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GLOSSARY ORGANIZATION AND CONTENT I Glossary Organization This glossary is divided into English and Chinese sections. In the English section, terms are arranged in alphabetical order, while in the Chinese section, terms are arranged in the order of Pinyin (Chinese phonetic alphabet). Each page has two columns, one in English and one in Chinese. In the Chinese section of the glossary, the Chinese column is on the left, while the English column is on the right. In the English section, English is on the left and Chinese is on the right. In the Chinese section, which is arranged in the order of pinyin, for those terms whose first characters’ pinyin are the same, they will be arranged in the order of Chinese tones: high and level tone (the first tone, i.e. ā), rising tone (the second tone, i.e. á), falling-rising tone (the third tone, i.e. ǎ), and falling tone (the fourth tone, i.e. à). If the pinyin and the tones are all the same, terms will be arranged by the number and sequence of the strokes of the Chinese characters. If every aspect of the first character is the same, the rule applies to the consecutive characters of the term. The English section is arranged in alphabetical order without regard to capitalization. For convenience of reference, terms are also classified by category. There is a categorization index before the main glossary section. The first level indicates the broad category, the second level index indicates the subfield under the category, and the third level index indicates the specific term. In the Chinese section, the index is in Chinese, while in the English section, the index is in English. Numbers following the terms indicate the page location in the corresponding language section. For example: NUCLEAR ARMS Nuclear Weapon strategic nuclear weapon⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅70
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Glossary Organization and Content 2 tactical nuclear weapon⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅73 II Glossary Content The information provided in the glossary generally consists of the term in English, Chinese, and pinyin and for defined terms a definition, and/or source, note, or reference. The definitions for the selected terms are only given in English and Chinese, not pinyin. Other terms also G include expanded information in both Chinese and English, depending on the need for clarification of use, sources, and other considerations. A Terms Terms generally are words or phrases (with pinyin following the Chinese term). For example: nuclear weapon 核武器【héwǔqì】 The use of parentheses - ( ) - in a term indicates that the words in parentheses can be used as 1. another way of expressing the term 2. notes related to the term or 3. an abbreviation. For example: 1 nuclear underground (or underwater) burst 2 DUPIC (Direct Use of Spent PWR fuel in CANDU reactors) process 3 command, control, communication and intelligence system (C3I) A symbol like “/” in the term’s name means the word(s) before and after “/” have the same meaning. For example: diversion strategy / diversion path B Pinyin Every character in a term’s Chinese name is marked with its pinyin according to the standard Chinese pronunciation system. Chinese pinyin words are separated from each other by a blank space. For example: 战略核武器【zhànlüè héwǔqì】 Characters in the neutral tone are only marked with their phonetic alphabets without tones. For example: 保障监督的质量保证【bǎozhàng jiāndū de zhìliàng
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Glossary Organization and Content 3 bǎozhèng】 If a character in a term is not Chinese, it will be directly used in the term’s pinyin. For example: 无源 γ 射线探测 【wúyuán γ shèxiàn tàncè】 Punctuation marks in terms’ names are omitted in their pinyin. For example: 发方/收方差额 【fāfāng shōufāng chā’é】 G C Definitions and sources The name of the term is generally not repeated in its definition. The glossary provides at least one source for each defined term, but cites only the source passages containing the definition. If a term’s definition is identical with that in the source, the definition will be noted as “From:”; if term’s definition is modified using the source, it will be noted as “Modified from:” If a term has two or more definitions, the glossary lists those definitions and sources separately. The terms’ definitions include a sequence number for the sources and the source page numbers where appropriate. With the sequence number, detailed information on the source can be found in the “References” section of the glossary. D Notes If a term’s content needs an additional explanation, the glossary adds “note”. For example: tag …… Note: An active tag requires electrical power, while a passive tag works without a power supply. E Cross-reference If one term’s content relates to others, the glossary adds “Refer to”. For example: core of atomic bomb Refer to “pit”
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Glossary Organization and Content 4 III References This section contains detailed information on the sources quoted in the glossary. The references are listed in Chinese and English, are formatted for ease of comprehension in both English and Chinese and include the maximum amount of information available to assist the reader locate the original source. In general the references are ordered G by author(s), title, and if available publication location, publisher, publication date, date of last on-line access, and on-line address. Additional information such as the edition, volume, or document number is included for some references. Since several references are cited more than once, references page numbers are included with the definition in the body of the glossary text. IV Other Information The “General List of Simplified Chinese Characters” as published by the National Language Working Committee, October, 1986 serves as the standard for all Chinese characters in this glossary. The “National Standard of People’s Republic of China” GB/T 15834—1995 serves as the standard for all Chinese punctuation marks in the glossary. The “National Standard of People’s Republic of China” GB/T 15835— 1995 serves as the standard for all numbers in the glossary. But all numbers have not been separated by commas. The “National Standard of People’s Republic of China” GB 3100～3102—93 serves as the standard for all Chinese units of measurement or science and technology marks in the glossary. The Chinese text of the glossary generally uses Arabic numerals, except for those numbers which are commonly expressed in Chinese numerals in China.