Note: CCS = carbon capture and storage; FT = Fischer-Tropsch; MTG = methanol-to-gasoline.
aIncludes the costs of CO2 transport and geologic storage and is expressed as dollars per tonne of CO2 equivalent avoided.
10,000 bbl/d of fuels with close to zero CO2 emissions. Note that the case shown is for FT, but the economics would look similar if MTG were used. FT primarily produces diesel; MTG produces gasoline. The economics show that the capital costs of coal-and-biomass-to-liquid fuel plants are higher than the costs of coal-to-liquid fuel plants.
The CO2 emissions are near zero on a life-cycle basis because the biomass in the feedstock is a carbon sink, offsetting some of the coal carbon. The key assumption in this case is that biomass availability is limited to 4000 tons per day by regional harvesting and transportation considerations. In those sites where locally sustainable biomass densities are higher (see Figure 5.1), larger plants—perhaps as many as 100 nationwide—could be built at similar biomass-to-coal