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Appendix B Biographical Sketches of   Committee Members and Staff John E. Rolph (Chair) is professor of statistics at the Marshall School of Business of the University of Southern California, where he also holds appointments in the mathematics department and the law school. Previ- ously, he spent 24 years as a statistician at the RAND Corporation, 12 of them as head of the statistical research and consulting group. His areas of expertise include statistics and public policy and empirical Bayes estima- tion. He served as a member of the National Research Council’s (NRC) Committee on National Statistics (CNSTAT) and as chair of the committee from 1998 to 2004; he has also served on the NRC Committee on Law and Justice. He has served on several NRC panels, on topics including statisti- cal and operational test design in defense systems, methods for assessing discrimination, and decennial census methodology. He is an elected member of the International Statistical Institute, a fellow of the American Statisti- cal Association, a fellow of the Institute of Mathematical Statistics, and a lifetime national associate of the National Academies. He is a past editor of CHANCE magazine and has served in many other editorial capacities. He has a Ph.D. in statistics from the University of California, Berkeley. Eugene S. Meieran (Vice-Chair) is a fellow at the Intel Corporation, cur- rently working on knowledge management and collaboration applications to help improve manufacturing performance and help individuals and teams make better, faster, and more cost-effective decisions. A member of the National Academy of Engineering, he has taught technical courses at ­Stanford University and the University of California, Berkeley, and has given seminars and invited talks at many universities throughout the world. 312

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APPENDIX B 313 He has published extensively in the fields of statistical process control, materials analysis and characterization technology, process and product reliability, and advanced technology applications for manufacturing. He has received three awards for best paper at international conferences based on his work in semiconductor device reliability, with particular emphasis on the phenomena of electromigration in thin films, soft error upsets in dynamic random-access memory devices, and material analysis technology. He has served on several government and industry panels dealing with man- ufacturing technology and policy issues, such as the Coalition for Intelligent Manufacturing Systems and the Next Generation Manufacturing Systems Advanced Manufacturing Systems Board, and the NRC Board of Assess- ment for the National Institute of Standards and Technology. He received his B.S. degree from Purdue University and his M.S. and Sc.D. degrees from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in materials science. Alfred Blumstein is J. Erik Jonsson professor of urban systems and opera- tions research and former dean of the H. John Heinz III School of Public Policy and Management, Carnegie Mellon University. He is the director of the National Consortium on Violence Research, supported by a grant from the National Science Foundation. He has had extensive experience in both research and policy with the criminal justice system, serving on the President’s Commission on Law Enforcement and Administration of Justice in 1966–1967 as director of its Task Force on Science and Technology. At the NRC he was a member of the Committee on Research on Law Enforce- ment and the Administration of Justice (now the Committee on Law and Justice) from its founding in 1976 until 1986, and is currently a member of the committee. He has also served on the Commission (now Division) of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. A member of the National Academy of Engineering, he holds a bachelor’s degree in engineering and a Ph.D. in operations research from Cornell University. Alicia Carriquiry is professor of statistics at Iowa State University, where she has also served as associate provost of the university. Her research has included applications in forensic statistics, including assessment of the elemen- tal composition of bullet lead. She has spoken at the International Conference on Forensic Statistics and provided expert guidance and analysis to the NRC Committee on Scientific Assessment of Bullet Lead ­Elemental Composition Comparison. She specializes in linear models, Bayesian statistics, and general methods. Her recent research focuses on nutrition and dietary assessment. She is on the editorial board of Bayesian Statistics and an editor for Statisti- cal Science. She is a fellow of the American Statistical Association and is an elected member of the International Statistical Institute. She received a Ph.D. in statistics and animal science from Iowa State University

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314 BALLISTIC IMAGING Scott Chumbley is professor of materials science and engineering at Iowa State University, where he holds a joint appointment with Ames Laboratory, the Department of Energy laboratory at the university. His undergraduate and graduate degrees are in metallurgy and his field of expertise is materials characterization using optical and electron microscopy and x-ray diffrac- tion. He has been the principal investigator on an FBI-funded proposal to study the effects of blast damage on the grain structure of iron and alumi- num alloys and is currently working on a project funded by the Depart- ment of Justice to quantify and statistically analyze tool markings using three-dimensional profilometry. He is an active participant in the Midwest Forensic Research Center (MFRC), an educational and research center of Iowa State University whose goal is to provide resources and training assistance to law enforcement agencies in the Midwest. He holds a Ph.D. in metallurgical engineering from the University of Illinois. Philip J. Cook is ITT/Terry Sanford professor of public policy studies and professor of economics and sociology at Duke University, where he is a ­ former director of the Sanford Institute of Public Policy. His research covers a broad range of policy analysis, focusing on the regu- lation of unhealthy and unsafe behavior, including lotteries; sources of socio­economic inequality, including the disparity in salaries between the elites in certain professions and the rest of the population; the administra- tion of criminal justice, including the costs of the death penalty; and the prevention of alcohol-related problems through restrictions on alcohol availability. A member of the Institute of Medicine, he has written exten- sively on research on guns and violence, including studies on the costs and consequences of increased gun availability and the use of firearms tracing data in studying gun markets. He has a Ph.D. in economics from the Uni- versity of California, Berkeley. Daniel L. Cork is a senior program officer for the Committee on National Statistics, currently serving as study director of the Panel to Review the Pro- grams of the Bureau of Justice Statistics and as co-study director for the Panel on the Design of the 2010 Census Program of Evaluations and Experiments (CPEX). He previously served as study director of the Panel on Residence Rules in the Decennial Census, co-study director of the Panel on Research on Future Census Methods, and program officer for the Panel to Review the 2000 Census. His research interests include quantitative criminology, particularly space-time dynamics in homicide; Bayesian statistics; and statis- tics in sports. He holds a B.S. degree in statistics from George Washington University and an M.S. in statistics and a joint Ph.D. in ­statistics and public policy from Carnegie Mellon University.

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APPENDIX B 315 Marc De Graef is professor of materials science and engineering at Carnegie Mellon University. He has carried out extensive research using conventional and advanced techniques, including a fundamental study of the use of energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy. He is currently studying magnetostrictive materials using state-of-the-art chemical probes and mag- netic domain analysis. He has also written textbooks on conventional trans- mission electron microscopy for imaging and on crystallography, symmetry and diffraction for image analysis. He won the Carnegie Mellon George T. Ladd Research Award in 1996. He has authored or co-authored over 100 publications in the open literature and is an active member of ­the Miner- als, Metals, and Materials Society (TMS) and the Mineralogical Society of America. Dr. De Graef received his M.S. in physics from the University of Antwerp and a Ph.D. in physics from the Catholic University of Leuven, both in Belgium. David L. Donoho is professor of statistics and Anne T. and Robert M. Bass professor of humanities and science at Stanford University. Winner of a MacArthur Fellowship, his ground-breaking research in data analysis and reconstruction is widely used and cited. This work finds application in a number of different areas ranging from medical imaging to seismology and astronomy. His earliest work deals with the problem of “blind signal pro- cessing,” recovering a signal that has been blurred in an unknown fashion, a topic of interest today in cellular phone communication. More recently, he has considered approaches for the rigorous use of facial and retinal recognition scans for use in airline and other security applications. A large body of his recent research concerns the theoretical properties of wavelets (useful for pattern recognition and decomposing digital images), and he has developed a suite of interactive computer models for exploring their properties. He is a former Presidential Young Investigator and a member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. A member of the National Academy of Sciences and honored fellow of the Institute of Mathematical Statistics, he is a recipient of the Presidents’ Award of the Committee of Presidents of Statistical Societies and the John von Neumann Prize from the Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics. He holds a B.S. from Princeton University and a Ph.D. from Harvard University. William F. Eddy is professor of statistics at Carnegie Mellon University. A long-time researcher in statistical computing and graphics, he is co-creator of the Functional Image Analysis Software-Computational Olio (FIASCO), a collection of tools for processing very large multidimensional arrays of data originally developed for processing functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data. It has expanded to include analysis and interpreta- tion of digital image data, including positron emission tomography (PET)

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316 BALLISTIC IMAGING scanning, genetic microarrays, and optical image data. His research concen- trates on the computational and graphical aspects of statistics; the analysis has included data sources including 5 billion floating point numbers. His applications of large datasets have also included applications in disease mapping, grocery store scanner data, and airline traffic. The current chair of the Committee on National Statistics, he is also a past chair of the NRC Committee on Applied and Theoretical Statistics. He is a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, the American Sta- tistical Association, the Institute of Mathematical Statistics, and the Royal Statistical Society, and is an elected member of the International Statistical Institute. He is affiliated with Carnegie Mellon’s Center for Automated Learning and Discovery and Center for Cognitive Brain Imaging as well as the Brain Imaging Research Center (joint with the University of Pittsburgh). He was the founding co-editor of CHANCE magazine and is the founding editor of the Journal of Computational and Graphical Statistics. He has an A.B. degree from Princeton University, and M.A., M.Phil., and Ph.D. degrees from Yale University. Gary Fischman is director of the National Materials Advisory Board and the Board on Manufacturing and Engineering Design at the National Academies. Prior to joining the Academies staff, he was a full-time con- sultant working for the biomedical implant industry. He was director of bio­materials and technology at the University of Illinois at Chicago, where he also served on the faculty of the College of Dentistry with joint appoint- ments in orthopaedic surgery and bioengineering. He was founding director of the Bioceramics Institute and director of the National Science Founda- tion Industry University for Biosurfaces’ Alfred Satellite during his time as a faculty member at the New York State College of Ceramics. He has also worked for the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. He holds B.S., M.S., and Ph.D. degrees in ceramics engineering. George (Rusty) Gray is leader of the dynamic properties and constitutive modeling team in the materials science division, Los Alamos National Laboratories. He conducts fundamental, applied, and focused program- matic research on materials and structures. He researches and constructs constitutive, damage, and fracture models directly and contributes to pro- cess modeling through the quantification of constitutive property data. The models are utilized in integrated verification and validation codes and also to support large-scale finite element modeling simulations of structures ranging from national defense, industry, foreign object damage, and manu- facturing. The models are utilized by the U.S. Navy, Air Force, and Army for both platform and munitions simulations related to performance and for manufacturing simulations. He is the project leader for a large Depart-

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APPENDIX B 317 ment of Defense Office of Munitions program on materials modeling and validation. He is an elected fellow of Los Alamos National Laboratory and has been awarded several professional titles. He has authored or co- authored over 195 publications. He has a B.S. with honors and an M.S. in metallurgical engineering from the South Dakota School of Mines and Technology and a Ph.D. in metallurgical engineering from Carnegie Mellon University. Eric Grimson is professor of computer science and engineering and holds the Bernard Gordon Chair of Medical Engineering at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). He also holds a joint appointment as a l ­ecturer on radiology at Harvard Medical School and at Brigham and Women’s Hospital. He currently heads the computer vision group of MIT’s Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, which has pio- neered state-of-the-art systems for activity and behavior recognition, object and person recognition, image database indexing, image guided surgery, site modeling, and many other areas of computer vision. He is a fellow of the American Association for Artificial Intelligence and was awarded the Bose Award for Excellence in Teaching in the School of Engineering at MIT. He received a B.Sc. (High Honors) in mathematics and physics from the University of Regina in 1975 and a Ph.D. in mathematics and physics from MIT in 1980. Daniel Huttenlocher is John P. and Rilla Neafsay professor of computing, information science, and business and Stephen H. Weiss Fellow at Cornell University. He also holds an appointment in the computer science depart- ment and is Corning Director of Technology management at the Johnson G ­ raduate School of Management at Cornell. His research interests are in computer vision, computational geometry, interactive document systems, electronic trading systems, and software development methodologies. His research in computer vision ranges from theoretical algorithms (using tech- niques from computational geometry and graph algorithms) to the devel- opment of end-to-end systems that apply visual matching and recognition techniques. His work in computational geometry includes efficient algo- rithms for computing Hausdorff distances and related distance transforms, as well as techniques for comparing three-dimensional protein structures. His work on interactive document systems has often incorporated com- puter vision techniques. His interest in software development methodolo- gies stems from his involvement in the creation of large, complex software systems at Xerox Corporation and Intelligent Markets. For 11 years, he worked with Xerox PARC on electronic document image processing. More recently, he has been working with Intelligent Markets on electronic trad- ing systems.

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318 BALLISTIC IMAGING Michael M. Meyer works for Google, Inc., and is based in Seattle, Washing- ton. Previously, he was co-founder and chief scientist at Intelligent Results, Inc., a Seattle-based software company specializing in collecting raw data from interviews and developing software to analyze large databases for the purpose of predicting behavior with regard to debt collection and the financing industry. He has held mathematics and engineering analyst posi- tions at the Boeing Company and at Amazon.com. He has also served as senior research scientist in the department of statistics at Carnegie Mellon University, where he was director of special projects in computing services and director of the applications software group in computing services. From 1991–1992, on a part-time basis, he was study director for the NRC Panel to Review Evaluation Studies of Bilingual Education. He is a fellow of the American Statistical Association, in part for his role in the develop- ment and maintenance of the Statlib archive of statistical software and data resources. He received a B.A. (with honors) in mathematics from the University of Western Australia and a Ph.D. in statistics from the University of Minnesota. Vijay Nair is Donald A. Darling professor of statistics and professor of industrial and operations engineering at the University of Michigan, and is currently chair of the department of statistics. He is a world-renowned expert in experimental design and system development, particularly in industrial applications. He has done extensive consulting work with the automotive and telecommunications industries, which has required the development, testing, and analysis of large databases for quality control. For example, he developed a structured design and data analysis strategy for robust design experiments with dynamic characteristics. Such experiments are being increasingly used to design systems that are robust to uncontrol- lable variation over a range of signal factors. Previously, he was a research scientist at Bell Laboratories in New Jersey for 15 years. He is a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, American Sta- tistical Association, and the Institute of Mathematical Statistics, an elected member of the International Statistical Institute, and a senior member of the American Society for Quality. He served as editor of Technometrics and as joint editor of International Statistical Review. He is currently a member of the Committee on National Statistics and has served on NRC panels on statistics and testing in defense acquisition. Dr. Nair received his bachelor’s degree in economics from the University of Malaya, Malaysia, and his Ph.D. in statistics from the University of California, Berkeley. Angelo Ninivaggi is vice president, general counsel, and secretary of Plexus Corp., based in Neenah, Wisconsin. He is an expert on manufacturing enterprise practices in the United States and has both broad and specific

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APPENDIX B 319 familiarity with business and management practices, including the legal issues surrounding product liability, audit responsibility, and supply chain management. He was executive vice president, general counsel, and cor- porate secretary for MCMS, another contract manufacturing firm, until MCMS was acquired by Plexus Corp. From March 1996 until joining MCMS in February 1998, he served as corporate counsel with Micron Electronics, Inc. Prior to his employment with Micron Electronics, Inc., he worked as an associate with the law firm of Weil, Gotshal & Manges in New York. Mr. Ninivaggi holds a B.A. in economics from Columbia University, an M.B.A. in finance from Fordham University, and a J.D. from Fordham University. Carol V. Petrie is director of the Committee on Law and Justice at the National Academies. She also served as the director of planning and man- agement at the National Institute of Justice, U.S. Department of Justice, responsible for policy and administration. In 1994, she served as the acting director of the National Institute of Justice. She has conducted research on violence and public policy, and managed numerous research projects on the development of criminal behavior, domestic violence, child abuse and neglect, and improving the operations of the criminal justice system. David W. Pisenti is a law enforcement consultant with an extensive back- ground in firearms, SWAT tactics, and armor protection. From 1973–1994, he served as the supervisory special agent, Firearms Training Unit at the FBI Academy at Quantico, Virginia. He was president of Progressive Technolo- gies of America, Inc. (1994–1996) and executive vice president of Point Blank Body Armor, Inc. (1996–2000). He has developed and implemented presentations and demonstrations on critical issues involving firearms train- ing, technological advances in law enforcement equipment, and tactical techniques at a wide range of law enforcement and criminal justice profes- sional conferences. Throughout his career, he has advised federal agencies and Congress on matters related to firearms and protective body armor, serving as chairman of the National Institute of Justice National Armor Advisory Board, as an advisor to the Congressional Office of Technology Assessment on body armor legislation, and as chairman of the Weapons and Protective Systems Committee, Technology Assessment Program Advisory Council, which advises the National Institute of Justice on the development of standards for police equipment. Daryl Pregibon works for Google, Inc., and is based in New York City. He joined Google after serving as division manager of the statistics research department at AT&T Laboratories. His research interests include real-time monitoring of large networks, analysis of very large datasets, and tree-

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320 BALLISTIC IMAGING based and generalized linear models. He is a world leader in data mining, which he defines as an interdisciplinary field combining statistics, artificial intelligence, and database research. He is widely recognized as a leading expert in the manipulation and analysis of massive datasets. He has nur- tured successful interactions in fiber and microelectronics manufacturing, network reliability, customer satisfaction, fraud detection, targeted market- ing, and regulatory statistics. His research contributions have changed from mathematical statistics to computational statistics and include such topics as expert systems for data analysis, data visualization, application-specific data structures for statistics, and large-scale data analysis. A past member of the Committee on National Statistics, he serves on the NRC Commit- tee on the Technical and Privacy Dimensions of Information for Terrorism Prevention and Other National Goals. A fellow of the American Statistical Association, he received his masters degree in statistics from the University of Waterloo and a Ph.D. in statistics from the University of Toronto. Herman M. Reininga is senior vice president of operations at Rockwell Collins, Cedar Rapids, Iowa. He is responsible for overall management of Rockwell Collins’ global production and material operations, including manufacturing, material, quality, and facilities and manufacturing activities. He has served on the Defense Science Board (DSB) and testified in front of the Senate Armed Services Committee on Defense Technology, Acquisition and Industrial Base. He chaired DSB’s Production Technology Subgroup for Weapons Development Production Technology Summer Studies program that developed a manufacturing technology strategy for the U.S. Depart- ment of Defense. He is also called upon regularly to provide perspective for future manufacturing strategies. In 1999, he received the prestigious Meri- torious Public Service Citation by the Chief of Naval Research, Department of the U.S. Navy, and in 1998 was awarded the Defense Manufacturing Excellence award endorsed by nine national trade associations and profes- sional societies. He holds a B.S. degree in industrial engineering from the University of Iowa and a master of industrial engineering degree from Iowa State University. James K. (Chips) Stewart is senior fellow for law enforcement domestic safety at the CNA Corporation. He previously held positions as a prin- ciple with Booz, Allen, Hamilton where he directed teams of MBAs and organization analysts in measuring, assessing, and implementing perfor- mance enhancements for large complex police organizations. His work there included a project, Validation of Neural Network Ballistic Identifica- tion Reliability in Large Data Sets, for the Federal Bureau of Investiation and state and local police performance. From 1982–1990, Mr. Stewart served as director of the National Institute of Justice, where, among many

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APPENDIX B 321 other accomplishments, he initiated a study of the feasibility of a national ballistics identification system. He has served as a White House Fellow, as executive assistant to Attorney General William French Smith, and as a Justice Department representative to the Board of Directors of the Interna- tional Association of Chiefs of Police. From 1966–1981, Mr. Stewart served as the commander of the Criminal Investigations Division of the Oakland Police Department, where he was responsible for all criminal investigations carried out by the department, for the development and implementation of performance standards for detectives, and for the testing of applications of new technology in criminal investigations. Michael Stonebraker is professor of computer science at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology specializing in database research and development. He was professor of computer science at the University of California, Berkeley from 1982–1994 and professor of the graduate school there from 1994–1999. A member of the National Academy of Engineering, he pio- neered database research and technology, in particular developing the basis for the existing relational database market. He was the main architect of the INGRES relational database management system and the object-relational POSTGRES system. He is also an editor for the book Readings in Database Systems. He is now working on stream-based data management. Harry Wechsler (served on the committee until May 2004) is professor of computer science at George Mason University. Since 1995, he has also been the director of the University’s Distributed and Intelligent Computation Center. He has done extensive research in the field of intelligent systems, including computer vision, automatic target recognition, signal and image processing, pattern recognition, statistical learning theory, neural networks, and data mining and knowledge discovery. He has also researched face and gesture recognition, biometrics, and forensics. He has been a consultant for both government and private industry and has lectured extensively in both the United States and abroad. He has authored over 200 scientific papers and has published one book. He is a fellow of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers and the International Association of Pattern Recognition. He holds a Ph.D. in computer science from the University of California, Irvine. Julia Weertman is Walter P. Murphy professor emerita of engineering at Northwestern University. She has conducted research on the mechanical behavior of metals and alloys and the underlying phenomena that give rise to the observed behavior. Her research currently is focused on determining the mechanical properties of a variety of nanocrystalline materials, char- acterizing their structure, and studying deformation mechanisms in this

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322 BALLISTIC IMAGING small grain size regime. She also continues interest in the high temperature behavior of metals. Her research has demonstrated the value of small angle neutron scattering for detection and quantification of such features as voids and pores, and for following nucleation and growth kinetics of second phase particles. She is a member of the National Academy of Engineering and a member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. She is past member of the NRC National Materials Advisory Board, the Committee on Women in Science and Engineering, and the Committee on Human Rights. She has served on advisory panels for the U.S. Department of Energy and the National Science Foundation, and for several national laboratories. She is on the Board of Review Editors for Science. She is a fellow of the Minerals, Metals and Materials Society and ASM International, received Special Creativity Awards for Research from the National Science Foun- dation in 1981 and 1986, a Guggenheim Fellowship in 1986–1987, the Achievement Award from the Society of Women Engineers in 1991, and the Leadership Award from TMS in 1997. She holds a B.A., M.S., and D.Sci in physics from the Carnegie Institute of Technology (now Carnegie Mellon University).