5
Science Learning in Designed Settings

This chapter describes informal environments that are intentionally designed for learning about science and the physical and natural world. Designed settings include institutions such as museums, science centers, aquariums, and environmental centers, and the smaller components contained within these settings, such as exhibits, exhibitions, demonstrations, and short-term programs. Like everyday learning, learning in designed settings is highly participant structured, but also reflects the intended communicative and pedagogical goals of designers and educators. And in important ways, designed spaces are unlike science learning programs. Science learning programs serve a subscribed group and recur over time, whereas learning in designed spaces tends to be more fluid and sporadic. An important feature for structuring learning in these environments is that they are typically experienced episodically, rather than continuously.

Another defining characteristic of designed spaces is that they are navigated freely, with limited or often no direct facilitation from institutional actors. Visitors may freely choose which of the exhibits to interact with, and they receive little guidance as to which path they should follow as they explore. This design is typical, and reflects the learner’s personal choice about learning in these settings. Should the learner choose to design their own systematic study of a given topic, the option is available. Institutions typically shy away from directing a particular course, opting instead for multiple entry levels and possible navigational paths through the public space. Whereas classrooms have teachers and Cub Scouts have den leaders, designed settings rely primarily on objects, labels, spaces, recorded mes-



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 5 Science Learning in Designed Settings This chapter describes informal environments that are intentionally designed for learning about science and the physical and natural world. Designed settings include institutions such as museums, science centers, aquariums, and environmental centers, and the smaller components contained within these settings, such as exhibits, exhibitions, demonstrations, and short-term programs. Like everyday learning, learning in designed settings is highly participant structured, but also reflects the intended communicative and pedagogical goals of designers and educators. And in important ways, designed spaces are unlike science learning programs. Science learning programs serve a subscribed group and recur over time, whereas learning in designed spaces tends to be more fluid and sporadic. An important fea- ture for structuring learning in these environments is that they are typically experienced episodically, rather than continuously. Another defining characteristic of designed spaces is that they are navi- gated freely, with limited or often no direct facilitation from institutional actors. Visitors may freely choose which of the exhibits to interact with, and they receive little guidance as to which path they should follow as they explore. This design is typical, and reflects the learner’s personal choice about learning in these settings. Should the learner choose to design their own systematic study of a given topic, the option is available. Institutions typically shy away from directing a particular course, opting instead for multiple entry levels and possible navigational paths through the public space. Whereas classrooms have teachers and Cub Scouts have den leaders, designed settings rely primarily on objects, labels, spaces, recorded mes-

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8 Learning Science in Informal Environments sages, brief interpretive guides, and occasionally docents or interpreters to facilitate learner engagement. They are designed to serve a diverse public in the myriad social configurations they assemble. Thus, individuals, families, and teen peer groups are all understood as participants whose needs and interests should be accommodated in designed spaces. Individual learners and groups play an important role in determining their own learning outcomes in designed spaces (Moussouri, 2002). Con- temporary views of learning as an active, constructive process have led to increased attention to learners’ motivations, prior experiences, tacit knowl- edge, and cultural identity (National Research Council, 2007). While profes- sional educators—designers, facilitators, teachers, curators—have scientific, social, practical, or other goals for participants, these are achieved only in partnership with learners. This is particularly salient in designed spaces, where learners are not assumed to operate under strong cultural pressures to participate or achieve a particular goal, as they may be pressured to do in schools, educational programs, and workplace settings. Participants in designed science learning settings control their own learning agenda. The science learning that takes place in designed settings is shaped by elements of intentional design, personal interpretation and choice, and chance. The environment—both large-scale characteristics of the institution and small-scale features of exhibits and programs—helps to guide or medi- ate the visitors’ attitudes or perspectives, their relationship with the content and the institution, the meaning of their activity there, and how the institu- tion views them. Learners typically participate of their own volition and at their own pace. They may be scientific experts or novices, or anyone in between. Not surprisingly, experiences in these spaces are often designed to elicit participants’ emotions or sensory responses to scientific and natural phenomena. For example, zoos and aquariums may develop conservation themes linking plant, animal, and human well-being. Science centers use multimedia to engage multiple senses, or build larger-than-life models that make phenomena visible and inspire participants’ awe. Emotional and in- teractive sensory experiences are design priorities, though they are typically accompanied by particular informational or cognitive goals as well. From the perspective of science learning, a key educational challenge for designed spaces is to link emotional and sensory responses with science- specific phenomena. Associating scientific thinking with engaging and enjoy- able events and real-world outcomes can create important connections on a personal level. Promoting or supporting a variety of emotional responses (surprise, puzzlement, awe) and a variety of processing modes (observa- tion, discovery, contemplation) increases the likelihood of connecting with a greater variety of people and encouraging them as learners (Jacobson, 2006).

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 Science Learning in Designed Settings LEARNING IN DESIGNED SPACES Although the process of learning itself is not necessarily different in designed settings than it is in everyday settings or in programs for science learning, designed spaces do use special methods for structuring, teaching, guiding, and prompting learning. The scale of designed learning spaces varies, and so does the way that the public interacts with these spaces. At the institutional level, there are distinctions among the types of materials and objects housed or collected. Zoos, aquariums, and nature centers, for example, typically maintain live collections. Traditional museums and science centers typically (though not always) organize nonliving collections that may include scientific artifacts (e.g., mineral specimens), tools employed in scientific inquiry (e.g., tele- scopes), and pedagogical exhibits (e.g., a supersized panpipe designed to explore vibration and pitch). The substantive focus of a particular institution has important implications for its goals. For example, designed spaces with live animal collections may focus primarily on conservation goals—goals with observable behavioral implications (e.g., participants may make unique con- sumer choices that reflect a conservation ethic). Science centers may pursue somewhat broader or less easily observable goals, such as supporting future inquiry and inspiring curiosity. Research on learning in designed spaces has provided evidence of learn- ing across the strands. Some studies focus on the importance of developing scientific ideas and processes of science, in interaction with others (Ash, 2003; Crowley and Jacobs, 2002; Tunnicliffe, 2000). Other studies have described science learning in informal settings as an opportunity to appropriate the language or participate in the “culture” of science (Borun et al., 1998; Crowley and Callanan, 1998; Ellenbogen, 2003). Still others have explored the idea that learning involves a change in identity—specifically, how people view or present themselves, and how others see them (Holland, Lachicotte, Skinner, and Cain, 1998; Wenger, 1999). Before delving into the specific strands, we should not lose sight of the fact that individuals choose to spend their time in these settings and that this choice in itself can be seen as an indication of their participation in science (as indicated in Strand 5) and at least a weak proxy for learning. As men- tioned in Chapter 1, the scale of participation in designed settings, though crudely estimated, is certainly vast: U.S. museums and science centers tally hundreds of millions of visits each year. While counting heads is no sub- stitute for careful analysis of how learners participate and what they learn, and there are significant biases in terms of the cultural and demographic characteristics of individuals and families that tend to participate in designed settings, nevertheless the fact that large numbers of people choose to at- tend, often paying for admission, is an important measure for a field that is predicated on learner choice. In addition, attendance records and many

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0 Learning Science in Informal Environments large-scale visitor surveys show that the public has a positive view of infor- mal environments for science learning, seeks them out during leisure time (Hilke, 1987; Ivanova, 2003; Briseno-Garzon, Anderson, and Anderson, 2007; Moussouri, 1998), and values both the entertainment and learning aspects that these institutions offer. This suggests that such institutions are viewed positively on a broad scale. Some contend that they are part of the nation’s science education infrastructure (St. John and Perry, 1993), one measure of system-wide impact. Although we focus primarily on designed settings, we also note that schools and field trips play an important role; Box 5-1 is a summary of the relevant research on field trips. Strand 1: Developing Interest in Science Some key assumptions about learning in informal environments are that exciting experiences lead to intrinsically motivated learning, and that these experiences are personally meaningful, providing experiential foundations for more advanced structured, science learning. Perry (1994), for example, proposes that curiosity, confidence, challenge, and play are among the es- sential elements of intrinsically motivating experiences in museums. This is an area of tremendous interest to informal science educators and has been documented extensively in evaluations and the accounts of practitioners. To provide an inclusive summary here, we integrate conventional forms of published, peer-reviewed literatures with anecdotes and excerpts from evaluation reports. Excitement Numerous evaluation studies show that visitors to informal environments report feeling excitement as a result of their experiences. For example, con- sider the following from Tisdal (2004, p. 24): Another visitor noted the pleasure he took in watching children get excited about science: “I was talking to the mother of the other boy that was there and just kind of—not necessarily small talk, but talking about the objects and how you could see how he was really excited when he was playing with it. And we had some jokes going on about (inaudible) when he had the football up in the air, and he got a little excited about the whole thing. It was cool to see him light up over something that—you know, science isn’t normally fun for those kids. So I thought that was kind of cool, that we were having a good time over there” (Case 6, male, age 18). Researchers also often observe signs of positive excitement among visitors. They cite expressions of joy, delight, awe, wonder, appreciation, surprise, intrigue, interest, caring, inspiration, satisfaction, and meaningfulness. For example:

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 Science Learning in Designed Settings “The size of animals that you have in there . . . I was just flabbergasted. But they are all extremely well maintained. I can tell by looking that everything is thriving. It’s not just living” (120404-3) (Beaumont, 2005, p. 14). “I think [the exhibition] is inspirational—that regular people can invent things. That is how I felt [when I read] about the lady [who invented] Kevlar [Stephanie Kwolek]” (National Museum of American History; female, age 42) (Korn, 2004, p. 44). “It was fun. It was beautiful. The ice crystals, the colors in the ice crystals were beautiful. I think it is a great exhibit. It’s the only time I’ve seen that kind of exhibit—it’s sort of, each crystal is different, each time you do it will be different” (Tisdal, 2004, p. 29). Allen (2002) notes that affective responses (defined as verbal expres- sions of feeling) were one of the three most common forms of “learning talk” in visitors’ conversations while viewing an exhibition on frogs. Visitors expressed their feelings at 57 percent of all exhibit elements at which they stopped. The most common subcategories were surprise/intrigue (37 percent) and pleasure (36 percent). Some evidence from experimental social psychology and neuropsychol- ogy suggests a link between excitement and other forms of learning (e.g., Steidl, Mohi-uddin, and Anderson, 2006). Models of the relation of mood to substantive cognitive processing, as well as studies of operant conditioning, have predicted and demonstrated that mood states or internal responses influ- ence the information used during processing in laboratory situations (Bower, 1981; Eich et al., 2000). The precise relationship is not yet well understood, and the influence of excitement can alternately enhance or detract from learning. Specific connections between affect, thinking, and activity settings, moreover, have not been studied and are clearly needed. Interest The construct of interest takes one deeper into the question of what people learn from experiences in informal environments. Hidi and Renninger (2006) distinguish between situational interest (short-lived, typically evoked by the environment) and individual interest (more stable and specific to an individual). Based on a number of studies, they propose a four-phase model of interest development: (1) triggered situational interest, typically sparked by such environmental features as incongruous/surprising information or personal relevance; (2) maintained situational interest, sustained through the meaningfulness of tasks and personal involvement; (3) emerging individual interest; and (4) well-developed individual interest, in which the individual chooses to engage in an extended pursuit using systematic approaches to questioning and seeking answers. Interestingly, this sequence of increasing

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 Learning Science in Informal Environments Field Trips BOX 5-1 School groups make up a large proportion of the visitors to science learn- ing institutions. Several studies have pointed to possible long-term impacts of field trips—typically, memories of specific experiences (Anderson and Piscitelli, 2002; Falk and Dierking, 1997). In fact, all of the elementary and middle school students and adults interviewed by Falk and Dierking (1997), in a study of students who visited a museum on a field trip, were able to recall at least one thing they had learned on a field trip. The nature and more immediate impact of schoolchildren’s visits vary widely, however (Kisiel, 2006; Orion and Hofstein, 1994; Price and Hein, 1991; Storksdieck, 2006). Although results are mixed regarding the impact of field trips to informal institutions on children’s attitudes, interest, and knowledge of science, the majority of studies that have measured knowledge and attitudes have found positive changes (Koran, Koran, and Ellis, 1989). Most of the work on interpreted visits to museums looks at the structure of field trips and how their effectiveness can be improved. In general, the impact of field trips made to such institutions as museums, zoos, and nature centers is dependent on several critical factors: advance content preparation (Anderson, Kisiel, and Storksdieck, 2006; Falk and Balling, 1982; Griffin and Symington, 1997; Kubota and Olstad, 1991), active participa- tion in activities (Griffin, 1994; Griffin and Symington, 1997; Price and Hein, 1991), teacher involvement (Griffin, 1994; Price and Hein, 1991), and follow-up activities (Anderson, Lucas, Ginns, and Dierking, 2000; Griffin, 1994; Koran, Lehman, Shafer, and Koran, 1983). Advance Preparation Advance field trip preparation activities give students the framework for how to interpret what they will see and guide what they should pay attention to during the visit. Students who receive appropriate advance preparation from their teachers, in such forms as previsit activities and orientation, have been noted, via observational studies and pre-post survey-based studies, to concen- trate and learn more from their visits (Griffin, 1994; Griffin and Symington, 1997; Anderson, Lucas, Ginns, and Dierking, 2000; Orion and Hofstein, 1994). Advance preparation is most effective when it reduces the cognitive, psychological, and geographical novelty of the field trip experience (Kubota

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 Science Learning in Designed Settings and Olstad, 1991; Orion and Hofstein, 1994). Such preparation has been linked to students spending more time interacting with exhibits (Kubota and Olstad, 1991) and learning from their visits (Orion and Hofstein, 1994). Studies have shown, however, that teachers spend very little time preparing students for field trips (Anderson, Kisiel, and Storksdieck, 2006; Griffin, 1994; Griffin and Symington, 1997). Active Participation in Museum Activities A review of over 200 evaluations of field trips to informal institutions (Price and Hein, 1991) indicates that effective ones include both hands-on activities and time for more structured instruction (e.g., viewing films, listening to pre- sentations, participating in discussions with facilitators and peers). In general, children who were able to handle materials, engage in science activities, and observe animals or objects were excited about and enjoyed their field trip experience and displayed cooperative learning strategies. Similarly, Koran and colleague’s review of earlier field trip studies—from 1939 to 1989—revealed that hands-on involvement with exhibits results in more changes in attitudes and interest than passive experiences (1989). At the same time, Griffin and Symington (1997) argued for the inclusion of structured activities to help keep students engaged throughout their field trip experience. Observing 30 unstructured classroom visits to museums, they noted that very few students continued purposefully exploring the museum after the first half hour of hands- on activities. Instead, most students were observed talking in the coffee shop, sitting on gallery benches, copying each other’s worksheets, or moving quickly from exhibit to exhibit. Involvement by Teachers and Chaperones Classroom teacher involvement is a key ingredient to successful field trips, yet studies have consistently found that teachers often play a very small role or no role in the planning or execution of excursions and that institution staff are responsible for connecting exhibits to classroom content (Anderson and Zhang, 2003; Griffin, 1994; Griffin and Symington, 1997; Tal, Bamberger, and Morag, 2005). There is wide variation in the amount and level of teacher involvement continued

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 Learning Science in Informal Environments Continued BOX 5-1 during field trips (Griffin, 1994; Griffin and Symington; 1997; Kisiel, 2006; Price and Hein, 1991). Price and Hein (1991) found a range of teacher involvement, from cases in which teachers congregated in such areas as the cafeteria and were not involved in the field trip activities, to cases in which teachers remained with the students and were actively involved in all phases of the trip. This review indicates that teacher involvement in various aspects of field trip planning and implementation is important. For example, a correlation was found between involvement in planning field trip activities and greater buy- in by teachers. When teachers are involved in planning, it is more likely that the activities will align with classroom curriculum and be viewed as valuable experiences by the teachers. Furthermore, alignment of classroom and field trip content and teacher buy-in are important, because they have been con- nected with student learning from field trips (Price and Hein, 1991; Griffin and Symington, 1997). Reinforcement After the Field Trip Teachers often plan to do follow-up after visiting informal institutions but in fact do little more than collect and mark student worksheets completed investment and meaningfulness has parallels with work done by a group of museum professionals (e.g., Serrell, 2006) in generating criteria for exhibition excellence based on principles from the visitor studies literature. This group defined an “excellent exhibition” as one that is (1) comfortable—opening the door to other positive experiences; (2) engaging—enticing visitors to attend; (3) reinforcing—providing reinforcing experiences and supporting visitors to feel competent; and (4) meaningful—providing personally relevant experi- ences that change visitors cognitively and affectively (Serrell, 2006). Research in various settings has shown that interest is in fact a gateway to deeper and sustained forms of learning. For example, when participants have a more developed interest for science, they pose curiosity questions and are also more inclined to learn and/or to use systematic approaches to seek answers (Engle and Conant, 2002; Kuhn and Franklin, 2006; Renninger, 2000). Interested people are also more likely to be motivated learners, to seek out challenge and difficulty, to use effective learning strategies, and to make use of feedback (Barron, 2006; Csikszentmihalyi, Rathunde, and Whalen, 1993; Lipstein and Renninger, 2006; Renninger and Hidi, 2002).

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 Science Learning in Designed Settings during the field trip (Griffin, 1994; Griffin and Symington, 1997). In Griffin’s (1994) study of field trips taken by students in 13 Australian schools, about half of the teachers reported they planned to do follow-up activities, but only about a quarter of the teachers reported doing so. Furthermore, no students expected to receive meaningful follow-up, which may indicate that this was a common experience for them. Developing productive post-visit activities is often complicated by the fact that the topics being covered in the classroom do not align with the field trip (Griffin and Symington, 1997). This can make it difficult to plan follow-up activities without disrupting regular classroom activities. However, even when the topics covered in the classroom align with the field trip content, connec- tions between field trip experiences and classroom topics are often not made (Griffin, 1994). In addition, when post-visit activities do occur, they are often not designed to have any lasting impact. For example, a study of 36 field trips revealed that only 9 of the 18 teachers who reported conducting post-visit ac- tivities did more than ask students if they enjoyed the experience (Storksdieck, 2001). However, when well-designed examples of classroom follow-up have been noted, they are associated with positive educational impacts (Anderson et al., 2000; Griffin, 1994). Another aspect of Strand 1 is motivation. Some researchers distinguish between intrinsic motivation, in which people do activities that interest them or provide spontaneous enjoyment, and extrinsic motivation, in which people do activities as a means to desired ends (such as good grades or career advancement). Deci and Ryan (2002) argue that intrinsic motivation is key for learning throughout the life span, because much of what people learn stems from spontaneous interests, curiosity, and their desire to master problems and affect their surroundings. They point to a body of work that documents the advantages of this type of learning in various settings. For example, Grolnick and Ryan (1987) conducted an experiment with 91 fifth graders who read material after they were told either that they would be tested on it or that they would be asked questions about how interesting and difficult they found it. The results showed that students in the second group had both higher interest and understanding in the material, and that, overall, students with more self-determined learning styles showed greater conceptual learning. A meta-analysis by Utman (1997) showed that both intrinsic and extrinsic

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 Learning Science in Informal Environments motivation was effective for simple tasks, but that intrinsic motivation led to greater success on creative or complex performance tasks. Of particular relevance, Zuckerman and colleagues (1978) found that intrinsic motiva- tion was enhanced when problem-solvers could choose the activities and amounts of time they spent on them. More recently, research on motivation for learning has emphasized a broader set of constructs in “goal-orientation theory,” which includes needs, values, and situated meaning-making pro- cesses (reviewed by Kaplan and Maehr, 2007). However, this theory has yet to be applied to informal environments. Comfort Finally, while Strand 1 focuses primarily on arousing emotions, such as excitement, many studies have shown the importance of comfort, both physical and intellectual, as a prerequisite to learning in designed settings. For example, Maxwell and Evans (2002) link the physical environment to learning through psychological processes, such as cognitive fatigue, distrac- tion, motivation, and anxiety, and they offer some evidence that learning is enhanced in quieter, smaller, better differentiated spaces. Physical and con- ceptual orientation (using maps, guides, and films) has also been shown to contribute to learners’ comfort, presumably by reducing cognitive overwhelm and allowing them to make more informed choices about what to attend to. Much of this literature is summarized in Serrell (2006) and Crane, Nicholson, Chen, and Bitgood (1994). Strand 2: Understanding Scientific Knowledge There is some research demonstrating that people gain understanding of scientific concepts, arguments, explanations, models, and facts, even after single museum visits. For example, Guichard (1995) studied the effect of an interactive exhibit designed to help visitors understand the form and function of the human skeleton. The exhibit consisted of a stationary bicycle that a visitor could ride, next to a large reflecting pane of glass. When the visitor pedaled the bicycle, the exhibit was arranged so that an image of a moving skeleton appeared inside the pedaling person’s reflection. The movements of the legs and skeleton attracted the visitor’s attention to the role and structure of the lower part of the skeleton. Even without any additional mediation, this exhibit experience seemed to transform children’s understanding. Children ages 6-7 were given an outline of a human body and asked to “draw the skeleton inside the silhouette” after the cycling experience. Of the 93 children in the sample, 96 percent correctly drew skeletons whose bones began or ended at the joints of the body; this result was in sharp contrast to the figure of 3 percent for a sample of children of similar age in a previous study who did not experience the exhibit. Even more impressively, the children’s understanding persisted over time, with

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 Science Learning in Designed Settings 92 percent of them retaining the idea of bones extending between places where the body bends 8 months after their museum visit and without any additional schooling, practice, or warning that they would be tested. Multifaceted cognitive learning of this type has also been documented over a collection of exhibits. For example, Falk, Moussouri, and Coulson (1998) used the technique of personal meaning mapping, in which visi- tors complete pre- and post-exhibit diagrams, to record the deepening and broadening of their understanding of a science topic as a result of visiting an exhibition. Typically, exhibition evaluations include self-reports from visitors that they have learned some content knowledge, usually small-scale, counterintuitive facts rather than large-scale abstractions or principles. For example: More than one-half of interviewees said they learned something new about plants while visiting the Conservatory. While learning was highly individualized and personal, all of these interviewees consistently referred to topics presented in the Conservatory exhibits and text. Several men- tioned carnivorous plants, for example, and being surprised about the Venus flytrap’s small size or the pitcher plant’s feeding mechanism. A few expressed amazement by the water lily pollination story, while a few others appreciated experiencing a bog firsthand. Other topics mentioned by a few interviewees were: epiphytes (“plants can grow on top of other plants”), the co-evolution of plant nectar and pollinators (“different concentrations of nectar attract different animals”), the precipitation level of Los Angeles compared with a rain forest, and elephants as seed dispersers. The remain- ing responses were idiosyncratic; for example, one interviewee learned that “leaves have holes” and another that orchids are the source of vanilla beans (Jones, 2005, p. 8). Most visitors’ conceptual understanding was articulated as surprise at a counterintuitive phenomenon, that is, objects floating on a stream of air: “Oh, yeah. I was like, oh, I didn’t know that. I didn’t know it could stay up for so long. I thought eventually it would just die down and the weight would overcome the air pressure and stuff. But it just kept on floating. Like the football kept on doing misties and stuff. It was pretty cool” (Case 6, male, age 13) (Tisdal, 2004, p. 28). “[The exhibition is about] all the different life forms that we have on our planet and how there’s a possibility that these life forms can exist on other planets. I just learned about the vents in the ocean. I never knew there were those kinds of things. And now I can understand how maybe there is life on Mars underneath all that ice. It’s something I never understood before so I think it kind of expanded my world” (Adult) (Korn, 2006, p. 18). Occasionally an exhibit experience may be powerful enough to chal- lenge a common conception held by visitors. In a classic visitor study of the impact of short-term exposure to exhibits, Borun, Massey, and Lutter (1993)

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 Learning Science in Informal Environments ence and on their own thinking about science in the context of designed settings. Facilitation appears to be critical to supporting reflection. However, in designed settings, extensive facilitation by professional staff may not be feasible. And it may not always be desirable, as it can interfere with leisure experiences and interrupt other important developments in the participant experience. Strand 5, engaging in science, is also strongly supported, especially in the general form of social interaction, in which learners jointly explore and interpret the natural world. Social interaction is a notable strong tendency in multigenerational group visits. However, participating in practices such as scientific argumentation as is often studied in school settings is not ex- plored here. Further, it is likely not an appropriate goal for most designed settings for science learning which do not afford for facilitated, longer term investigations within a community of learners. For Strand 6, there is evidence of learners’ attempts to personalize and integrate science learning experiences with their values and identity. This lends support to the educational practice of adjusting science content and learning experiences to be compatible with learner agendas. REFERENCES Allen, S. (1997). Using scientific inquiry activities in exhibit explanations. Science Education, 81 (6), 715-734. Allen, S. (2002). Looking for learning in visitor talk: A methodological exploration. In G. Leinhardt, K. Crowley, and K. Knutson (Eds.), Learning conversations in museums (pp. 259-303). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Allen, S. (2007). Secrets of circles summative evaluation report. Report prepared for the Children’s Discovery Museum of San Jose. Available: http://www.informalscience. org/evaluation/show/115 [accessed October 2008]. Allen, S., and Gutwill, J. (2004). Designing science museum exhibits with multiple interactive features: Five common pitfalls. Curator, 47 (2), 199-212. American Association for the Advancement of Science. (1993). Benchmarks for sci- ence literacy. New York: Oxford University Press. Anderson, D. (2003). Visitors’ long-term memories of world expositions. Curator, 46 (4), 400-420. Anderson, D., and Piscitelli, B. (2002). Parental recollections of childhood museum visits. Museum National, 10 (4), 26-27. Anderson, D., and Shimizu, H. (2007). Factors shaping vividness of memory episodes: Visitors’ long-term memories of the 1970 Japan world exposition. Memory, 15 (2), 177-191. Anderson, D., and Zhang, Z. (2003). Teacher perceptions of fieldtrip planning and implementation. Visitor Studies Today, 6 (3), 6-12. Anderson, D., Kisiel, J., and Storksdieck, M. (2006). Understanding teachers perspec- tives on field trips: Discovering common ground in three countries. Curator, 49 (3), 365-386.

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