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Index A Agencies, 53, 61~5, 123-124 conflict of interest, 79, 122 Department of Agriculture, 26, 120 Environmental Protection Agency, 26, 28, 120 federal/state/local coordination, 27-30, 33, 120, 123, 126 National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 78 National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 78 organizational factors, 61~5, 108-109 see also Department of the Interior Anaerobic processes, 102 Aquatic organisms, 1, 24 see also Fish and fisheries Arid regions, 37, 40, 45, 47, 48, 60, 72, 96, 119, 124 149 Arizona, 102, 106 Arsenic, 4, 41, 101, 124 B Basins (topographic), see Drainage systems Belle Fourche Project, 32 Biological processes, 76 anaerobic processes, 102 fungi, 102 transpiration, 3, 38, 43 water treatment, 102-103 Birds, see Waterfowl Boron, 67, 101, 124 Bureau of Indian Affairs, 32 Bureau of Reclamation Central Valley Project, 18, 21 Kesterson Wildlife Refuge, 10, 127 River and Dam Management: A Review of the Bureau of Reclamation's Glen Canyon Environmental Shoddies, 75

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150 San Joaquin Valley Drainage Program, 26, 43 San Luis Drain, 2~25 water supply services, general, 15, 55, 58, 61, 67, 68, 95, 106, 125 see also National Irrigation Water Quality Program C Cadmium, 89, 124 Calcium carbonate, 39 California Central Valley, 16, 18, 21, 27, 46~7 Coast Range, 49, 97 Colorado River basin, 15-16, 40 Salton Sea, 3, 4, 13, 39, 40 San Francisco Bay, 24, 97 water use and control, 15, 59, 65, 68, 70, 106, 107 see also Kesterson National Wildlife Refuge; Salton Sea; San Joaquin Valley Carter Administration, 67 Central Utah Project, 55 Central Valley, 16, 18, 21, 27, 46-47 Chemical processes, 79 baseline monitoring, 78 geology and geochemistry, 76, 122 selenium, 21, 26, 33, 42-46, 5~51 water treatment, 102-103 see also Mace elements China, 48, 49 Clean Water Act, 67, 107 Climate arid regions, 37, 40, 45, 47, 48, 60, 72, 96, 119, 124 San Joaquin Valley, 17-18 Coachella Valley, 15-16 Coast Range, 49, 97 INDEX Colorado River, 15-16, 40, 65, 102 Committee on Irrigation-Induced Water Quality Problems functions, 2, 8, 29-30, 32, 118, 137-148 members' biographies, 131-136 Computer models, 69, 148 Contracts, 67~8, 69, 70, 104, 109 Cost factors, 5-7, 9, 72, 108, 110, 111-112, 113, 115, 120, 123-124, 125 desalinization, 102 farm subsidies, 51, 5~55, 5~59 Kesterson Refuge cleanup, 25 taxes and charges and, 10~105 water transfer, 68~9, 106 see also Prices Court actions, see Litigation D Data bases, 6, 76, 81-85, 146 Dead Sea, 4, 39 Deep-well injection, 96, 97-98 Demography, see Population factors Department of Agriculture, 26, 120 Department of the Interior, 2, 25, 26, 33, 125, 138 Bureau of Indian Affairs, 32 Fish and Wildlife Service, 21, 24, 26, 27, 32, 61, 63, 137, 140 Geological Survey, 26, 32, 78, 137, 140 National Irrigation Water Quality Program, 2-3, 9, 12, 14, 3(}33, 75-76, 85, 126, 146 see also Bureau of Reclamation Desalinization, see Salinity; Water treatment Desert Land Act of 1877, 15 Diet, 49-50

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INDEX Dimethyl selenide, 102 Disposal, 95-101 ocean, 95, 96, 97, 121 surface flows, 59-60 technical options, 9~98, 112 Drainage systems Central Valley, 16, 18, 21, 27, 46~7 irrigation, characteristics, 37~1 legal constraints, 107 salinity and, 3-4, 38-41 San Luis Drain, 20, 21, 24-25, 48, 97 technical options, 96 98, 108 water treatment, 96, 101-103 see also Rivers; Kesterson National Wildlife Refuge; San Joaquin Valley E Economics, 5, 8, 54-57, 79, 113, 117, 146 agricultural, 76 farm size and, 58 federal intervention, 21 National Irrigation Water Quality Program, funding, 32-33 prices, 55, 68, 103-105, 106 salinity-caused losses, 16 San Joaquin Valley agriculture, 19 subsidies, 5, 15, 55-59, 105, 123 water transfers, 6~69, 106 see also Cost factors Environmental Protection Agency, 26, 28, 120 Error analysis, 90 Estuaries, 24 Evaluation processes, 114-116 alternatives, 6-8, 94-117 risk assessment, 6, 50, 91, 138, 144 151 Evaporation flash, 102 ponds, 20-21, 25, 34, 10~101 salinity and, 4, 15, 39~0, 43 Executive Order 12291, 111-112 Exposure assessment, see Risk assessment F Federal actions, 25-27, 123-124 conflicting, 61 coordination with state and local, 27-30, 33, 70, 81, 120, 123, 126 irrigation water subsidies, 5, 15, 55-59, 105, 123 National Irrigation Water Quality Program (NIWQP), 2-3, 9, 11-12, 30-33, 75-76, 85, 120-121, 126, 139, 141, 142, 146 planning, ~9, 10 water systems, 21 see also Law; specific departments and agencies Federal Registe,; 111 Fertilizers, 1, 4, 123 Field studies, 75, 82 National Irrigation Water Quality Program (NIWQP), 139, 141, 142 Financial issues, see Economics Fish and fisheries, 46 48 San Joaquin Valley Drainage Program, 28 toxins, 1, 21, 31 Fish and Wildlife Service, 21, 24, 26, 27, 32, 61, 63, 137, 140 Floodplains, 107 Food Security Act of 1985, 105 Fungi, 102

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152 G Geological Survey, 26, 32, 78, 137, 140 Geology and geochemistry, 76, 122 see also Salinity; Selenium; Soil science; Place elements Glen Canyon, 75 Government, see Agencies; Federal actions; Local-level actions; State-level actions Great Salt Lake, 39 Ground water evaporation ponds and, 101 irrigation drainage hydrology, 39~0, 42, 124 Kesterson Refuge, 25, 27 San Joaquin Valley, 20, 28, 42-43, 46 wells, 49, 96, 97-98 Gypsum, 39 H Hazardous waste, 101, 107 Health, see Public health Hilgard, E. W., 17 Historical perspectives Bureau of Reclamation, 95, 137 irrigation, western U.S., 13-16, 20, 7~71, 96 Kesterson Refuge, 1, 11, 2~27 salinity standards, 124 San Joaquin Valley, 1~23, 27-30, 71, 109 Human factors, see Social factors Hydrology, 41-42, 76, 122, 124 evaporation, 4, 15, 2~21, 25, 34, 39~0, 43, 100 101, 102 San Joaquin Valley, 17-20 transpiration, 3, 38, 43 see also Ground water INDEX Imperial Valley, 15-16 Institutional factors, 4-5, 7, 53-72, 10~110, 10~109, 113-114, 123 conflict of interest, 79, 122 defined, 53-54 economics, 5, 8, 16, 19, 21, 32-33, 5~57, 113 organizational factors, 61-65, 10~109 San Joaquin Valley Drainage Project, 27-30, 109 see also Agencies; Law; Management; Political factors; Regulations Interdisciplinary efforts, see Multidisciplinary efforts International treaty, Mexico, 40, 65, 70 Irrigation drainage, see Drainage systems K Kendrick Reclamation Project, 3, 13 Kesterson National Wildlife Refuge, 2(}34, 39, 81, 119, 127 funding for cleanup, 32-33 history, 1, 11, 2~27 salinity, 4 selenium in water, 1-4, 11-13, 21,26,33,41,43,45,49, 5(}51, 74, 79, 85, 138 waterfowl, 79 Knowledge and Environmental Problem-Solving: Concepts and Case Studies, 75

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INDEX L Lakes, 39, 107 Salton Sea, 3, 4, 13, 39, 40 Land retirement, 10, 96, 98, 121, 12~124 Law, 6, 57, 105-108, 113, 115, 123 Clean Water Act, 67, 107 contracts, 67 68, 69, 70, 104 Desert Island Act of 1877, 15 environmental, 62~3 Executive Order 1291, 111-112 Food Security Act of 1985, 105 international tread, Mexico, 40, 65, 70 National Environmental Policy Act of 1970, 25, 69, 70, 111 ocean disposal of irrigation drainage, 95 Reclamation Act of 1902, 5, 15, 16, 26, 58, 71 Reclamation Reform Act of 1982, 68 state-level, 14, 67, 68, 106, 107 water supply, western U.S., 13-14, 63-70, 10~107 water transfers, 67-70, 106 see also Regulations; Standards Litigation, 107, 113 Local-level actions, 27, 119, 122 coordination with state and federal, 33, 81, 126 M Management, 107-108 conservation subsidies, 105 data, 85 86, 145 exogenous factors, 122 floodplains, 107 land, 9~100, 143 land retirement, 10, 96, 98, 121, 12~124 research, 125 153 salinity, 21, 72, 96, 9~101, 144 water resources, 72, 86 see also Agencies Marine resources, see Ocean disposal Market prices, 103 Mass media, 79 ,Me~co, 40, 65, 70 Middle Green River, 3, 13 Mining, 13-14 Models, see Computer models; Systems analysis Molybdenum, 4, 41, 101, 125 Mono Lake, 107 Multidisciplinary efforts, 118, 121, 126, 140 data interpretation, 85, 114 problem definition, 79~1, 86 problem resolution, 9~95, 116 N National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 78 National Environmental Policy Act of 1970, 25, 69, 70, 111 National Irrigation Water Quality Program (NIWQP), 2-3, 9, 11-12, 3~33, 75-76, 85, 12() 121, 126, 139, 141, 142 National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 78 National Research Council Committee on Irrigation-Induced Water Quality Problems, 2, 8, 29-30, 32, 118, 131-147 Knowledge and Environmental Problem-Solving: Concepts and Case Studies, 75 River and Dam Management: A Review of the Bureau of Reclamation's Glen Canyon Environmental Studies, 75

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154 National Science Foundation, 78 Nebraslm, 55 Nevada, 3, 4, 13, 39, 97, 106 New Lands Project, 97 Nitrates, 4, 39 Nonpoint source pollution, 67 North Platte Project, 55 Nutrition, see Diet o Ocean disposal, 95, 96, 97, 121 San Francisco Bay, 97 Organizational factors, 61~5, 108-109 see also Agencies p Pacific Coast Range, 49, 97 Pesticides, 1, 4, 39, 123 Phosphates, 4, 39 Planning issues, 86, 120-123 agencies, federal and state, 8-9, 27-30 National Irrigation Water Quality Program, 32 Policy issues, 5, 9-10, 123-125, 146 San Joaquin Valley Drainage Program, 28 see also Law Political factors, 6, 7, 70-71, 109-110, 115, 119, 122-123 Kesterson Refuge, 21, 25, 26 subsidy system, 57-59 see also Public opinion Population factors, 5, 59 urbanization, 15, 59-60 Preserves, see Kesterson National Wildlife Refuge; Refuges Prices, 103-105 irrigation water, 55 water transfer, 68, 106 Problem solving, 121 INDEX alternatives, ~8, 77, 78, 9~117, 119, 120, 121 economic factors, 54 essential elements, 5~, 7~92, 116 evaluation process, 6-8, 50, 94-117 institutional dimensions, 4-5, 53-72 Knowledge and Environmental Problem-Solving: Concepts and Case Studies, 75 multidisciplinary efforts, 79-81, 85, 86, 94-95, 114, 116, 118, 121, 126, 140 National Irrigation Water Quality Program, elements, 3(}32, 75-76, 85, 126 scientific dimensions, 3-4, 37-51, 90 systems analysis, 7~92, 9~117, 121 technical options, 96 103, 108, 112, 115 uncertainty factors, 89-91 see also Research Productivity, 28, 42, 81, 119 land retirement, 10, 96, 98, 121, 123-124 salinity and, 74 Public health, 144 baseline data on toxicity, 82-84 San Joaquin Valley Drainage Program, 28, 49, 119, 138 toxic elements, 48-50, 89 Public opinion, 24, 28, 46, 59 60, 62-63, 69-70, 78, 115, mass media, 79 participation and, 76, 110, 116-117, 122, 138, 143 Public works, 15, 21, 24, 57

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INDEX Q Quality control, 138-139, 143, 144, 145 baseline data, 82, 83 R Reclamation Act of 1902, 6, 15, 16, 26, 58, 71 Reclamation Reform Act of 1982, 68 Refuges, 47~8 national system, 26 specific sites other than Kesterson, 3, 4, 13, 39, 97 see also Kesterson National Wildlife Refuge Regulations, 61, 107-108 evaporation ponds, 101 nonpoint source pollution, 67 ocean disposal of irrigation drainage, 95 water quality, 27, 123 see also Agencies; Standards Remote sensing, 78 Research essential elements, 5-6, 74-92 farm management, 144 federal/state support, 125 wildlife, 1, 11, 21, 24 see also National Research Council Reverse osmosis, 102 Rio Grande, 16 Risk assessment, 6, 50, 91, 138, 144 River and Dam Management: A Review of the Bureau of Reclamation's Glen Canyon Environmental Studies, 75 Rivers Colorado, 15-16, 40, 65, 102 estuaries, 24 155 floodplains, 107 Middle Green, 3, 13 North Platte, 55 Rio Grande, 16 Toupee, 97 S Salinity, 1-4, 7, 15-16, 37-41, 124 crop productivity, 74 desalinization, 96, 101-102 ground water, 42-43 management practices, 21, 72, 96 Mexico, international agreement, 40, 70 soils, 37-40 standards, 67, 70, 124 Salton Sea, 3, 4, 13, 39, 40 San Francisco Bay, 24, 97 San Joaquin Valley drainage program (SJVDP), 2, 9, 10, 12, 27-30, 33, 71, 74, 75, 97, 11~120, 121, 122, 126, 137-147 history, 1~23, 27-30, 71, 109 natural characteristics, 16-19, 41-43 selenium, 102, 124, 138 water pollution, 2, 8, 11, 51, 67 see also Kesterson National Wildlife Refuge San Luis Drain, 20, 21, 24-25, 48, 97 Selenium contamination and toxicity, 1-4, 11-13, 41, 42-43, 48-50, 74, 85, 96, 101, 124, 138 geology and geochemistry, 21, 26, 33, 42~6, 144-145 ocean disposal, 121 standards, 67, 124

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156 Social factors, 21, 57~1, 69, 71-72, 74, 109-110, 119, 122-123 population factors, 5, 59 urbanization, 15, 59~0 see also Historical perspectives; Institutional factors; Law; Public health; Public opinion Soil science contamination, 25, 31, 102, 107 hydrology and, 41~2 salinity, 37-39 selenium, 43 46, 102 Source control, 9~101 South Dakota, 32, 48, 49 Standards administrative, 109 salinity, 67, 70, 124 State-level actions, 25-27, 123-124 coordination with federal, 27-30, 33, 70, 81, 120, 123, 126 planning, 8-9, 10 regulatory, 68 standards, 67 water law, 14, 106, 107 see also specific states Statutes, see Law Stillwater Wildlife Management Area, 3, 4, 13, 39, 97 Subsidies, 5, 15, 55-59, 105, 123 Systems analysis, 121, 138 problem assessment, 74-92 problem solving, 9~117 T Taxes, 104-105 subsidy coverage, 55, 58 Toxicity cadmium, 89 fish, 1, 21, 31 national survey of irrigation problems, 31 INDEX as public health problem, 82-84 selenium, 1-4, 11-13, 41, 42~3, 45, 74, 85, 96; human exposure, 4~50 Place elements, 1, 3, 4, 34, 39, 40 41, 96, 102, 123 arsenic, 4, 41, 101, 124 boron, 67, 101, 124 cadmium, 89, 124 evaporation ponds, 101 gypsum, 39 molybdenum, 4, 41, 101, 125 nitrates, 4, 39 soils, 43-46, 102, 107 see also Selenium Transpiration, 3, 38, 43 Transportation, drainage water, 96-101 lluckee River, 97 U Urban areas and urbanization, 15, 59~0 Utah, 3, 4, 13, 39, 49, 55 V Vegetation evaporation ponds, 101 salinity and, 38-39, 41 San Joaquin Valley, 18-19 toxins, 31 transpiration, 3, 38, 43 wetland, 4 W WADE computer model, 147 Waste disposal, 95-101 technical options, 96 98, 112 via surface flows, 59~0 Water districts, 68 Waterfowl, 39 habitat, 19, 47, 59, 101

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INDEX toxic effects on, 1, 4, 11, 24, 31, 74, 79, 101 Water transfers, 67-70, 106 Water treatment, 96 technologies, 101-103, 138 Wellington-Mohawk Irrigation Drainage District; 102 Wells drainage water injection, disposal, 96, 97-98 selenium concentrations, Coast Range, 49 Wetlands Central Valley, 19, 46-48 conservation, 50, 68 evaporation ponds, 20-21, 25, 34, 10~101 mitigation of losses, 81 salinity and, 4, 39 157 subsidies for irrigation and, 57 water law, 14 see also Kesterson National Wildlife Refuge Wildlife aquatic organisms, 1, 24 fish and fisheries, 1, 21, 28, 31, 46-48 habitat preservation, 25-26, 28, 50, 59, 119, 123; see also Refuges selenium toxicity, 1-4, 11-13, 41, 42-43, 48-50 toxicity monitoring, 82-64 waterfowl, 1,4, 11, 19, 24,31,39, 47, 59, 74, 79, 101 wetland, 4, 25-26, 28, 46-48 Wyoming, 3, 13, 55

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