (for example, production of standards or regulations based in whole or in part on NIOSH research; attendance in training and education programs sponsored by other organizations; use of publications, technologies, methods, or recommenda- tions by workers, industry, and occupational safety and health professionals in the field; and citations of NIOSH research by industry and academic scientists). Intervention research  includes studies in which researchers arrange (or follow) a systematic change in conditions to determine the effects on a physical capacity, skill, or performance. Intramural research  research within NIOSH. Knowledge diffusion  the adaptation of knowledge in a broad range of scientific and engineering research and development.

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Glossary 213 Outputs  a direct product of a NIOSH research program that is logically related to the achievement of desirable and intended outcomes (for example, publications in peer-reviewed journals, recommendations, reports, Web site content, workshops and presentations, databases, educational materials, scales and methods, new tech- nologies, patents, and technical assistance). Planning inputs  stakeholder input, surveillance, and intervention data, and risk assessments (for example, input from Federal Advisory Committee Act panels or the National Occupational Research Agenda research partners, intramural surveil- lance information, or health hazard evaluations). Populations at risk  people that have proximity to the activities of agriculture, forestry, and fishing and to the potential dangers involved in those activities. Production inputs  intramural and extramural funding, staffing, management structure, and physical facilities. Stakeholder  individual or party that has an interest in and may be affected by the NIOSH AFF Program. Technology transfer  the process of developing practical applications for the results of scientific research. Surveillance  the observation and recording of injuries, illnesses, and deaths. Zoonoses, zoonotic diseases  diseases caused by infectious agents that can be transmitted between (or are shared by) animals and humans.