based. Compared with paper surveys, Internet surveys are inexpensive and generate quick responses, but often raise concerns about response rates and biased populations of respondents. For recent reviews of the literature on web surveys in informal science learning environments, including suggestions for effective design and usage, see Parsons (2007), Yalowitz and Ferguson (2007), and Storksdieck (2007).


Abler, T.S. (1968). Traffic patterns and exhibit design: A study of learning in the museum. In S.F. DeBorhegyi and I. Hanson (Eds.), The museum visitor (vol. 3, pp. 103-141). Milwaukee, WI: Milwaukee Public Museum.

Barnard, W.A., and Loomis, R.J. (1994). The museum exhibit as a visual learning museum. Visitor Behavior, 9(2), 14-17.

Borun, M., Chambers, M., and Cleghorn, A. (1996). Families are learning in science museums. Curator, 39(2), 123-138.

Crowley, K., and Callanan, M. (1998). Describing and supporting collaborative scientific thinking in parent-child interactions. Journal of Museum Education, 17(1), 12-17.

Gutwill, J. (2003). Gaining visitor consent for research II: Improving the posted sign method. Curator, 46(2), 228-235.

Leinhardt, G., and Knutson, K. (2004). Listening in on museum conversations. Walnut Creek, CA: AltaMira Press.

Parsons, C. (2007). Web-based surveys: Best practices based on the research literature. Visitor Studies, 10(1), 13-33.

Serrell, B. (1998). Paying attention: Visitors and museum exhibitions. Washington, DC: American Association of Museums.

Serrell, B. (2001). In search of the elusive bimodal distribution. Visitor Studies Today, 4(2), 4-9.

Shettel, H.H. (1997). Time—is it really of the essence? Curator, 40, 246-249.

Storksdieck, M. (2007). Using web surveys in early front-end evaluations with open populations: A case study of amateur astronomers. Visitor Studies, 10(1), 47-54.

Yalowitz, S., and Ferguson, A. (2007). Using web surveys in summative evaluations: A case study at the Monterey Bay Aquarium. Visitor Studies, 10(1), 34-46.

The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine
500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001

Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement