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Appendix A Biographical Sketches of Committee Members Donald J. DePaolo, Chair, is the Class of 1951 Pro- ticular interest are isotope physiology and paleodiets of fessor of Geochemistry at the University of California, mammals, soils as indicators of climatological and eco- Berkeley; director of the Center for Isotope Geochem- logical change over geological timescales, and landscape istry; and director of the Earth Sciences Division at the evolution over the last several million years. Dr. Cerling Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. He received has served on several NRC solid-earth committees, his Ph.D. in geology from the California Institute of including the Board on Earth Sciences and Resources, Technology. Dr. DePaolo’s research interests are in the Geodynamics Committee, and the U.S. National the application of radiogenic isotope geochemistry Committee for the International Union for Quaternary and principles of physics and chemistry to problems Research. He is member of the U.S. Nuclear Waste in geology, geophysics, and environmental science. Technical Review Board, a fellow of both the American He has served on several advisory committees con- Association for the Advancement of Science and of the cerned with the geosciences, including the National Geological Society of America, and a member of the Research Council’s (NRC’s) Board on Earth Sciences National Academy of Sciences. and Resources and its Geodynamics Committee, and has chaired numerous professional society, advisory, Sidney R. Hemming is an associate professor in the and university visiting committees. Dr. DePaolo is the Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences at recipient of many awards for his contributions to the Columbia University. She earned her Ph.D. in geology geochemical and geophysical sciences, including the from the State University of New York, Stony Brook. American Geophysical Union’s Macelwane Award, the Her research focuses on paleoceanography, paleoclimate, Geochemical Society’s F.W. Clark Medal, the Geologi- tracer studies, and geochemistry of sedimentary rocks. cal Society of America’s Arthur L. Day Medal, and the Several of her current projects deal with reconstructing European Association of Geochemistry’s Harold Urey ocean circulation patterns at different times, including Medal. He is a member of the National Academy periods of abrupt climate change. Other projects aim of Sciences and the American Academy of Arts and to understand the role of ice sheets in regional and Sciences. global climate change, including studies of the North Atlantic and circum-Antarctic oceans and Mono Lake. Thure E. Cerling is Distinguished Professor of Geol- Dr. Hemming is deputy director (education liaison) of ogy and Geophysics and Distinguished Professor of the Cooperative Institute for Climate Applications and Biology at the University of Utah. He received his Research, a research partnership on climate variability Ph.D. in geology from the University of California, and change sponsored by the National Oceanic and Berkeley. His research concerns near-surface processes Atmospheric Administration and Columbia. She is a and the geological record of ecological change. Of par- member of the American Geophysical Union and the 133

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134 APPENDIX A Geochemical Society and is on the editorial board of the geophysics and the mechanics of large-scale continental journal Chemical Geology. deformation. She has received the Geological Society of America’s Donath Medal and a Presidential Young Andrew H. Knoll is Fisher Professor of Natural History Investigator Award. She has served on the Council of the and curator of the Paleobotanical Collections, Botani- Geological Society of America and is a former member cal Museum, at Harvard University. His geology Ph.D. of the NRC Geodynamics Committee and Committee was also from Harvard University. His research interests on Basic Research Opportunities in the Earth Sciences. are in Precambrian biological and geological evolution, She is a fellow of both the Geological Society of America early animal diversification, vascular plant evolution, and and the American Geophysical Union. the relationship between evolution and environmental change in Earth history. He also has an interest in as- Roberta L. Rudnick is a professor in the Department of trobiology and was a member of the rover science team Geology at the University of Maryland. Prior to joining in the National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s the faculty in 2000, she spent six years as a professor 2003 mission to Mars. Dr. Knoll has received several at Harvard University and several years as a research awards for his scientific achievements, including the scientist at the Max Planck Institute für Chemie in Paleontological Society’s Medal and Charles Schuch- Mainz, Germany. Dr. Rudnick received her Ph.D. from ert Award and the Society for Sedimentary Geology’s the Research School of Earth Sciences at Australian Raymond C. Moore Medal. He has served on Earth National University. Her research focuses on the origin and space science advisory groups, including the NRC and evolution of the continents, particularly the lower Space Studies Board and the Board on Earth Sciences continental crust and the underlying mantle lithosphere. and Resources. He is a member of the National Academy In addition to her research, she is a councillor for the of Sciences. Mineralogical Society of America and editor-in-chief of Chemical Geology. She is a fellow of the American Frank M. Richter is Sewell Avery Distinguished Service Geophysical Union, the Geological Society of America, Professor in the Department of Geophysical Sciences and the Mineralogical Society of America and has been at the University of Chicago. He received his Ph.D. a distinguished lecturer for the latter society. from the University of Chicago. Dr. Richter’s research spans both geophysics and geochemistry and includes Lars Stixrude is a professor of geophysics and mineral investigations of mantle convection, thermal evolution physics at the University of Michigan. He received his of Earth, isotopic dating, pore-water chemistry in sedi- Ph.D. in geophysics at the University of California, ments, and melt segregation and chemical diffusion in Berkeley. Dr. Stixrude investigates the physics of Earth molten rock systems. Both lines of research have led at an atomic level. Predictions of material physics at to professional society awards, including the American conditions of Earth’s interior, based on theoretical and Geophysical Union’s Bowen Award and the Geological laboratory investigations, provide insight into magma Society of America’s Wollard Award. Dr. Richter has generation and transport, the seismic structure of the served on numerous NRC solid-earth science com- mantle and core, and the state of water in the deep inte- mittees, including the Board on Earth Sciences and rior. He is a member of the steering committee for the Resources, Geodynamics Committee (chair), Commit- Cooperative Institute for Deep Earth Research, which tee on Seismology, and Committee on Basic Research is developing an intellectual framework to improve Opportunities in the Earth Sciences. He is a member of communication among scientists in different disciplines the National Academy of Sciences. studying the dynamics of Earth’s interior. He is a re- cipient of the American Geophysical Union’s James B. Leigh H. Royden is professor of geology and geophysics Macelwane Medal and a fellow of both the Mineralogi- and chair of the Program in Geology and Geochem- cal Society of America and the American Geophysical istry at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Union. She received her Ph.D. from the same institution. Dr. Royden’s research interests include regional geology and

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APPENDIX A 135 James S. Trefil is Clarence J. Robinson Professor of Phys- Science” column ran in USA Today from 1996 to 1999. He ics at George Mason University. He earned his Ph.D. in has also served as a science commentator and member of theoretical physics from Stanford University. In addition the Science Advisory Board for National Public Radio. to his research on particle physics, field theory, astrophys- Dr. Trefil is a fellow of the American Physical Society, the ics, and cosmology, he has strong interests in teaching American Association for the Advancement of Science, science to nonscientists. His course and textbook series and the World Economic Forum. He is a recipient of the on achieving scientific literacy is used in approximately American Institute of Physics Andrew Gemant Award 200 colleges and universities, and he has written numer- for sustained contributions in bridging the gap between ous articles and books for general audiences. His “Ask Mr. science and society.

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