Index

A

Academic Competitiveness Council, 13

Academy of Natural Sciences, 223

Action, personal commitment to, 157158

Active prolonged engagement (APE), 145

Adult programs, for science learning, 48, 188189

Advance preparation, for field trips, 132133

Affective engagement

eliciting, 61

emphasis on, 13, 158

After-school programs, for science learning, 48.

See also Out-of-school/time programs

Agenda, for identifying with the scientific enterprise, 154155

American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), 16, 224

Americans with Disabilities Act, 227

Anthropocentrism, in children, 231

Appropriate learning outcomes, 292-297.

See also Strands of informal science learning

defining, 35

range of informal learning outcomes, 2829

strands of science learning, 35, 43-47, 294-296

Argumentation, 151

Assessment, 5479, 293294, 303304.

See also Evaluators

outcomes becoming evident at different points in time, 77

outcomes including a broad range of behaviors, 76

outcomes occurring at different scales, 77

perspectives, directions, and conclusions in, 7679

of science learning in informal environments, difficulties with, 5557

types of outcomes in, 5876

unanticipated outcomes, 7677

Assimilationist views, 213

Association of Science-Technology Centers, 72

Attitudes Towards Organized Science Scale (ATOSS), 191

Audiotaping, in assessment, 323324

B

Behaviorism, 30

Benchmarks for Science Literacy, 181

Bilingual interpretation, 233234

Bill Nye the Science Guy, 66, 253255, 271, 275277

The Birdhouse Network (TBN), 191

“Bodmer Report,” 16



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 Index A Assessment, 54–79, 293–294, 303–304. See also Evaluators outcomes becoming evident at different Academic Competitiveness Council, 13 points in time, 77 Academy of Natural Sciences, 223 outcomes including a broad range of Action, personal commitment to, 157–158 behaviors, 76 Active prolonged engagement (APE), 145 outcomes occurring at different scales, 77 Adult programs, for science learning, 48, perspectives, directions, and conclusions 188–189 in, 76–79 Advance preparation, for field trips, 132–133 of science learning in informal Affective engagement environments, difficulties with, 55–57 eliciting, 61 types of outcomes in, 58–76 emphasis on, 13, 158 unanticipated outcomes, 76–77 After-school programs, for science learning, Assimilationist views, 213 48. See also Out-of-school/time Association of Science-Technology Centers, programs 72 Agenda, for identifying with the scientific Attitudes Towards Organized Science Scale enterprise, 154–155 (ATOSS), 191 American Association for the Advancement Audiotaping, in assessment, 323–324 of Science (AAAS), 16, 224 Americans with Disabilities Act, 227 Anthropocentrism, in children, 231 B Appropriate learning outcomes, 292-297. See also Strands of informal science Behaviorism, 30 learning Benchmarks for Science Literacy, 181 defining, 3–5 Bilingual interpretation, 233–234 range of informal learning outcomes, Bill Nye the Science Guy, 66, 253–255, 271, 28–29 275–277 strands of science learning, 3–5, 43-47, The Birdhouse Network (TBN), 191 294-296 “Bodmer Report,” 16 Argumentation, 151

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Index 8 C Conversation, 148 Critical issues, in understanding learning across places and pursuits, 41 Career choices, and gender, 222–223 Cro, 253, 255 Cell Lab Exhibition, 152 Croak Like a Frog, 147 Center for Advancement of Informal Science Cross-cutting aspects of learning, 2, 31–41, Education, 305 207–288 Center for Applied and Specialized diversity and equity, 209–237 Technologies (CAST), 229 media, 248–277 Center for Informal Learning and Schools, 17 Cross-media studies, 276–277 Challenger Center, 159 CSI, 258–259 Chaperones, involvement in field trips, Culture and equity, 210–218 133–134 and diversity, 212–214 Chautauquas, 14 learning as a cultural process, 214–216 Children. See also Parent-child interactions science learning as cultural, 217–218 anthropocentrism in, 231 Culture and scientific knowledge, 218–232 curiosity of, 61, 101, 292–293 gender, 219–223 as ethnographers, 41 native Americans, 223–226 “naïve theories” of, 103 people with disabilities, 226–230 Children’s Discovery Museum, 149 urban and rural environments, 230–232 Citizen science, in programs for adult Culture-centered lens, for understanding science learning, 189–192, 301 learning across places and pursuits, Cognition and Technology Group at 38–41 Vanderbilt (CTGV), 257 Cumulative effects, directions for future Cognitive apprenticeships, 302–303 research in, 312 Cognitive sciences, 29–30, 35 Curie, Marie, 45 Comfort, in developing interest in science, Curiosity 136 of children, 61, 101 Committee on Learning Science in Informal fundamental, of humans, 11 Environments, charge to, 1–2, 20–22 Common framework conclusions and recommendations on D moving toward, 304–306 need for, 18–20 Darwin, Charles, 45 Community Collaborative Rain, Hail and Designed environments, 2, 293 Snow Network, 190 for diverse populations, 233–236 Community of Practice framework, 33 for media, 267–271 Computer use, familiarity with, 196 for science learning, 48 Conclusions and recommendations, 2–7, Developmental pathways, 93 291–314 Difficulties in assessing science learning, directions for future research, 310–314 55–57 informal environments, 297–302 Digital environments, 260–264 informal environments and K-12 schools, Disabled persons, culture of, and scientific 303–304 knowledge, 226–230 learners and learning, 292–297 Discourse analysis, 60–61 promoting learning, 2–3, 302–303 Disney’s Animal Kingdom, 60, 157 recommendations for practice and Diversity and equity, 209–237, 291–292 research, 306–310 conclusion, 236–237 toward a common field, 304–306 culture and equity, 210–218 Consent, obtaining, 324 culture and scientific knowledge, “Conservation psychology,” 158 218–232 Contextual Model of Learning, 32 science learning in informal settings for Control groups, in assessment, 323 diverse populations, 232–236

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Index  “Doing” science, while engaging in scientific Excitement, in developing interest in reasoning, 141–143, 275–276 science, 100, 130–131 Drawing tasks, 65 Exhibit Commons, 72 Exhibit designers, recommendations for, 6, 307–308 E ExhibitFiles, 72 Experiences Earth & Sky, 253–254 in informal science learning Ecological framework for understanding environments, 11–12 learning across places and pursuits, opportunistic, 95 31–41 prior, while identifying with the scientific critical issues, 41 enterprise, 156–157 culture-centered lens, 38–41 Explanation while engaging in scientific people-centered lens, 34–36 reasoning, 143–144 place-centered lens, 36–38 “Explanatoids,” 149 Education policy, federal, 13 Explora, a program for older adults, 199 Educational broadcast media, 251–257 Exploratorium, 16 Educational theories diagram, 38 Expositions, 15 Elderhostel programs, 12, 48 Emergence of science learning in informal F environments, 14–18 Emotional engagement, 13 Engineering design process, 44–45 Failure, 68 Environments. See Designed environments; Family learning, 32–33. See also Everyday Digital environments; Learning and family learning activities science in informal environments; Family values, reinforcing, 154 Rural environments; Urban Federal Communications Commission, 251 environments Federal Coordinating Council for Science, Epistemologies Engineering and Technology, 15 indigenous, 225 Federation of American Sciences, 263 practical, 69–70 Feedback mechanisms, 72 Equity. See Culture and equity; Diversity and Field trips for learning in designed spaces, equity 132–135 Ethical issues, 323 active participation in museum activities, Evaluators, 54 133 recommendations for practice and advance preparation, 132–133 research for, 309–310 involvement by teachers and chaperones, Everyday and family learning activities, 2–3, 133–134 93–116, 293 reinforcement after the field trip, 134–135 about science, 47–48 Fifth Dimension after-school program, for conclusion, 115–116 learning science, 184, 186–187 media in venues and configurations for, Film 264–267 giant screen, 259–260 sample parent-child incidental science popular, 257–259 conversation, 100 Framework for Evaluating Impacts of settings for everyday learning, 95–97 Informal Science Education Projects, structuring, 49 17 what is learned in, 99–115 Frameworks who learns in everyday settings, conclusions and recommendations on 97–99 moving toward common, 304–306, Evidences of science learning, in out-of- 309–310 school/time programs, 174–187, 294, need for common, 18–20 303 Franklin, Benjamin, 45

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Index 0 Front-line educators, recommendations for, Heterogeneity within each venue for science 7, 308–309 learning, 49 Fun, 71 How People Learn, 34, 62 Future research needs, 310–314 conclusions and recommendations I regarding, 310–314 cumulative effects, 312 Identification with the scientific enterprise, learning by groups, organizations, and Strand 6 of the goals of science communities, 312 learning, 46–47 learning strands, 311–312 Identity media, 313–314 discursive, 114 supporting learning for diverse groups, sociocultural influences on in gender- 313 biased experiences, 221–222 tools and practices that contribute to Immersive media, 259–260 learning, 311 Immune Attack, 263 Indigenous epistemologies, 225 G Individuals with Disabilities in Education Act (IDEA), 226 Galilei, Galileo, 45 Institute of Education Sciences, 220 Games, 262, 299 Integration of knowledge and learning, Gateway, 181–182 29–41 Gender issues in culture and scientific ecological framework for understanding knowledge, 114–115, 219–223 learning across places and pursuits, sociocultural influences in gender-biased 31–41 experiences, 220–223 educational theories diagram, 38 statistical evidence of gender disparities, perspectives on informal environments 219–220 for science learning, 32–33 Gervirtz Summer Academy, 181–183 “Intelligent routines,” 37 Girls Math and Technology Program, 181 Interactivity. See also Parent-child Goals for science learning, 41–47 interactions Strand 1—developing interest in science, groups of minds in, 37 43–44 while engaging in scientific reasoning, Strand 2—understanding science 140–141 knowledge, 44 with artifacts in the world, 37 Strand 3—engaging in scientific Interest in science, developing, as Strand reasoning, 44–45 1 of the goals of science learning, Strand 4—reflecting on science, 45–46 43–44 Strand 5—engaging in scientific practices, Internal responses, 131 46 Internet surveys, in assessment, 324–325 Strand 6—identifying with the scientific Interviewing, in assessment, 65–66, 75, enterprise, 46–47 322–323 Groups of minds, in interaction, 37 Intuition, 34 Growth of science learning in informal Involvement by teachers and chaperones, in environments, 14–18 field trips, 133–134 “Guided participation,” 215 K H Kinetic City After School, 181, 183 Health education, in programs for adult Knowledge. See also Integration of science learning, 99, 101–102, knowledge and learning 192–194 constructing, 109

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Index  hierarchies of, 64 Learning science in out-of-school/time “occasioned” explorations of, 96 programs, 174–187, 294, 303 prior, while identifying with the scientific evidences of science learning, 174–187 enterprise, 156–157 the Fifth Dimension after-school program, 186–187 learning goals for science learning L programs, 178–179 relationship between school and out-of- Learners and learning, conclusions and school programs, 176–177 recommendations regarding, Strand 1—developing interest in science, 292–297 178–181 Learning. See also Integration of knowledge Strand 2—understanding science and learning knowledge, 181–183 conclusions and recommendations for Strand 3—engaging in scientific promoting, 2–3, 302–303 reasoning, 183 as a cultural process, 214–216 Strand 4—reflecting on science, 183–184 by groups, organizations, and Strand 5—engaging in scientific practices, communities, directions for future 184–185 research in, 312 Strand 6—identifying with the scientific Learning science, continuum of enterprise, 185–187 environments for, 47 Learning strands. See also individual strands Learning science in designed spaces, directions for future research in, 311–312 129–161 Liberty Science Center, 72 field trips, 132–135 Lifelong, life-wide, and life-deep learning, frequency of visitor actions at interactive 28–29, 71 exhibits, 142 Literacy. See Science literacy Strand 1—developing interest in science, Longitudinal studies, 71, 76, 222, 276–277 130–136 Lyceum movement, 14 Strand 2—understanding science knowledge, 136–139 M Strand 3—engaging in scientific reasoning, 139–146 Strand 4—reflecting on science, 146–148 The Magic School Bus, 253 Strand 5—engaging in scientific practices, Magnetic Maze, 142 148–153 Major events in informal science learning, Strand 6—identifying with the scientific fifty years of, 16–17 enterprise, 153–161 Mathematics, Engineering, Science Learning science in informal environments, Achievement (MESA), 181–182 9–89 McClintock, Barbara, 45 about this report, 20–25 Meadowlands Environment Center, a assessment, 54–79 program for older adults, 199 emergence and growth of science Meaning-making, while engaging in learning in informal environments, scientific reasoning, 143–144 14–18 Media, 248–277 experiences in informal science learning conclusion, 277 environments, 12 a context and tool for science learning, fifty years of major events in informal 249 science learning, 16–17 designed settings, 267–271 introduction, 11–25 digital environments, 260–264 need for common frameworks, 18–20 directions for future research in, 313–314 theoretical perspectives, 27–50 educational broadcast media, 251–257 who uses media, 272–273 everyday and family learning, 264–267

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Index  giant screen film and other immersive of the Strand 2 outcome, 61–62 media, 259–260 of the Strand 3 outcome, 66 key themes, 271–272 of the Strand 4 outcome, 68–69 longitudinal and cross-media studies, of the Strand 5 outcome, 70–71 276–277 New York Hall of Science, 160, 228 media in venues and configurations, No Child Left Behind Act, 179 264–271 popular film and television, 257–259 O print media, 249–250 programs for science learning, 271 “Occasioned knowledge exploration,” 96 questions of identity, 273 Ontario Science Center, 146 science as a process, 275–276 Operation SMART, 180 significance of format, 273–275 Organization of the report, 24–25 in venues and configurations, 264–271 Outcomes. See also Methods of researching who uses media to learn science in the outcomes; Nature of the outcomes informal environments, 272–273 becoming evident at different points in Meta-analysis, 135 time, 77 Metacognition, 34–35, 63 defining appropriate, 3–5 Methods of researching the outcomes including a broad range of behaviors, 76 Strand 1 outcomes, 59–61 occurring at different scales, 77 Strand 2 outcomes, 61–62 Out-of-school/time programs Strand 3 outcomes, 67–68 evidence of science learning in, 174–187, Strand 4 outcomes, 69–70 294, 303 Strand 5 outcomes, 71–73 Ownership and outreach, of science learning Strand 6 outcomes, 75–76 in informal settings, 232–233 Monitoring, volunteer, in programs for adult science learning, 189–192, 301 Monterey Bay Aquarium, 157 P Mood states, 131 Multiple Identities Framework, 32 Parent-child interactions Museum activities, and active participation example of, 100 on field trips, 133 while engaging in scientific practices, Museum of Science, Boston, 229 149–150 Participation broadening, 5 N in museum activities on field trips, 133 People-centered lens, for understanding “Naïve theories” of children, 103 learning across places and pursuits, National Aeronautics and Space 34–36 Administration, 272 “Perceptual talk,” 142 National Evaluation of Compulsory Schools, Personal commitment to action, while 229 identifying with the scientific National Geographic Society, 272 enterprise, 157–158 National Research Council, 20, 295 Personal meaning mapping, 137 National Science Board, 13 Personal stories in science, 45 National Science Foundation (NSF), 14, Perspectives on Object-Centered Learning in 16–18, 20, 23, 190, 305 Museums, 1 Native American culture, and scientific Phenomenological principles, 216 knowledge, 223–226 Physiological measures, 60 Native Waters Project, 234 Place-centered lens, for understanding Nature of the outcomes learning across places and pursuits, of the Strand 1 outcome, 58–59 36–38

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Index  Play, 138 Raising Interest in Science and Engineering, Pleasure, 70–71 180 Popular film and television, 257–259 Recommendations, 6–7. See also Conclusions Positive and Negative Affect Schedule, 61 and recommendations; Future Positive Youth Development framework, 33 research needs Possible Selves framework, 33 for exhibit and program designers, 6, Practical epistemologies, 69–70 307–308 Practices that contribute to learning. See also for front-line educators, 7, 308–309 Scientific practices for practice and research, 306–310 directions for future research in, 311 for researchers and evaluators, 309–310 Prediction, while engaging in scientific Reflection upon science, Strand 4 of the reasoning, 144–146 goals of science learning, 45–46 Print media, 249–250 Reinforcement, after the field trip, 134–135 Problem solving, 257 Relationships. See also Cognitive Process, science as, 275–276 apprenticeships; Parent-child Program designers, recommendations for, 6, interactions 307–308 between school and out-of-school Programs for adult science learning, 187–195 programs for learning science, characteristics of adult programs, 176–177 188–189 Report parameters, 20–25 citizen science and volunteer monitoring approach and scope, 21–23 programs, 189–192 committee charge, 20–22 health education, 192–194 focus, 23–24 programs for science teachers, 194–195 organization, 24–25 Programs for older adults, 196–199, 293 Research. See also Methods of researching Explora, 199 the outcomes Meadowlands Environment Center, 199 maturing, 266 Programs for science learning, 2–3 recommendations for, 309–310 media venues and configurations for, 271 Risk communication, 250 Programs for young and old, 173–200, 291 River City, 262 conclusion, 199–200 Road Watch in the Pass, 190 learning science in out-of-school/time Rural environments, culture of, and scientific programs, 174–187, 303 knowledge, 230–232 Project Exploration, 180 Project SEE, 199 S Promotion of learning, conclusions and recommendations regarding, 2–3, Sample parent-child incidental science 302–303 conversation, in everyday settings, 100 Public Understanding of Science Program, 16 Science increasingly shaping our lives, 1 Q as a process, 275–276 technology, engineering, and Questioning mathematics (STEM), improving of identity, 273 education in, 13–14, 16–17 while engaging in scientific reasoning, Science Friday, 253–254 144–146 Science identity, building across age and background, 159–161 Science learning R as cultural, 217–218, 301–302 designing for diverse populations, Radio frequency identification tags or 233–236 transponders, 270

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Index  in informal settings for diverse Strand 1—developing interest in science, populations, 232–236 58–61, 294, 311–312 ownership and outreach, 232–233 comfort, 136 Science literacy, improving, 12 excitement, 130–131 Science media. See Media interest, 131–136 Science talk, specialized, 150–151 learning in designed spaces, 130–136 Science teachers, programs for, 194–195 methods of researching Strand 1 Scientific American, 272 outcomes, 59–61 “Scientific inquiry,” 139, 217 nature of the outcome, 58–59 Scientific practices, engaging in, Strand 5 of what is learned in everyday settings and the goals of science learning, 46 family activities, 100–102 Scientific reasoning, engaging in, Strand 3 while learning science in out-of-school/ of the goals of science learning, time programs, 178–181 44–45 Strand 2—understanding science knowledge, Scientific tools, for engaging in scientific 4, 61–66, 295, 311–312 practices, 151–152 learning in designed spaces, 136–139 Scope of report, 21–23 methods of researching Strand 2 Seafood Watch at Monterey Bay Aquarium, outcomes, 63–66 157 nature of the outcome, 61–62 Search for Life, 138 what is learned in everyday settings and Second Life, 72 family activities, 102–107 Seeing, while engaging in scientific while learning science in out-of-school/ reasoning, 141–143 time programs, 181–183 “Seeking behavior,” 58 Strand 3—engaging in scientific reasoning, 4, Self-reflections on learning, while reflecting 66–68, 295, 311–312 on science, 147–148 doing and seeing, 141–143 Sensory responses, 128 interactivity, 140–141 Service at Salado, 184–185 learning in designed spaces, 139–146 Settings for everyday learning, 95–97 meaning-making and explanation, Significance of format, 273–275 143–144 Situated/Enacted Identity, 32 methods of researching Strand 3 Social networking, 12 outcomes, 67–68 Sociocultural influences, 30–31, 35 nature of the outcome, 66 on career choices, 222–223 questioning and predicting, 144–146 in gender-biased experiences, 220–223 what is learned in everyday settings and identity issues, 221–222 family activities, 107–108 while engaging in scientific practices, while learning science in out-of-school/ 152–153 time programs, 183 Socioeconomic factors, 40 Strand 4—reflecting on science, 4, 68–70, Socioemotional selectivity theory, 197 295, 311–312 Sorting tasks, 65 learning in designed spaces, 146–148 Soviet Sputnik Program, 15–16 methods of researching Strand 4 Specialized science talk, while engaging in outcomes, 69–70 scientific practices, 150–151 nature of the outcome, 68–69 Square One TV, 253 self-reflections on learning, 147–148 Statistical evidence of gender disparities, what is learned in everyday settings and 219–220 family activities, 108–110 Stereotype threat, 221 while learning science in out-of-school/ Stimulus-response associations, in learning, time programs, 183–184 30 Strand 5—engaging in scientific practices, 4, Storytelling, 97 70–73, 295, 311–312 learning in designed spaces, 148–153

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Index  methods of researching Strand 5 questions of identity, 273 outcomes, 71–73 science as a process, 275–276 nature of the outcome, 70–71 significance of format, 273–275 parent-child interactions, 149–150 who uses media to learn science in scientific tools, 151–152 informal environments, 272–273 social group influences, 152–153 Theoretical perspectives on learning science specialized science talk, 150–151 in informal environments, 27–50. See what is learned in everyday settings and also Educational theories diagram family activities, 110–113 conclusion, 49–50 while learning science in out-of-school/ goals of science learning, 41–47 time programs, 184–185 integrating views of knowledge and Strand 6—identifying with the scientific learning, 29–41 enterprise, 4, 74–76, 295, 311–312 lifelong and life-wide learning, 29 agenda, 154–155 strands of informal science learning, 43 building science identity across age and venues for science learning, 47–49 background, 159–161 “Theory talk,” 110 learning in designed spaces, 153–161 Third Spaces, 32, 264 methods of researching Strand 6 3-2-1 Contact, 253, 255 outcomes, 75–76 Time as a measure of learning, in personal commitment to action, 157–158 assessment, 324 prior knowledge and experience, Tools for science learning 156–157 directions for future research in, 311 what is learned in everyday settings and for engaging in scientific practices, family activities, 113–115 151–152 while learning science in out-of-school/ media as, 249 time programs, 185–187 Trends in International Mathematics and Strands of informal science learning, 43-47, Science Study, 220 294-296 21st Century Community Learning Centers in defining appropriate outcomes, 3–5 (CCLCs), 15, 175 Success, defining, 56–58, 262–263 Support, for learning for diverse groups, U directions for future research in, 313 Unanticipated outcomes, 76–77 T Understanding of science knowledge, as Strand 2 of the goals of science Taking Science to School, 3, 42, 46, 105, 295 learning, 44 Teachers, involvement in field trips, 133–134 Urban environments, culture of, and Tech Museum of Innovation, 72 scientific knowledge, 230–232 Technical considerations in assessment, U.S. Children’s Television Act, 251 322–325 U.S. educational system, 13 control groups, 323 Internet survey, 324–325 V interviewing groups vs. individuals, 322–323 Validity issues, 314 time as a measure of learning, 324 Venues for science learning, 47–49 video- and audiotaping, 323–324 after-school and adult programs, 48 “Technological novelty,” 268 configurations of, 91–206 Television, popular, 257–259 continuum of learning environments, 47 Themes regarding media, 271–272 designed environments, 48 longitudinal and cross-media studies, everyday and family learning, 47–48 276–277 heterogeneity within each venue, 49

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Index  programs for young and old, 173–200, Web 2.0 technologies, 269 291 What is learned in everyday settings and science learning in designed settings, family activities, 99–115 127–162 Strand 1—developing interest in science, Video analysis, 67 100–102 Videotaping, in assessment, 141, 323–324 Strand 2—understanding science Virtual reality, 267–269 knowledge, 102–107 Visit Inspiration Checklist, 73 Strand 3—engaging in scientific Visitor actions, at interactive exhibits, reasoning, 107–108 frequency of, 142 Strand 4—reflecting on science, 108–110 Volunteer monitoring programs, in programs Strand 5—engaging in scientific practices, for adult science learning, 189–192, 110–113 301 Strand 6—identifying with the scientific enterprise, 113–115 Who learns in everyday settings, 97–99, 293 W Who uses media to learn science in informal environments, 272–273 Watch Mr. Wizard, 251 Wikipedia, 12 Water Action Volunteer (WAV) Program, World fairs, 15 191–192 Watson, James, 45