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References Abe, Y., 1993, Physical state of the very early Earth, Lithos, 30, Barron, E.J., and W.M. Washington, 1982, Cretaceous climate: A comparison of atmospheric simulations with the geologic record, 223–235. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 40, 103–133. Allen, R.M., and H. Kanamori, 2003, The potential for earthquake early warning in southern California, Science, 300, 786–789. Basilevsky, A.T., and J.W. Head, 2006, Impact craters on regional plains on Venus: Age relations with wrinkle ridges and implica- Allwood, A.C., M.R. Walter, B.S. Kamber, C.P. Marshall, and I.W. tions for the geological evolution of Venus, Journal of Geophysical Burch, 2006, Stromatolite reef from the Early Archaean era of Research—Planets, 111, E03006. Australia, Nature, 441, 714–718. Beck, S., S. Barrientos, E. Kausel, and M. Reyes, 1998, Source Alvarez, W., 1997, T. Rex and the Crater of Doom, Princeton Uni- characteristics of historic earthquakes along the central Chile versity Press, Princeton, NJ, 236 pp. subduction zone, Journal of South American Earth Sciences, 11, Alvarez, L.W., W. Alvarez, F. Asaro, and H.V. Michel, 1980, 115–129. Extraterrestrial cause for the Cretaceous-Tertiary extinction, Science, 208, 1095–1108. Bekker, A., H.D. Holland, P.L. Wang, D. Rumble, H.J. Stein, J.L. Hannah, L.L. Coetzee, and N.J. Beukes, 2004, Dating the rise Andrews, D.J., 1976, Rupture velocity of plane strain shear cracks, of atmospheric oxygen, Nature, 427, 117–120. Journal of Geophysical Research, 81, 5679–5687. Bennett, V.C., 2003, Compositional evolution of the mantle, in The Asimow, P.D., and C.H. Langmuir, 2003, The importance of water Mantle and Core, Treatise on Geochemistry, 2, R.W. Carlson, ed., to oceanic mantle melting regimes, Nature, 421, 815–820. Elsevier-Pergamon, Oxford, pp. 493–519. Atwater, B.F., 1987, Evidence for great Holocene earthquakes along the outer coast of Washington State, Science, 236, 942–944. Benton, M.J., and B.C. Emerson, 2007, How did life become so diverse? The dynamics of diversification according to the fossil Atwater, B.F., S. Musumi-Rokkaku, K. Satake, Y. Tsuji, K. Ueda, record and molecular phylogenetics, Palaeontology, 50, 23–40. and D.K. Yamaguchi, 2005, The Orphan Tsunami of 00— Bentov, S., and J. Erez, 2006, Impact of biomineralization processes Japanese Clues to a Parent Earthquake in North America, U.S. on the Mg content of foraminiferal shells: A biological perspec- Geological Survey Professional Paper 1707, published in asso- tive, Geochemistry Geophysics Geosystems, 7, Q01P08. ciation with University of Washington Press, Seattle, 133 pp. Bercovici, D., and S. Karato, 2002, Theoretical analysis of shear Bada, J.L., and A. Lazcano, 2003, Prebiotic soup—Revisiting the Miller experiment, Science, 300, 745–746. localization in the lithosphere, Reiews in Mineralogy and Geo- chemistry, 51, 387–420. Bak, P., C. Tang, and K. Wiesenfeld, 1988, Self-organized critical- ity, Physical Reiew A, 38, 364–374. Bernatowicz, T.J., S. Messenger, O. Pravdivtseva, P. Swan, and R.M. Walker, 2003, Pristine presolar silicon carbide, Geochimica et Bambach, R.K., A.H. Knoll, and S.C. Wang, 2004, Origination, Cosmochimica Acta, 67, 4679–4691. extinction, and mass depletions of marine diversity, Paleobiology, 30, 522–542. Berner, R.A., 2006, GEOCARBSULF: A combined model for Phanerozoic atmospheric O2 and CO2, Geochimica et Cosmochi- Banfield, J.F., and H.Z. Zhang, 2001, Nanoparticles in the environ- mica Acta, 70, 5653–5664. ment, Reiews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry, 44, 1–58. Berner, R.A., and Z. Kothavala, 2001, GEOCARB III: A revised Banfield, J.F., S.A. Welch, H. Zhang, T. Thomsen Ebert, and R.L. model of atmospheric CO2 over Phanerozoic time, American Penn, 2000, Aggregation-based crystal growth and microstruc- Journal of Science, 301, 182–204. ture development in natural iron oxyhydroxide biomineraliza- tion products, Science, 289, 751–754. Berner, R.A., A.C. Lasaga, and R.M. Garrels, 1983, The carbon- ate-silicate geochemical cycle and its effect on atmospheric Barlow, L.K., J.P. Sadler, A.E.J. Ogilvie, P.C. Buckland, T. Amorosi, carbon dioxide over the past 100 million years, American Journal J.H. Ingimundarson, P. Skidmore, A.J. Dugmore, and T.H. of Science, 283, 641–683. McGovern, 1997, Interdisciplinary investigations of the Norse western settlement in Greenland, The Holocene, 7, 489–499. 

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