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In-DEPTH B INTERVIEWS: INTERVIEWER’S GUIDE Introduction • Explain the idea of the IDI. • This is being taped so that I don’t have to take notes while you are giving your opinions. . . . • We just want to hear your opinions. . . . There are no right or wrong answers. Just looking for different perspectives. • Please speak up when you talk. . . . • If you have any questions or additional comments, please go right ahead at any time. We have a good deal of material to cover in a short time; feel free to ask questions, but we will need to keep the conversation moving. . . . Engineering We’re working with the National Academy of Engineering, and today we’re going to talk about what people think about engineers in general as well as careers in engineering. 115

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116 CHANGING THE CONVERSATION • Please tell me a little about what you do in your job. − What is your title? − How long have you been in your current position? • What are the first words or phrases that come to mind when you think about ‘engineering’? PROBE: Are there any negative words or phrases that come to mind when you think about engineers or engineering? − PROBE: What do you think when a young person says he or she wants to become an engineer? • What kind of person is an engineer? What traits and charac- teristics does an engineer have? PROBE FOR EXAMPLES • Thinking back, what was your first memorable experience with engineering? With someone who was an engineer? What was that person like? − What got you interested in engineering, if you are interested? • How do you explain engineering to make it more interesting other people? To children? • FOR ENGINEERS: What prejudices about engineering do you encounter when you tell people you are an engineer? − PROBE: What misconceptions do people have about what you and other engineers do? − PROBE: How have perceptions about engineering changed since you first became an engineer? IF CHANGED: What caused those opinions to change? − PROBE: Do you think engineering and engineers are taken for granted? • FOR ENGINEERS: What would you like to change about the public’s image of engineers and engineering? How would you change it?

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Appendix B 117 − What is right with engineering? − PROBE: What effect does engineering’s image have on the long-term health of your profession? • How do you think engineering is seen as a profession by most people? What image do you think engineering has among school-age children? − PROBE: How have perceptions about engineering changed in the last few decades? Have they changed? IF CHANGED: What caused those opinions to change? − Where do you see the image of engineering and engineers in ten years? In twenty years? What should it be? − What areas of engineering will be more prominent? Chemical, civil, electrical, industrial, manufacturing, mechanical, biochemical? Others? Why? Which will be less prominent? Why? • Have you seen anything that others have done to promote engineering? PROBE FOR SPECIFICS. • What do you think should be done to promote a more positive image of engineering? What are the specific images or messages about engineering that the field should be emphasizing? − What should the field of engineering NOT be promoting? Why not? • What do you think of others’ efforts to cultivate greater public awareness of engineering? PROBE: National Engineers Week? Competitions? Tool kits for teachers and guidance counselors; mentor programs; school-to-work training; cable television shows? − PROBE: What do you think has worked? What do you think didn’t/doesn’t work? How could these efforts be re- directed or made better? − PROBE: Are these efforts targeted at the right audiences?

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118 CHANGING THE CONVERSATION • Why would a child be interested in engineering? What things about engineering do you think could be emphasized to make engineering more appealing to children? To students consider- ing studying engineering at college? To young people consider- ing engineering as a career? − What visual images of engineering do you think make engineering more appealing? Which images make engi- neering less appealing? • What would you tell a student who asked you about a career in engineering? Where would you send them for more information? − What could make a career in engineering more appealing to young people? • Can you name any engineers who are widely known? − PROBE: Who is the face of engineering? Who would be a good spokesperson for engineering? • What is a good example of engineering at work today? PROBE: What are the success stories that engineering should be telling? − Some people say scientists get all the credit for scientific advances, and architects get all the credit for buildings and other projects, but engineers get only the blame when a disaster happens. Do agree that this is the case? Why/why not? Themes • I’d like to ask you about some possible themes that could be used to promote engineering. ROTATE THEMES First… − A LIMITLESS IMAGINATION: This theme speaks to the innovative, design-driven nature of engineering.

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Appendix B 119 • FOR EACH POSSIBLE THEME, ASK: What do you think of this as a theme to promote engineering? − PROBES: What examples should be used to illuminate this theme? What images should be associated with this theme? What examples or images should be avoided? − AN ENTERPRISING SPIRIT: This theme recognizes the inventive spirit and pioneering contributions of the field. − FREE TO EXPLORE: This theme evokes the constant jour- ney that is the engineer’s quest for new solutions. − IDEAS IN ACTION: This theme underscores how engi- neering uniquely bridges the world of science with the real world. − PROBE: Is it useful to think of engineers as ‘real-world scientists’? − SHAPE THE FUTURE: This theme speaks to how engi- neering offers an empowering and rewarding career. − LIFE TAKES ENGINEERING: This theme focuses on the field’s essential role and life-changing work. • Of the possible themes we discussed, which do you think will be the most effective? Why? Which do you, personally like the best? Why? Which don’t you like? • Can you suggest any other themes like these that could be used to promote engineering? How would it be delivered? At whom would it be targeted? Why? Wrap up • What effect do you think a change in engineering’s image would have on the field? How about for you, professionally? • Finally, if you could give one piece of marketing communica- tions advice to promote engineering, what would it be?

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120 CHANGING THE CONVERSATION • Is there anything you would like to add that we haven’t asked about? Thank and dismiss.