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Summary and Highlights of the 10th International Symposium on Antarctic Earth Sciences

Cooper, A. K., P. J. Barrett, H. Stagg, B. Storey, E. Stump, W. Wise, and the 10th ISAES editorial team, eds. (2008). Antarctica: A Keystone in a Changing World. Proceedings of the 10th International Symposium on Antarctic Earth Sciences. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

T. J. Wilson,1 R. E. Bell,2 P. Fitzgerald,3 S. B. Mukasa,4 R. D. Powell,5 C. Finn6

INTRODUCTION

The 10th International Symposium on Antarctic Earth Sciences (10th ISAES) was convened at the University of California, Santa Barbara, in August 2007. At the symposium about 350 researchers presented talks and posters with new results on major topics, including climate change, biotic evolution, magmatic processes, surface processes, tectonics, geodynamics, and the cryosphere. The symposium resulted in 335 papers and extended abstracts (Cooper et al., 2007, and this volume). Many science discoveries were presented spanning the last 2 billion years, from times when Antarctica was part of former supercontinents Rodinia and Gondwana to the present when Antarctica is an isolated, ice-covered land mass surrounded by seafloor spreading centers. In this summary we highlight some of the new results presented at the symposium.

TECTONICS IN THE SOUTH: A VIEW FROM THE SOLID EARTH

Antarctica occupies a key position for a greater understanding of the evolution of the supercontinents Rodinia and Gondwana as well as the present-day global plate motion circuit. Challenges for Antarctic science include the presence of ice sheets, ice shelves, and annual sea ice, hence remote sensing over the continent and surrounding oceans is routinely employed. Extensive offshore seismic reflection studies provide information about the evolution of geologic structures and formation of the Antarctic ice sheets. For example, the “Plates and Gates” project (e.g., Maldonado et al., 2007) is examining links between the opening of the Drake and Tasman Passages, and the transition to an ice-covered continent. Onshore, techniques such as airborne geophysics provide insight into the geology and form of the continent under the ice. For example, aeromagnetic data along the western flank of the Transantarctic Mountains reveal a faulted margin with the Wilkes subglacial basin, hence casting doubt on a flexural uplift model for the mountains (Armadillo et al., 2007). Another approach to acquire information from interior Antarctica relies on proxies from sediments and glacial deposits. A 1440 Ma, A-type rapakivi granite boulder was discovered in glacial till in the Nimrod Glacier region (Goodge et al., 2007). This granite has a Nd-isotope age and detrital zircons that closely resemble granites from the Laurentian province of North America, demonstrating the presence of Laurentia-like crust in East Antarctica. This supports the postulated fit of East Antarctica and Laurentia over 1 billion years ago, initially suggested by the SWEAT hypothesis (i.e., South West U.S. and East Antarctica connection). But the controversy continues, as new aeromagnetic data do not support the SWEAT reconstruction (Finn and Pisarevsky, 2007).

Correlation of the Cambro-Ordovican Ross and Delamerian orogenies of Antarctica and Australia are well established, but puzzling pieces of the Ross orogen occur in New Zealand and Marie Byrd Land. The Robertson Bay terrane

1

School of Earth Sciences, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210-1522, USA.

2

Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University, Palisades, NY 10964-8000, USA.

3

Department of Earth Sciences, Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY 13244-1070, USA.

4

Department of Geological Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1005, USA.

5

Department of Geology and Environmental Geosciences, Northern Illinois University, DeKalb, IL 60115-2854, USA.

6

U.S. Geological Survey, Denver, CO 80225, USA.



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Cooper, A. K., P. J. Barrett, H. Stagg, B. Storey, E. Stump, W. Wise, and the 10th ISAES editorial team, eds. (2008). Antarctica: A Keystone in a Changing World. Proceedings of the 10th International Symposium on Antarctic Earth Sciences. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. Summary and Highlights of the 10th International Symposium on Antarctic Earth Sciences T. J. Wilson,1 R. E. Bell,2 P. Fitzgerald,3 S. B. Mukasa,4 R. D. Powell,5 C. Finn6 INTRODUCTION Gondwana as well as the present-day global plate motion circuit. Challenges for Antarctic science include the pres- The 10th International Symposium on Antarctic Earth Sci- ence of ice sheets, ice shelves, and annual sea ice, hence ences (10th ISAES) was convened at the University of Cali- remote sensing over the continent and surrounding oceans fornia, Santa Barbara, in August 2007. At the symposium is routinely employed. Extensive offshore seismic reflection about 350 researchers presented talks and posters with new studies provide information about the evolution of geologic results on major topics, including climate change, biotic structures and formation of the Antarctic ice sheets. For evolution, magmatic processes, surface processes, tectonics, example, the “Plates and Gates” project (e.g., Maldonado geodynamics, and the cryosphere. The symposium resulted et al., 2007) is examining links between the opening of the in 335 papers and extended abstracts (Cooper et al., 2007, Drake and Tasman Passages, and the transition to an ice- and this volume). Many science discoveries were presented covered continent. Onshore, techniques such as airborne spanning the last 2 billion years, from times when Antarctica geophysics provide insight into the geology and form of was part of former supercontinents Rodinia and Gondwana the continent under the ice. For example, aeromagnetic data to the present when Antarctica is an isolated, ice-covered along the western flank of the Transantarctic Mountains land mass surrounded by seafloor spreading centers. In this reveal a faulted margin with the Wilkes subglacial basin, summary we highlight some of the new results presented at hence casting doubt on a flexural uplift model for the moun- the symposium. tains (Armadillo et al., 2007). Another approach to acquire information from interior Antarctica relies on proxies from TECTONICS IN THE SOUTH: sediments and glacial deposits. A 1440 Ma, A-type rapakivi A VIEW FROM THE SOLID EARTH granite boulder was discovered in glacial till in the Nimrod Glacier region (Goodge et al., 2007). This granite has a Antarctica occupies a key position for a greater understand- Nd-isotope age and detrital zircons that closely resemble ing of the evolution of the supercontinents Rodinia and granites from the Laurentian province of North America, demonstrating the presence of Laurentia-like crust in East Antarctica. This supports the postulated fit of East Antarctica 1 School of Earth Sciences, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210- and Laurentia over 1 billion years ago, initially suggested by 1522, USA. the SWEAT hypothesis (i.e., South West U.S. and East Ant- 2 Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University, Palisades, NY 10964-8000, USA. arctica connection). But the controversy continues, as new 3 Department of Earth Sciences, Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY aeromagnetic data do not support the SWEAT reconstruction 13244-1070, USA. (Finn and Pisarevsky, 2007). 4 Department of Geological Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Correlation of the Cambro-Ordovican Ross and Dela- MI 48109-1005, USA. merian orogenies of Antarctica and Australia are well estab- 5 Department of Geology and Environmental Geosciences, Northern Il- linois University, DeKalb, IL 60115-2854, USA. lished, but puzzling pieces of the Ross orogen occur in New 6 U.S. Geological Survey, Denver, CO 80225, USA. Zealand and Marie Byrd Land. The Robertson Bay terrane 1

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2 ANTARCTICA: A KEYSTONE IN A CHANGING WORLD advanced at the symposium, emphasizing the significance of Antarctica to studies of global geodynamics (see Figure 1). Sutherland (2008, this volume) presents a model for exten- sion in the West Antarctic rift system, a model that fits well with global plate model circuits and the geology of New Zealand. An elegant “double-saloon-door seafloor spread- ing” model explains the breakup of Gondwana, magnetic anomalies in the Weddell Sea region, along with the rotation and translation of the Falkland Islands block and the Ells- worth-Whitmore Mountains crustal block (Martin, 2007). LIFE IN ANTARCTICA: THE TERRESTRIAL VIEW A definitive incremental change in our understanding of the evolution of life on Antarctic land emerged at the sym- posium, from the rich and diverse terrestrial presentations. Evidence of a vibrant world is preserved in nonglacial and FIGURE 1 Mosaic image map of Antarctica derived from MODIS glacial sedimentary deposits that rest on top of the tectonic (Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) satellite data. basement structures. SOURCE: See http://nsidc.org/data/nsidc-0280.html. Insights into Gondwana ecosystem dynamics are being gleaned from tracks of animals in Devonian deserts (Bradshaw and Harmsen, 2007); the climate records in of northern Victoria Land is correlative with the western Permian, Triassic, and Jurassic floras (Bomfleur et al., 2007; Lachlan fold belt of eastern Australia, and the Lachlan Miller and Isbell, 2007; Ryberg and Taylor, 2007); and the orogen rocks form in an extensional basin. The Cambrian Triassic and Jurassic reptiles and dinosaurs of the Transant- rocks (Ross orogen correlatives) in New Zealand and Marie arctic Mountains (Collinson and Hammer, 2007; Smith et Byrd Land simply represent parts of a continental rift margin al., 2007). on the outboard side of the Lachlan fold belt (Bradshaw, For the last 100 million years, from the Late Cretaceous 2007). onward, the Antarctic continent has been situated over the New models have been proposed for the origin of the South Pole in approximately its present location. In sharp West Antarctic rift system and the associated Transantarctic contrast to current frigid polar conditions, abundant sub- Mountains. Considerable debate at the symposium centered tropical fossil plants are commonly found in Antarctic rocks. on the plateau hypothesis, in which the West Antarctic rift The subtropical nature of these fossil plants indicates warm, system and Transantarctic Mountains are thought to have humid climates at high latitudes during the mid-Cretaceous been previously a high-topography plateau with thicker than (Francis et al., 2008, this volume). A variety of dinosaurs normal crust. The proposed West Antarctic plateau is inferred lived in these polar forests, as shown by the wealth of bones to have collapsed in the Cretaceous during extension between collected from the Antarctic Peninsula region. The Late Cre- East and West Antarctica. The Transantarctic Mountains are, taceous dinosaur fauna is a relict of a cosmopolitan dinosaur in this hypothesis, the remnant western edge of the plateau assemblage that survived until the end of the Cretaceous in modified by rift-flank uplift and glacial erosion. The first Antarctica after becoming extinct elsewhere (Case, 2007). numerical model of the concept shows that plateau collapse Discoveries of juvenile marine reptile fossils indicate that could generate a remnant edge, depending on initial condi- Antarctica may have been a nursery for young marine reptiles tions (Bialas et al., 2007). The geological and thermochrono- (Martin et al., 2007). logic evidence for the West Antarctic plateau formation and The plant record reveals an interesting conundrum about collapse, along with the tectonic implications, are discussed the terrestrial response to the major climate transition from by Fitzgerald et al. (2007). Evidence for a drainage reversal greenhouse to icehouse during the latest Eocene-earliest in the Byrd Glacier region supports the presence of the West Oligocene. Analyses of fossil leaf collections from the Antarctic plateau in the Mesozoic (Huerta, 2007). A synthe- Antarctic Peninsula show a temperature decline from warm sis of research from the exposed portion of the rift in Marie temperate to cold climates through the Eocene. These cold Byrd Land demonstrates that elevated crustal temperatures Eocene climates may have had winter frosts coinciding with were attained by 140 Ma, causing voluminous melting, with a decline in plant diversity (Francis et al., 2008, this volume). lateral migration into wrench structures (Siddoway, 2008, A similar cooling trend dominates the marine isotope record. this volume). Presence of melt aided the rapid evolution of In contrast, the offshore pollen record, recovered from Inte- the Cretaceous rift. grated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) cores, indicates only Other new geodynamic models of Antarctica were short-term responses to individual cooling events and fairly

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3 WILSON ET AL. stable land temperatures through the Oligocene (Grube and (Antarctic Climate Evolution) program. Several different Mohr, 2007). initiatives are ongoing in the form of ANDRILL (Antarctic The newly identified fossil plant record shows that even Geological Drilling) and SHALDRIL (Shallow Drilling). during the Antarctic icehouse, the continent was not barren Drilling will continue with a long anticipated IODP cruise and supported a diverse ecosystem. Recent discoveries of to the Wilkes Land margin that is now scheduled during the fossil plants and insects in the Dry Valleys shows that small International Polar Year. bushes of southern beech, Nothofagus, along with mosses The first drilling season of ANDRILL in the McMurdo and beetles, persisted in Antarctica during the mid-Miocene Ice Shelf Project yielded an unprecedented record of at least (Ashworth et al., 2007). A rich fossil assemblage of dwarf 60 ice-sheet fluctuations in the past 13 Ma, with indications beeches, beetles, a fly, snails, fish, mosses, and cushion plants of both warmer-than-present climate and ice sheets in the is also preserved in the Sirius Group high in the Beardmore pre-Pleistocene period (Naish et al., 2008, this volume). region, sandwiched between glacial tillites (Ashworth et ANDRILL and its predecessor Cape Roberts Project have al., 2007; Francis et al., 2008). Although the marine record successfully demonstrated that rock drilling from an ice- points to an increasingly ice-covered continent, life contin- based platform is a viable means to acquire critically needed ued on land. long, continuous rock cores. The convergence of paleontology and modern biology Seismic reflection surveys of offshore regions comple- is producing advances in our understanding of biodiversity ment the advances in rock coring, extending the record of in Antarctica. Molecular studies of the scant living Antarctic paleoclimate events and ice-sheet history beyond the vicinity biotas—mosses, mites, springtails—indicate an origin for of the drill sites (Decesari et al., 2007). With new technol- these biotas in Antarctica over 40 million years ago (Convey ogy the acquisition of seismic data over land-fast sea ice et al., 2007). The Miocene mosses recently discovered in the and ice shelves is becoming more efficient and reliable, and Dry Valleys are identical to species living today in Antarc- multichannel seismic reflection data more readily accessible tica. High-altitude nunataks and ice-free coastal niches must (Wardell et al., 2007). With new drilling core and seismic sur- have existed during glacial times to act as refugia for these veys, the age and lithology for prominent regional reflectors animals and plants. and units are now better constrained. The new seismic data- Examining the biochemical role of early ice sheets sets are helping to identify coring and drilling sites and map and the development of Earth’s atmosphere, Raub and the extent of past ice-sheet grounding events (Pekar et al., Kirschvinck (2008, this volume) discuss the link between 2007). Land-based geologic studies are providing significant intense global glaciations and atmospheric oxygen genera- new data that complement the insights emerging from the tion. Geochemical evidence associated with all three pre- marine studies. Areas of focused studies are permafrost and Phanerozoic glacial events shows that “whiffs to gigantic Paleogene-Neogene outcrops of paleoclimatic significance. bursts” of oxygen accompany deglaciation. The increasing There has been a renewed focus on permafrost and cryosol oxygen in the atmosphere is attributed to UV photochem- studies under the auspices of SCAR’s Antarctic Permafrost istry producing H2O2 that remains locked in the ice until and Soils group. These studies are targeting a broad range deglaciation. Upon deglaciation the peroxide decomposes of ages from the modern to millions of years, leveraging to molecular O2. In their model the ice sheets are a crucial this sensitive index of climatic change (Kowalewski and part of an inorganic mechanism that drives the evolution Marchant, 2007; Vieira et al., 2007). of the oxygen-mediating enzymes that predate oxygenic photosynthesis. FRONTIERS ENCASED IN ICE: A VIEW OF SUBGLACIAL LAKES UNDERSTANDING THE CHANGING PLANET: Exactly 50 years ago, during the last International Polar THE PALEOCLIMATE VIEW Year, the former Soviet Union established a research base Significant progress has been made regarding Antarctica’s in the deep interior of the Antarctic continent to be close to Neogene-Pleistocene climate and its role in the global cli- the geomagnetic South Pole. It was not until several decades mate system, based on recently collected data. Studies of later that it was realized from radio echograms that the station geologic proxies at various timescales from decadal-centurial was actually located on ice floating on a lake of liquid water. to millennial and millions of years are under way to resolve Named Lake Vostok, this water body has about the same the paleoclimatic events, including the important Paleogene surface area as Lake Ontario, but is three times deeper, and “Greenhouse to Icehouse” transition for the Antarctic region. is capped by almost 4 km of ice. Subsequent explorations The many varied studies will continue throughout the Inter- have produced an inventory of some 145 subglacial lakes, a national Polar Year and beyond. number that is likely to grow over the next few years. Since the 9th ISAES in 2003, scientific rock drilling has Rapid changes in our understanding of subglacial lakes made significant advances under the umbrella of the Sci- emerged at the symposium. Presentations focused on a entific Committee on Antarctic Research’s (SCAR’s) ACE number of topics, including inventory, tectonic controls for

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4 ANTARCTICA: A KEYSTONE IN A CHANGING WORLD REFERENCES formation of the lakes (Bell et al., 2007), expanding dem- onstration of lake interconnectedness (Carter et al., 2007), Armadillo, E., F. Ferraccioli, A. Zunino, and E. Bozzo. 2007. Aeromagnetic recent discovery of the association between subglacial lakes anomaly patterns reveal buried faults along the eastern margin of the and ice streams (Fricker et al., 2007), lake-water discharge Wilkes Subglacial Basin (East Antarctica). In Antarctica: A Keystone into the oceans and its potential impact on climate, as well in a Changing World—Online Proceedings for the Tenth International Symposium on Antarctic Earth Sciences, eds. Cooper, A. K., C. R. as International Polar Year activities gearing up to explore Raymond et al., USGS Open-File Report 2007-1047. Short Research various subglacial aquatic environments. Paper 091, doi:10.3133/of2007-1047.srp091. Geophysical evidence indicates that at least some of the Ashworth, A. C., A. R. Lewis, D. R. Marchant, R. A. Askin, D. J. Cantrill, large lakes are structurally controlled, often exploiting the J. E. Francis, M. J. Leng, A. E. Newton, J. I. Raine, M. Williams, and zones of weakness separating distinct terranes. A detrital A. P. Wolfe. 2007. The Neogene biota of the Transantarctic Mountains. In Antarctica: A Keystone in a Changing World—Online Proceedings zircon recovered from the Vostok ice core (Leitchenkov et al., for the Tenth International Symposium on Antarctic Earth Sciences, eds. 2007) yielded ages that clustered between 0.8 Ga and 1.2 Ga Cooper, A. K., C. R. Raymond et al., USGS Open-File Report 2007- and between 1.6 Ga and 1.8 Ga, and supports the concept that 1047, Extended Abstract 071, http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2007/1047/. the large lakes form along tectonic boundaries. This is ample Bell, R. E. 2008, this volume. Antarctic Earth system science in the evidence for the close juxtaposition of basement rocks with International Polar Year 2007-2008. In Antarctica: A Keystone in a Changing World, eds. Cooper et al. Washington, D.C.: The National a variety of ages in the interior of the East Antarctic Craton, Academies Press. evidently providing basins in which lakes have formed. Bell, R. E., M. Studinger, and C. A. Finn. 2007. Tectonic control of subgla- A profound discovery of recent years is the intercon- cial lakes and ice sheet stability. In Antarctica: A Keystone in a Chang- nectedness of these lakes with subglacial rivers and wet- ing World—Online Proceedings for the Tenth International Symposium lands. Liquid water is verifiably on the move in many places on Antarctic Earth Sciences, eds. Cooper, A. K., C. R. Raymond et al., USGS Open-File Report 2007-1047. Extended Abstract 040, http://pubs. beneath the ice sheet, and may have profound influence on usgs.gov/of/2007/1047/. ice-sheet stability and overall climate. Motion of water along Bialas, R. W., W. R. Buck, M. Studinger, and P. G. Fitzgerald. 2007. Pla- the axis of ice streams is documented for the Recovery Ice teau collapse model for the Transantarctic Mountains/West Antarctic Stream by Fricker et al. (2007). rift system: Insights from numerical experiments. In Program Book for the 10th International Symposium on Antarctic Earth Sciences, eds. A. K. Cooper et al. Short Summary 2.PS-49, p. 69. In Antarctica: THE NEXT BREAKTHROUGHS: A Keystone in a Changing World—Online Proceedings for the Tenth A VIEW TO THE FUTURE International Symposium on Antarctic Earth Sciences, eds. Cooper, A. K., C. R. Raymond et al., USGS Open-File Report 2007-1047, Today, understanding the changes in the polar regions is doi:10.3133/of2007-1047. imperative for our global society, global economy, and global Bomfleur, B., J. Schneider, R. Schoner, L. Viereck-Gotte, and H. Kerp. 2007. Exceptionally well-preserved Triassic and Early Jurassic floras from environment. As study of planetary change is critical to all North Victoria Land, Antarctica. In Antarctica: A Keystone in a Chang- Earth science, knowledge of Antarctica and Antarctic Earth ing World—Online Proceedings for the Tenth International Symposium science has never been more important. Convened at the on Antarctic Earth Sciences, eds. Cooper, A. K., C. R. Raymond et al., beginning of the International Polar Year 2007-2008, the 10th USGS Open-File Report 2007-1047, Extended Abstract 034, http://pubs. ISAES was a successful opportunity for our global scientific usgs.gov/of/2007/1047/. Bradshaw, J. D. 2007. The Ross orogen and Lachlan Fold belt in Marie community to share results, data, and ideas and to plan future Byrd Land, Northern Victoria Land and New Zealand: Implication for cooperative programs. the tectonic setting of the Lachlan Fold belt in Antarctica. In Antarctica: The International Polar Year 2007-2008 is motivated by A Keystone in a Changing World—Online Proceedings for the Tenth both our changing planet and the quest to explore unknown International Symposium on Antarctic Earth Sciences, eds. Cooper, frontiers, both being central to Antarctic Earth science (Bell, A. K., C. R. Raymond et al., USGS Open-File Report 2007-1047. Short Research Paper 059, doi:10.3133/of2007-1047.srp059. 2008, this volume). The work accomplished in the next two Bradshaw, M. A., and F. J. Harmsen. 2007. The paleoenvironmental signifi- years will define future research directions, and collabora- cance of trace fossils in Devonian sediments (Taylor Group), Darwin tions established during the International Polar Year will Mountains to the Dry Valleys, southern Victoria Land. In Antarctica: A serve as the basis for decades of future research programs. Keystone in a Changing World—Online Proceedings for the Tenth Inter- Antarctica is a global keystone in the Earth system. Antarctic national Symposium on Antarctic Earth Sciences, eds. Cooper, A. K., C. R. Raymond et al., USGS Open-File Report 2007-1047, Extended earth science must be both international and global to remain Abstract 133, http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2007/1047/. relevant. At the 11th ISAES meeting in four years time, new Carter, S. P., D. D. Blankenship, D. A. Young, and J. W. Holt. 2007. Ice breakthroughs will be presented based on the International surface anomalies, hydraulic potential and subglacial lake chains in East Polar Year results, to enhance the knowledge gained at the Antarctica. In Antarctica: A Keystone in a Changing World—Online 10th ISAES. Fridtjof Nansen noted that humankind is driven Proceedings for the Tenth International Symposium on Antarctic Earth Sciences, eds. Cooper, A. K., C. R. Raymond et al., USGS to seek knowledge “till every enigma has been solved” Open-File Report 2007-1047, Extended Abstract 142, http://pubs.usgs. (Nansen and Sverdrup, 1897). gov/of/2007/1047/.

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5 WILSON ET AL. Case, J. A. 2007. Opening of the Drake Passage: Does this event correlate Grube, R., and B. Mohr. 2007. Deterioration and/or cyclicity? The devel- to climate change and biotic events from the Eocene La Meseta Forma- opment of vegetation and climate during the Eocene and Oligocene in tion, Seymour Island, Antarctic Peninsula? In Antarctica: A Keystone Antarctica. In Antarctica: A Keystone in a Changing World—Online in a Changing World—Online Proceedings for the Tenth International Proceedings for the Tenth International Symposium on Antarctic Symposium on Antarctic Earth Sciences, eds. Cooper, A. K., C. R. Earth Sciences, eds. Cooper, A. K., C. R. Raymond et al., USGS Raymond et al., USGS Open-File Report 2007-1047, Extended Abstract Open-File Report 2007-1047, Extended Abstract 075, http://pubs.usgs. 117, http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2007/1047/. gov/of/2007/1047/. Collinson, J. W., and W. R. Hammer. 2007. Migration of Triassic tetrapods Huerta, A. D. 2007. Byrd drainage system: Evidence of a Mesozoic to Antarctica. In Antarctica: A Keystone in a Changing World—Online West Antarctic Plateau. In Antarctica: A Keystone in a Changing Proceedings for the Tenth International Symposium on Antarctic World—Online Proceedings for the Tenth International Symposium on Earth Sciences, eds. Cooper, A. K., C. R. Raymond et al., USGS Antarctic Earth Sciences, eds. Cooper, A. K., C. R. Raymond et al., Open-File Report 2007-1047, Extended Abstract 047, http://pubs.usgs. USGS Open-File Report 2007-1047, Extended Abstract 091, http://pubs. gov/of/2007/1047/. usgs.gov/of/2007/1047/. Convey, P., J. A. E. Gibson, D. A. Hodgson, P. J. A. Pugh, and M. I. Stevens. Kowalewski, D. E., and D. R. Marchant. 2007. Quantifying sublimation 2007. New terrestrial biological constraints for Antarctic glaciation. In of buried glacier ice in Beacon Valley. In Antarctica: A Keystone in a Antarctica: A Keystone in a Changing World—Online Proceedings for Changing World—Online Proceedings for the Tenth International Sym- the Tenth International Symposium on Antarctic Earth Sciences, eds. posium on Antarctic Earth Sciences, eds. Cooper, A. K., C. R. Raymond Cooper, A.K., C. R. Raymond et al., USGS Open-File Report 2007- et al., USGS Open-File Report 2007-1047, Extended Abstract 115, 1047, Extended Abstract 053, http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2007/1047/. http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2007/1047/. Cooper, A. K., C. R. Raymond, and the ISAES Editorial Team. 2007. Leitchenkov, G. L., B. V. Belyatsky, N. V. Rodionov, and S. A. Sergeev. Antarctica: A Keystone in a Changing World—Online Proceedings for 2007. Insight into the geology of the East Antarctic hinterland: Study the Tenth International Symposium on Antarctic Earth Sciences, USGS of sediment inclusions from ice cores of the Lake Vostok borehole. In Open-File Report 2007-1047, doi:10.3133/of2007-1047. Antarctica: A Keystone in a Changing World—Online Proceedings for Decesari, R. C., C. C. Sorlien, B. P. Luyendyk, D. S. Wilson, L. Bartek, J. the Tenth International Symposium on Antarctic Earth Sciences, eds. Diebold, and S. E. Hopkins. 2007. Regional seismic stratigraphic cor- Cooper, A. K., C. R. Raymond et al., USGS Open-File Report 2007- relations of the Ross Sea: Implications for the tectonic history of the 1047, Short Research Paper 014, doi:10.3133/of2007-1047.srp014. West Antarctic Rift System. In Antarctica: A Keystone in a Changing Maldonado, A., F. Bohoyo, J. Galindo-Zaldivar, F. J. Hernandez-Molina, World—Online Proceedings for the Tenth International Symposium F. J. Lobo, A. A. Shreyder, and E. Surinach. 2007. Early opening of on Antarctic Earth Sciences, eds. Cooper, A.K., C. R. Raymond et al., Drake Passage: Regional seismic stratigraphy and paleoceanographic USGS Open-File Report 2007-1047, Short Research Paper 052, doi: implications. In Antarctica: A Keystone in a Changing World—Online 10.3133/of2007-1047.srp052. Proceedings for the Tenth International Symposium on Antarctic Finn, C. A., and S. Pisarevesky. 2007. New airborne magnetic data evalu- Earth Sciences, eds. Cooper, A. K., C. R. Raymond et al., USGS ate SWEAT reconstruction. In Antarctica: A Keystone in a Changing Open-File Report 2007-1047, Extended Abstract 057, http://pubs.usgs. World—Online Proceedings for the Tenth International Symposium gov/of/2007/1047/. on Antarctic Earth Sciences, eds. Cooper, A.K., C. R. Raymond et al., Martin, A. K. 2007. Double-saloon-door seafloor spreading: A new theory USGS Open-File Report 2007-1047, Extended Abstract 170, http://pubs. for the breakup of Gondwana. In Antarctica: A Keystone in a Changing usgs.gov/of/2007/1047/. World—Online Proceedings for the Tenth International Symposium on Fitzgerald, P. G., R. W. Bialas, W. R. Buck, and M. Studinger. 2007. A Antarctic Earth Sciences, eds. Cooper, A. K., C. R. Raymond et al., plateau collapse model for the formation of the West Antarctic rift USGS Open-File Report 2007-1047, Extended Abstract 112, http://pubs. system/Transantarctic Mountains. In Antarctica: A Keystone in a Chang- usgs.gov/of/2007/1047/. ing World—Online Proceedings for the Tenth International Symposium Martin, J. E., J. F. Sawyer, M. Reguero, and J. A. Case. 2007. Occurrence on Antarctic Earth Sciences, eds. Cooper, A. K., C. R. Raymond et al., of a young elasmosaurid plesiosaur skeleton from the Late Cretaceous USGS Open-File Report 2007-1047, Extended Abstract 087, http://pubs. (Maastrichtian) of Antarctica. In Antarctica: A Keystone in a Changing usgs.gov/of/2007/1047/. World—Online Proceedings for the Tenth International Symposium on Francis, J. E., A. Ashworth, D. J. Cantrill, J. A. Crame, J. Howe, R. Stephens, Antarctic Earth Sciences, eds. Cooper, A. K., C. R. Raymond et al., A.-M. Tosolini, and V. Thorn. 2008, this volume. 100 million years of USGS Open-File Report 2007-1047, Short Research Paper 066, doi: Antarctic climate evolution: Evidence from fossil plants. In Antarctica: 10.3133/of2007-1047.srp066. A Keystone in a Changing World, eds. A. K. Cooper et al. Washington, Miller, M., and J. Isbell. 2007. Abrupt (how abrupt?) Permian-Triassic D.C.: The National Academies Press. changes in southern polar ecosystems. In Program Book for the 10th Fricker, H. A., R. E. Bell, and T. A. Scambos. 2007. Water budget through a International Symposium on Antarctic Earth Sciences eds. A. K. Cooper series of interconnected subglacial lakes on Recovery Ice Stream, East et al. Short Summary 2.P1.B-3, p. 57. In Antarctica: A Keystone in a Antarctica. In Program Book for the 10th International Symposium on Changing World—Online Proceedings for the Tenth International Sym- Antarctic Earth Sciences, eds. A. K. Cooper et al. Short Summary 1.P2. posium on Antarctic Earth Sciences, eds. Cooper, A. K., C. R. Raymond B-3, p. 38. In Antarctica: A Keystone in a Changing World—Online et al., USGS Open-File Report 2007-1047, doi:10.3133/of2007-1047. Proceedings for the Tenth International Symposium on Antarctic Earth Naish, T. R., R. D. Powell, P. J. Barrett, R. H. Levy, S. Henrys, G. S. Wilson, Sciences, eds. Cooper, A. K., C. R. Raymond et al., USGS Open-File L. A. Krisse, F. Niessen, M. Pompilio, J. Ross, R. Scherer, F. Talarico, Report 2007-1047, doi:10.3133/of2007-1047. A. Pyne, and the ANDRILL-MIS Science team. 2008, this volume. Late Goodge, J. W., D. M. Brecke, C. M. Fanning, J. D. Vervoort, I. S. Williams, Cenozoic climate history of the Ross Embayment from the AND-1B and P. Myrow. 2007. Pieces of Laurentia in East Antarctica. In Ant- drill hole: Culmination of three decades of Antarctic margin drilling. In arctica: A Keystone in a Changing World—Online Proceedings for Antarctica: A Keystone in a Changing World, eds. A. K. 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6 ANTARCTICA: A KEYSTONE IN A CHANGING WORLD Pekar, S. F., M. A. Speece, D. M. Harwood, F. Florindo, and G. Wilson. Sutherland, R. 2008, this volume. The significance of Antarctica for studies 2007. Using new tools to explore undiscovered country. In Antarctica: A of global geodynamics. In Antarctica: A Keystone in a Changing World, Keystone in a Changing World—Online Proceedings for the Tenth Inter- eds. A. K. Cooper et al. Washington, D.C.: The National Academies national Symposium on Antarctic Earth Sciences, eds. Cooper, A. K., Press. C. R. Raymond et al., USGS Open-File Report 2007-1047, Extended Vieira, G., M. Ramos, S. Gruber, C. Hauck, and J. Blanco. 2007. The per- Abstract 169, http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2007/1047/. mafrost environment of northwest Hurd Peninsula (Livingston Island, Raub, T. D., and J. L. Kirschvinck. 2008, this volume. A Pan-Precambrian Maritime Antarctic): Preliminary results. In Antarctica: A Keystone in link between deglaciation and environmental oxidation. In Antarctica: a Changing World—Online Proceedings for the Tenth International A Keystone in a Changing World, eds. A. K. Cooper et al. Washington, Symposium on Antarctic Earth Sciences, eds. Cooper, A. K., C. R. D.C.: The National Academies Press. Raymond et al., USGS Open-File Report 2007-1047, Extended Abstract Ryberg, P. E., and E. L. Taylor. 2007. Silicified wood from the Permian 206, http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2007/1047/. and Triassic of Antarctica: Tree rings from polar paleolatitudes. In Wardell, N., J. R. Childs, and A. K. Cooper. 2007. Advances through col- Antarctica: A Keystone in a Changing World—Online Proceedings for laboration: Sharing seismic reflection data via the Antarctic Seismic the Tenth International Symposium on Antarctic Earth Sciences, eds. Data Library System for Cooperative Research (SDLS). Antarctica: A Cooper, A. K., C. R. Raymond et al., USGS Open-File Report 2007- Keystone in a Changing World—Online Proceedings for the Tenth Inter- 1047, Short Research Paper 080, doi:10.3133/of2007-1047.srp080. national Symposium on Antarctic Earth Sciences, eds. Cooper, A. K., Siddoway, C. S. 2008, this volume. Tectonics of the West Antarctic rift C. R. Raymond et al., USGS Open-File Report 2007-1047, Short system: New light on the history and dynamics of distributed intracon- Research Paper 001, doi:10.3133/of2007-1047.srp001. tinental extension. In Antarctica: A Keystone in a Changing World, eds. A. K. Cooper et al. Washington, D.C.: The National Academies Press. Smith, N. D., P. J. Makovicky, D. Pol, W. R. Hammer, and P. J. Currie. 2007. The dinosaurs of the Early Jurassic Hanson Formation of the Central Transantarctic Mountains: Phylogenetic review and synthesis. In Antarctica: A Keystone in a Changing World—Online Proceedings for the Tenth International Symposium on Antarctic Earth Sciences, eds. Cooper, A. K., C. R. Raymond et al., USGS Open-File Report 2007- 1047, Short Research Paper 003, doi:10.3133/of2007-1047.srp003.