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FOCUS GROUPS: D MODERATOR’s GUIDE—TEENS INTRODUCTION (5 Minutes) • Moderator introduction: I represent GSG, an independent opinion-research firm that conducts discussion groups on various topics. We ask people their opinions about everything from hamburgers to cars. • Explain the idea of the focus group. Go over features of the room, including: − One-way mirror—I have colleagues taking notes behind the mirror so that they do not disturb us. . . . − Camera/Microphones—This is being taped so that I don’t have to take notes while you are all giving your opin- ions. . . . One ground rule: You must talk, and you must talk loud enough so we can all hear you. − Completely confidential. Your full names will never be used. We just want to hear your opinions . . . Not a class- room; There are no right or wrong answers. − If you have any questions or additional comments, please go right ahead at any time. We have a good deal of material 129

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130 CHANGING THE CONVERSATION to cover in a short time; feel free to ask questions, but we will need to keep the conversation moving. . . . • Introductions: First name (only), and background informa- tion (family, favorite subject at school, favorite television show, favorite site on the internet, etc.). Warm-up • You told me what your favorite subject in school is. Tell me why that’s your favorite subject. − What is it that you like about that subject? If you were trying to explain to someone else why they might like that subject, what would you tell them? − How did you end up liking that subject? Was it because of a certain teacher? A certain project? • Now, what is your least favorite subject in school? − PROBE: History/Social Studies, Math, Science, Reading/ English, Foreign Language, Music/Art, Gym? • Let’s talk about what your plans are, and ask a question you’ve probably been asked a few times. . . . What do you want to do when you grow up? − Why do you want to do that? Do you think you will be able to do it? • Think for a moment about some reasons you would want to have a certain kind of job or career… What are some reasons why someone might try to have a certain job or career? GO TO BOARD, WRITE. − PROBE: Satisfaction? Celebrity? Recognition (honors, awards)? Interesting work? Money? Good career? Good lifestyle? Challenging? Good opportunities? Able to create things that will last? Competitive?

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Appendix D 131 • Do you know anyone who has a job now that you would like to have yourself when you are older? − What is that person like? Why did that person succeed in making that career for themselves? What did that person do to get where they are? • What school subjects do you think you will need to excel in to have a chance to go into your chosen line of work? Why? How do you like those subjects? Why? − What subjects in school do you think you could do with- out? Why? • Have you ever spoken with an adult about what you want to become? Who did you talk to? PROBE: A parent? A teacher or a guidance counselor? A family friend? − What was this conversation like? Why did you seek that particular person out? • Now we’re going to talk about another topic. . . . Engineering. What are the first words or phrases that come to mind when you think about ‘engineering’? WRITE ON BOARD. PROBE FOR AS MANY AS POSSIBLE. − PROBE: Are there any positive words or phrases that come to mind when you think about engineers or engineering? How about negative words? • What kind of person is an engineer? What traits and charac- teristics does an engineer have? PROBE FOR EXAMPLES. • Do you know anyone who is an engineer? What does that per- son do? What is that person like? − PROBE: Can you name any engineers who are widely known? • What are some examples of engineering at work today? WRITE ON BOARD.

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132 CHANGING THE CONVERSATION − PROBE: What are the most interesting things on this list? Why? What skills would a person need to be able to do those things? What kind of person does those things? • DISTRIBUTE HANDOUTS. I have something I would like you take a look at. Write your first name and your last initial at the top of the sheet. Here are some examples of engineer- ing at work today. I’d like you to circle the ones you find most interesting or appealing, and cross out the ones you find very boring or least appealing. And when you’ve circled and crossed out some of the items on the list, I want you to number 1, 2, 3 the three most interesting or appealing of the things on this list. − PROBE: What did you pick as the most interesting thing on this list? Why? What skills would a person need to be able to do those things? What kind of person does those things? • What’s the difference between a scientist and an engineer? Is there any difference? What does a scientist do that an engineer doesn’t do? What does an engineer do that a scientist doesn’t? • Now I’m going to read you a list of descriptions and I want you to tell me if it’s more appropriate for scientists or engineers. . . . We can only give each description away once. . . Would you say scientists or engineers are better described as . . . Design- ers? Creators? Inventors? Lab technicians? Planners? Leaders? Followers? Original thinkers? Problem-solvers? Hard working? Get results? Have a positive effect on people’s everyday lives? Innovative? Successful? − PROBE FOR EACH: Why does that describe engineers/ scientists better? • Some people have said that engineers are ‘real-world scientists.’ What do you think that means? Do you agree? What does ‘real world’ mean?

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Appendix D 133 I’d like to ask you about some other things that people have said about engineers and engineering. . . . • Some people describe engineers as creative problem solvers. They describe engineers as having a vision for how things should work, and they ask questions like ‘how does it work?’ ‘what will happen if . . . ?’ and they work with other smart people to design and build new things and solve problems. − PROBE: Is that description appealing to you? What is appealing about that? What are some kinds of examples of that kind of person? • Some people describe engineers as being free to explore, and looking for better ideas, constantly learning new things, and they are never bored because there are always problems to find that need solving. Engineers are always being challenged and inspired to keep exploring. − PROBE: Is that description appealing to you? What is appealing about that? What are some kinds of examples of that kind of person? • Some people describe engineers as making a world of differ- ence because they’re able to shape the future, have a direct effect on people’s everyday lives, and solve tomorrow’s prob- lems today. − PROBE: Is that description appealing to you? What is appealing about that? What are some kinds of examples of that kind of person? • What kind of careers do you think engineers have? − PROBE: How much money do they make? Do they work insane hours? Do they get to travel? Is their work interesting? • I want you to turn your handouts to the last page now. I want you to imagine that you are in charge of a marketing campaign

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134 CHANGING THE CONVERSATION to promote to other young people to consider becoming an engineer or studying engineering, and your job is to write a slogan to promote others to consider becoming an engineer. On the second set of lines, I want you to write down what you think is the best image or photograph that should go with your slogan. CHECK IN BACK ROOM FOR OTHER QUESTIONS. Wrap up • What did you write for a slogan? What image or photograph did you choose? Why? Thank and dismiss.