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Appendix G Biographical Sketches of Workshop Participants Eric B. Bass, M.D., M.P.H., is a professor of medicine with joint appoint- ments in the departments of epidemiology and health policy and manage- ment at the Johns Hopkins University (JHU). He is the director of the JHU Evidence-Based Practice Center, and codirector of the JHU Developing Evidence to Inform Decisions about Effectiveness Center. He was the editor of the Journal of General Internal Medicine for 5 years, and he is now the editor-in-chief of Progress in Community Health Partnerships. He served as the director of the general internal medicine fellowship at JHU for 15 years. He has extensive research experience in evidence-based medicine, with special interests in assessment of the effectiveness and costs of medical and surgical management strategies as well as in the assessment of patient preferences. He also has expertise in curriculum development, having served as a facilitator for the JHU Faculty Development Program and having coau- thored a book on curriculum development. He has published more than 175 peer-reviewed articles as well as numerous evidence reports. Lorne A. Becker, M.D., is emeritus professor at the State University of New York (SUNY) Upstate Medical University in Syracuse, New York. He serves as co-chair of the steering group of the Cochrane Collaboration, an international nonprofit healthcare organization, and is also convenor of the Cochrane Publishing Policy Group and Umbrella Reviews Working Group. He served as chief of family medicine at the Toronto Hospital and, until his retirement in 2004, he was chair of the Department of Family Medicine at SUNY Upstate Medical University. Dr. Becker received his M.D. from the University of Western Ontario, is a fellow of the American Academy 9

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0 LEARNING WHAT WORKS of Family Medicine and the College of Family Physicians of Canada, and is a recipient of the Curtis Hames Research Award from the Society of Teachers of Family Medicine. He is a member of the Research Commit- tee of the World Organization of National Academies of Family Medicine and of the Guidelines International Network Advisory Board. Previously he has been a member of the board of the Society of Teachers of Family Medicine, on the editorial boards of the Journal of Family Practice and of Family Medicine (Oxford), and the coordinator of the Cochrane Primary Health Care Field. Rachel E. Behrman, M.D., M.P.H., is the associate commissioner for clini- cal programs and director of the Office of Critical Path Programs of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). In that capacity, she is responsible for developing, coordinating, and implementing policy and scientific pro- grams aimed at innovating development and regulation of FDA-regulated products. She also oversees the Good Clinical Practice Program, which coordinates FDA policies on human subject protection and bioresearch monitoring. Dr. Behrman joined the FDA in 1989 and has held a number of positions in the Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, including medical reviewer and team leader in the Division of Antiviral Drug Prod- ucts and deputy director of the Office of Medical Policy. Dr. Behrman is a board-certified internist and infectious disease subspecialist and a fellow of the American College of Physicians. She received her A.B. in mathematics from Washington University, her M.D. from Mt. Sinai School of Medicine, and her M.P.H. from the Johns Hopkins School of Hygiene and Public Health. Jesse A. Berlin, Sc.D., received his doctorate in biostatistics from the Har- vard School of Public Health in 1988. In 1989 he joined the faculty at the University of Pennsylvania, in a unit that became the Center for Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, under the direction of Dr. Brian Strom. Dr. Berlin spent several years as director of biostatistics for the University of Pennsylvania Cancer Center, followed by assuming the role of faculty direc- tor of the Biostatistics and Epidemiology Consulting Center. At the end of the summer of 2004, Dr. Berlin left Penn to join Johnson & Johnson Phar- maceutical Research and Development, where he is currently vice president of pharmaco-epidemiology. He has authored or coauthored over 220 pub- lications in a wide variety of clinical and methodological areas. Dr. Berlin has a great deal of experience in both the application of meta-analysis and the study of meta-analytic methods as applied to both randomized trials and epidemiology. He has served as a consultant on meta-analysis for the Australian government, and has served on two Institute of Medicine (IOM)

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 APPENDIX G committees examining the association between exposure to chemicals con- tained in Agent Orange and risk of a wide variety of diseases. Eugene H. Blackstone, M.D., is full-time head of clinical investigations at the Cleveland Clinic Heart and Vascular Institute (HVI) and a staff member at the Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, Quantitative Health Sciences, and Transplant Center. He is also a member of the HVI Executive Committee. In addition to generating new knowledge from clini- cal experiences, his specialty interests include novel mathematical models for analyzing time-related and longitudinal clinical outcomes, digital signal processing, mathematical models of the circulatory system, and seman- tic knowledgebase/database technology. He received undergraduate and medical degrees from the University of Chicago, followed by a research fellowship in mathematics, computer science, and statistics. He completed his medical internship at the University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB) and served for 3 years as chief of the cardiovascular medicine branch at the U.S. Army Aeromedical Research Laboratory. He joined the UAB cardiac surgery faculty in 1972 as a full-time physician investigator and became the Cardiovascular Surgical Research Professor of Surgery in 1980. A major culmination of Dr. Blackstone’s activities is the textbook Cardiac Surgery, now in its third edition. He joined the Cleveland Clinic in 1997 to head a multidisciplinary clinical research team focused on ischemic and valvar heart diseases, heart rhythm disturbances, heart failure, and benign and malignant diseases of the esophagus and lungs. He also leads a team of computer scientists in developing a novel semantic approach to data stor- age and use. Since 1987, Dr. Blackstone has been associate editor of the Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery. He has published over 450 articles and has received numerous awards, including a Distinguished Service Award from the University of Chicago in 1998 and the Maria and Sam Miller Professional Excellence Award for Scientific Achievement in Clinical Research in 2003. He is professor of surgery at the University of Toronto and at the Cleveland Clinic Lerner College of Medicine of Case Western Reserve University. Carmella A. Bocchino, R.N., M.B.A., is a leading authority on identifying and promoting medical management strategies that advance public health goals and improve the overall quality of health care. As executive vice presi- dent of clinical affairs and strategic planning at America’s Health Insurance Plans, Ms. Bocchino works with the executives of member organizations to develop innovative patient-centered medical management tools and clinical delivery models, foster private–public partnerships and advance an inter- connected health care system. A registered professional nurse and former hospital administrator, Ms. Bocchino’s clinical and public policy expertise

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2 LEARNING WHAT WORKS has been widely recognized by national and state lawmakers, policy mak- ers, patient advocacy groups, employers, and throughout the health care community. She has been appointed to numerous private, state, and federal healthcare advisory committees, including the IOM Study of the Medicare End-Stage Renal Disease program, advisor to the RAND Health Sciences Program for the capitation study for the end-stage renal disease project, the Advisory Committee for Quality Improvement Standards for Managed Care, the planning committee establishing the National Quality Forum, and the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation (RWJF) Office of the National Coor- dinator for Health Information Technology Health Information Technology Adoption Initiative Expert Consensus Panel. She currently serves on the RWJF National Advisory Committee of Project Health Design: Rethinking the Power and Potential of Personal Health Records. Ms. Bocchino received her M.B.A. from Rutgers University, Graduate School of Management (Newark, NJ). She also has an undergraduate degree in human resources management from Upsala College and a nursing degree from Mountainside Hospital School of Nursing. Prior to her positions in health policy, Ms. Bocchino held administrative and clinical positions in critical care medicine and renal replacement therapy. Kathleen A. Buto, M.P.A., is vice president for health policy, government affairs, at Johnson & Johnson. She has responsibility for providing policy analysis and developing positions on a wide range of issues, including the Medicare drug benefit, government reimbursement, coverage of new technologies, and regulatory requirements. In addition to reviewing how federal, state, and international government policies affect Johnson & John- son products and customers, she is responsible for helping identify areas of opportunity for Johnson & Johnson to take leadership in shaping health- care policy. Prior to joining Johnson & Johnson, Ms. Buto was a senior health advisor at the Congressional Budget Office, helping to develop the cost models for the Medicare drug benefit. Before that, she spent more than 18 years in senior positions at the Health Care Financing Administration, including deputy director of the Center for Health Plans and Providers, and associate administrator for policy. In these positions, she headed the policy, reimbursement, research, and coverage functions for the agency, as well as managing Medicare’s fee-for-service and managed care operations. Ms. Buto received her B.A. from Douglass College and her M.P.A. from Harvard University. Timothy S. Carey, M.D., M.P.H., was named director of the Cecil G. Sheps Center for Health Services Research in October 2000. A Sheps Center fellow and University of North Carolina (UNC) at Chapel Hill faculty member since 1986, Dr. Carey is a physician and health services researcher

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 APPENDIX G with interests related to evidence-based medicine, access to care, health disparities, and medical outcomes. Several of his current research projects examine technology assessment, including the benefits and disadvantages of tube feedings in the frail elderly. He has also conducted a number of studies to examine the outcomes of care for low back pain, and he is codirector of the joint Research Triangle Institute/UNC Evidence-Based Practice Center examining the strength of the literature on a variety of medical and health policy topics. Dr. Carey is a Sarah Graham Kenan Professor in the depart- ments of medicine and social medicine at UNC at Chapel Hill and was chief of the Division of General Medicine and Clinical Epidemiology at the UNC at Chapel Hill School of Medicine from 1991 to 2000. He is a frequent federal reviewer and has served as a member of the IOM’s Monitoring Panel on Access to Care. He teaches at both the UNC schools of medicine and public health. Benjamin K. Chu, M.D., M.P.H., is the Southern California regional presi- dent for Kaiser Foundation Health Plan and Hospitals, the nation’s largest integrated health system, serving 8.7 million members in 10 states. His region is responsible for the care of 3.3 million patients. Before joining Kaiser, Dr. Chu was the president of the New York City Health and Hos- pitals Corporation, the largest municipal hospital system in the country, serving 1.3 million New York City residents with 11 hospitals, 5 skilled nursing facilities, and scores of outpatient facilities. Dr. Chu is an internist by training and has served as an associate dean and vice president for clinical affairs for the New York University (NYU) School of Medicine and as a senior associate dean for the Columbia College of Physicians and Surgeons. His experience with graduate medical education on the policy level, as the accountable executive for residency training programs in a large city hospital, and his experience working directly with medi- cal students and residents—combined with his work with health systems’ transformation—give him a unique perspective on the changes that will be needed in workforce training to adapt to a patient-centered, evidenced- based healthcare system. Don E. Detmer, M.D., M.A., is president and chief executive officer of the American Medical Informatics Association. He is also professor of medical education in the Department of Public Health Sciences at the University of Virginia, and visiting professor at the Centre for Health Informatics and Multiprofessional Education, University College of London. Dr. Detmer is a member of the IOM as well as a lifetime associate of the National Academies. He is a fellow of American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) as well as the American Colleges of Medical Informat- ics, Sports Medicine, and Surgeons. In addition to co-chairing the Blue

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 LEARNING WHAT WORKS Ridge Academic Health Group, he chairs the board of MedBiquitous. He is treasurer of the Council of Medical Specialty Societies. Dr. Detmer is past chairman of the Board on Health Care Services of the IOM, the National Committee on Vital and Health Statistics, and the Board of Regents of the National Library of Medicine. He was a commissioner on the President’s recent Commission on Systemic Interoperability. He chaired the 1991 IOM study, The Computer-Based Patient Record, and coedited the 1997 version of the same report. He was a member of the committee that developed the IOM reports To Error Is Human and Crossing the Quality Chasm. From 1999 to 2003 he was the Dennis Gillings Professor of Health Management at Cambridge University and is a lifetime member of Clare Hall College, Cambridge. His education includes a M.D. from the University of Kansas with subsequent training at the National Institutes of Health, the Johns Hopkins Hospital, Duke University Medical Center, the IOM, and Harvard Business School. His M.A. is from the University of Cambridge. Carol C. Diamond, M.D., M.P.H., is the managing director of the Health Program of the Markle Foundation and chairs Connecting for Health, a public–private collaborative working to realize the full potential of informa- tion technology in health and health care in the United States. Connecting for Health engages more than 100 diverse organizations and institutions in an approach rooted in core values, including achieving medical excellence, fostering patient participation, and protecting personal privacy. Before joining the Markle Foundation, Dr. Diamond was president of U.S. Qual- ity Algorithms (USQA), Aetna U.S. Healthcare’s performance measurement affiliate. Prior to joining USQA, Dr. Diamond was a consultant for John- son & Johnson Health Care Systems and the RWJF. Dr. Diamond sits on the American Academy of Family Physicians Public Advisory Board, the Electronic Health Record Safety Institute Advisory Board of the Geisinger Center for Health Research, and is a member of the IPRO Advisory Board for the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) Doctor’s Office Quality-Information Technology project in New York. Dr. Diamond earned her dual B.A./M.D. at the Medical School of SUNY at Brooklyn and her M.P.H. at the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey of Rut- gers University. T. Bruce Ferguson, Jr., M.D., is chairman of the Department of Cardiovas- cular Sciences at the East Carolina Heart Institute and the Brody School of Medicine at East Carolina University. He is a board-certified cardiotho- racic surgeon who specializes in adult cardiothoracic surgery. He came to North Carolina from Louisiana, where he was Chief of Cardiac Surgery at Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center in New Orleans prior to Hurricane Katrina. While in Louisiana, he received funding from the Trans-

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 APPENDIX G forming Healthcare Quality through Information Technology program of the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) to begin develop- ment of a longitudinal cardiovascular information system for the statewide Charity Hospital System population. He served for 6 years as the inaugural chair of the Society of Thoracic Surgeons Council on Quality, Research, and Patient Safety, which oversees all aspects of the society’s national data- base efforts, in collaboration with the Duke Clinical Research Institute. He was principal investigator on the society’s two clinical trials in quality improvement from 1999 through 2007, funded by AHRQ; this effort also led to the creation of the National Consortium of Clinical Databases. He is currently coprincipal investigator on the combined Duke–East Carolina University Clinical Site for the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Cardiac Surgical Network, and he is principal investigator for the Clinical Research Skills Development Core. He is a fellow of the American Heart Association and is a member of the Quality Strategic Directions Commit- tee and the Surgical Council for the American College of Cardiology. He received his degree in chemistry from Williams College, and received his M.D. degree from Washington University in St. Louis. He completed his training in general surgery and cardiothoracic surgery at Duke University Medical Center. Daniel E. Ford, M.D., M.P.H., is a graduate of Cornell University and SUNY at Buffalo School of Medicine. He completed his internal medicine residency at the Johns Hopkins Hospital and received an M.P.H. from the Johns Hopkins School of Public Health. From 1985 to 1988 he was a fellow at the National Institute of Mental Health. He currently is the David M. Levine Professor of Medicine and Psychiatry at Johns Hopkins School of Medicine. Until he was appointed the vice dean for clinical investigation in 2005, he had been the director of the University Health Service since 1992. In 2007 he was appointed as director of the Johns Hopkins Institute for Clinical and Translational Research. Dr. Ford is one of the investigators that first documented the link between depression and subsequent heart disease. He has authored over 140 articles and book chapters. He has worked for many years on improving the quality of care for mental disorders in pri- mary care and general medical settings. He was one of the coleaders for the Institute for Health Care Improvement Bureau of Primary Care Depression Collaborative. In addition, he currently is leading the evaluation for the RWJF Depression in Primary Care Program. Mark E. Frisse, M.D., M.B.A., M.Sc., is a professor of biomedical informat- ics at Vanderbilt University. Working through the office of the Governor of the State of Tennessee he directs a federal- and state-sponsored health infor- mation exchange in the greater Memphis area with over 2 million records

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 LEARNING WHAT WORKS covering the care of over 1 million individuals. He is active in a number of Markle Foundation efforts and served as a co-chair of the Connecting for Health Common Framework policy group developing model data- sharing agreements. He is a participant in the RWJF Project HealthDesign personal health records initiative. Dr. Frisse has worked in the academic sector, in consulting, and in pharmacy benefits management. He has served as a board member of the American Medical Informatics Association, the eHealth Initiative, the State of Tennessee Governor’s eHealth Task Force, and SureScripts, LLC. Jean Paul Gagnon, Ph.D., is director of public policy at sanofi-aventis in Bridgewater, New Jersey. He received a B.S. in pharmacy and a M.S. in pharmacy administration from the University of Connecticut and a Ph.D. in pharmacy administration from Ohio State University. He is a former professor and division head of pharmacy administration in the School of Pharmacy at UNC and has worked for sanofi-aventis for 17 years. He has written over 60 articles in peer-reviewed journals and has made presenta- tions on a variety of issues, including Medicare, Part D, evidence-based medicine, and the effect of federal policy on the pharmaceutical industry and pharmacy practice. In 2002 he received the American Public Health Association Hugo H. Schaefer Award for outstanding volunteer contribu- tions to the profession of pharmacy. From 1981 to 1982, he was an RWJF Health Policy Fellow in Washington, DC, and worked as a committee staff person on Energy and Commerce’s Subcommittee on Health. He was chair- man of the Health Outcomes Committee of the Pharmaceutical Research Manufacturers of America from 1997 until 2001, president of the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy for the 1985–1986 year, served as treasurer and a board of trustee member of the American Pharmaceutical Association from 1991 until 1997, served as president of the International Association of Pharmaco-economics and Outcomes Research from 1996 until 1997 and was their treasurer from 1998 until 2004, and was a mem- ber of the board of trustees and treasurer for the U.S. Pharmacopeia from 1995 until 2005. Stuart Guterman, Ph.D., has been senior program director for the Com- monwealth Fund’s Program on Medicare’s Future since May 2005. He is responsible for the fund’s research agenda on Medicare issues. He was director of the Office of Research, Development, and Information at CMS from 2002 to 2005, where he was responsible for research on Medicare and Medicaid issues, evaluation of Medicare and Medicaid programs, and developing, implementing, and conducting Medicare demonstrations. Prior to that Dr. Guterman was a senior analyst at the Congressional Budget Office, a principal research associate in the Health Policy Cen-

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 APPENDIX G ter at the Urban Institute, and deputy director of the Medicare Payment Advisory Commission (MedPAC) (and its predecessor, the Prospective Pay- ment Assessment Commission) from 1988 through 1999. Previously, Dr. Guterman was chief of institutional studies in the Health Care Financing Administration’s Office of Research. Bruce H. Hamory, M.D., is executive vice president and chief medical officer emeritus for Geisinger Health System. As such, he oversees the research activities of the Weis Center for Research and the Hood Center for Health Research as well as the medical education programs for the health system. As Geisinger’s system chief medical officer from 1997 to 2008, he was responsible for guiding the activities of a 740-member multispecialty physician group practice in 40 locations serving 41 counties and the 3 Geisinger hospitals. These activities included compensation, quality and performance improvement, credentialing, research, and education. As one of the executive leaders for the system, he was involved directly in clinical operations, capital planning, and other issues for the clinic and the health system. Dr. Hamory is on the board of directors for the American Medical Group Association and serves on several national committees and panels concerned with improving the quality of medical care. W. David Helms, Ph.D., is president and chief executive officer of AcademyHealth in Washington, DC, the professional society for health services researchers, policy analysts, and practitioners and a leading, non- partisan resource for the best in health research and policy. Its programs are dedicated to stimulating the development, understanding, and use of the best available health services research and health policy information by public and private decision makers. In addition to leading AcademyHealth, Dr. Helms serves as president and chief executive officer of the Coalition of Health Services, AcademyHealth’s advocacy arm. The coalition provides a unified voice for enhanced federal funding of health services research and health data to inform health policy and practice. William R. Hersh, M.D., is professor and chair of the Department of Medi- cal Informatics and Clinical Epidemiology in the School of Medicine at Oregon Health and Science University (OHSU) in Portland, Oregon. He is a leader and innovator in biomedical informatics both in education and research. Dr. Hersh has performed research in biomedical informatics in a number of areas. A current major interest of his is the health information technology (HIT) workforce, focusing on the personnel, their skills, and their training for implementing, innovating, and evaluating systems. Dr. Hersh is also active in clinical and translational research informatics. He serves as director of the biomedical informatics program of the Oregon

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 LEARNING WHAT WORKS Clinical and Translational Research Institute and is chair of the National Informatics Steering Committee of the Clinical and Translational Science Awards program of the National Institutes of Health (NIH). His origi- nal focus of research was in the area of information retrieval, where he has authored over 100 scientific papers as well as the book, Information Retrieval: A Health & Biomedical Perspective. In education, Dr. Hersh serves as director of informatics educational programs at OHSU, where he has led the development of educational programs at the certificate, master’s, and doctoral levels. He also initiated OHSU’s efforts into distance learning for biomedical informatics. Most recently, he teamed up with the American Medical Informatics Association to launch the 10x10 program that aims to train 10,000 clinicians and others in informatics by the year 2010. David H. Hickam, M.D., M.P.H., holds the rank of professor in the Depart- ment of Medicine at OHSU. He is a health services researcher and is director of the John M. Eisenberg Center at OHSU. He also serves as coprincipal investigator of the Health Services Research and Development Service Research Enhancement Award Program at the Portland Department of Veteran Affairs Medical Center. His research interests include clinical decision making, practice variation in both primary care and specialty set- tings, and patients’ perceptions of their health care. The Eisenberg Center is part of the Effective Health Care Program of AHRQ and is charged with developing practical tools to assist consumers, clinicians, and policy makers in using clinical evidence for their decision making. This work uses a rigorous method of evidence translation and a product development process based on obtaining the perspectives of end users through qualita- tive research methods. Dr. Hickam directs an interdisciplinary team and has performed evidence translations on 15 clinical topics commissioned by AHRQ. Dr. Hickam was formerly a member of the editorial board of Medical Decision Making. Erin Holve, Ph.D., M.P.H., M.P.P., is a senior manager at AcademyHealth. Dr. Holve heads AcademyHealth’s work in professional development and continuing education, with a specific focus on analytic methods used in health services research. Prior to joining AcademyHealth, she worked as a consultant to AcademyHealth, creating the online methods resource, and she was part of the initial team that drafted core competencies for doctoral training in health services research. Previously, she worked for the Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation as a senior policy analyst studying employer- sponsored health insurance and developed the online resource State Health Facts Online. She has also worked for the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) on the Health Insurance Portability and Account- ability Act and has consulted for local, regional, and national health policy organizations. She holds a Ph.D. in health services research from the Bloom-

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9 APPENDIX G berg School of Public Health at Johns Hopkins University and master’s degrees in public health and public policy from the UC at Berkeley. Richard A. Justman, M.D., is national medical director of UnitedHealth- care, a national health service delivery company. He works in the clinical advancement division. Dr. Justman is accountable for medical technology assessment, clinical support of pharmacy programs, and clinical support of benefit administration. He has been with UnitedHealthcare since 1993. He received his bachelor’s degree from Cornell University and his M.D. degree from SUNY at Buffalo. He is board certified in pediatrics and received his postgraduate training at the University of Chicago Hospitals and Clinics and the Johns Hopkins Hospital. Dr. Justman practiced pediatrics in Min- neapolis, Minnesota, for 15 years before joining UnitedHealthcare. He has served on the IOM Forum on Drug Discovery, Development, and Transla- tion; the IOM Committee to Identify Highly Effective Clinical Services; the American Medical Association (AMA) Current Procedural Terminology codes-5 Project; the AMA Initiative to Transform Medical Education; and an expert panel developing an evidence report on diabetes education for children with type I diabetes, commissioned by AHRQ. Dr. Justman served on the AHRQ Stakeholders Panel for 2008 and 2009. He speaks frequently to external audiences on the use of clinical evidence to determine the safety and effectiveness of new and emerging medical treatments. Douglas B. Kamerow, M.D., M.P.H., is a chief scientist at RTI Interna- tional, a not-for-profit research company based in Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, where he leads research and evaluation projects in the areas of health policy, childhood obesity, preventive medicine, and evidence- based practice. Dr. Kamerow was formerly director of several key programs at AHRQ, including the Center for Practice and Technology Assessment and the Office of the Forum for Quality and Effectiveness in Health Care. He retired from the Public Health Service Commissioned Corps in 2001 with the rank of assistant surgeon general. He is a family physician and preventive medicine specialist with clinical, public health, and epidemio- logic training. Dr. Kamerow is presently associate editor of BMJ (formerly British Medical Journal), for whom he writes a regular column on health policy issues; he previously served for 2 years as the BMJ’s U.S. editor. He is also a healthcare commentator for All Things Considered on National Public Radio. Finally, Dr. Kamerow is professor of clinical family medicine at Georgetown University in Washington, DC, where he teaches medical students and family medicine residents. Mark B. McClellan, M.D., Ph.D., became the director of the Engelberg Center for Healthcare Reform at the Brookings Institution in July 2007. The center studies ways to provide practical solutions for access, quality,

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0 LEARNING WHAT WORKS and financing challenges facing the U.S. healthcare system. In addition, Dr. McClellan is the Leonard D. Schaeffer Chair in Health Policy Studies. Dr. McClellan has a highly distinguished record in public service and in aca- demic research. He is the former administrator for CMS (2004 to 2006) and the former commissioner of the FDA (2002 to 2004). He also served as a member of the President’s Council of Economic Advisers and senior director for healthcare policy at the White House (2001 to 2002). In these positions, he developed and implemented major reforms in health policy. Dr. McClellan was also an associate professor of economics and associate professor of medicine (with tenure) at Stanford University, from which he was on leave during his government service. He directed Stanford’s Program on Health Outcomes Research and was also associate editor of the Jour- nal of Health Economics and coprincipal investigator of the Health and Retirement Study, a longitudinal study of the health and economic status of older Americans. His academic research has been concerned with the effectiveness of medical treatments in improving health, the economic and policy factors influencing medical treatment decisions and health outcomes, the impact of new technologies on public health and medical expenditures, and the relationship between health status and economic well-being. Dr. McClellan is a member of the IOM of the National Academy of Sciences and a research associate of the National Bureau of Economic Research. A graduate of the University of Texas at Austin, Dr. McClellan earned his M.P.A. from Harvard’s Kennedy School of Government in 1991, his M.D. from the Harvard–Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Division of Health Sciences and Technology in 1992, and his Ph.D. in economics from MIT in 1993. J. Michael McGinnis, M.D., M.P.P., is a long-time contributor to national and international health policy leadership, now senior scholar at the IOM, and executive director of the IOM Roundtable on Evidence-Based Medi- cine. He is also an elected member of the IOM. He previously was senior vice president at the RWJF, and, unusual for political posts, held continu- ous appointment through the Carter, Reagan, Bush, and Clinton admin- istrations, with responsibility for coordinating activities and policies in disease prevention and health promotion. Programs and policies created and launched at his initiative include the Healthy People process for set- ting national health objectives, the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force, the Dietary Guidelines for Americans (with the U.S. Department of Agri- culture), the Ten Essential Services of Public Health, the RWJF Health and Society Scholars Program, the RWJF Young Epidemiology Scholars Program, and the RWJF Active Living family of programs. Internationally, he chaired the World Bank/European Commission Task Force on postwar

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 APPENDIX G reconstruction of the health sector in Bosnia and worked both as field epidemiologist and state coordinator for the World Health Organization’s successful smallpox eradication program in India. Robert H. Miller, Ph.D., is professor of health economics in residence at the Institute for Health and Aging and in the Department of Social and Behav- ioral Sciences at UC at San Francisco. He received his doctorate in econom- ics from the University of Michigan in 1987 and has been a faculty member since 1989. Dr. Miller conducts research on the economics of HIT and organizational change in ambulatory care settings, including health policy- oriented research on electronic health records (EHRs), patient–provider e-health capabilities, and community-wide electronic clinical data exchange. Dr. Miller is especially interested in EHR use for quality improvement in solo/small groups and community health centers. Dr. Miller is a member of the Joint Commission’s HIT Advisory Panel and Lemetra’s Quality Improvement Advisory Committee, was a member of the Connecting for Health Working Group on the economics of HIT, and is serving and has served as a member on HIT expert panels. Dr. Miller also has published on such topics as health maintenance organization (HMO) versus non-HMO plan performance, efforts by large medical groups to reduce medical inju- ries, the effects of managed care on physician practice change, as well as on acute and long-term care services for chronically impaired elders. Nancy H. Nielsen, M.D., Ph.D., is an internist from Buffalo, New York, and current president of the AMA. She was elected speaker of the AMA House of Delegates in June 2003 and reelected in 2005. She is a delegate from New York and previously served two terms on the AMA Council on Scientific Affairs. Dr. Nielsen has also served as a member on the National Patient Safety Foundation Board of Directors, the Commission for the Pre- vention of Youth Violence, the Task Force on Quality and Patient Safety, the HHS Secretary’s Advisory Committee on Regulatory Reform, and as the AMA representative to the National Quality Forum, Physicians Con- sortium for Performance Improvement, the Hospital Quality Alliance, and the Ambulatory Care Quality Alliance. She holds a Ph.D. in microbiology and received her M.D. from the SUNY School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences in Buffalo, where she is clinical professor of medicine and senior associate dean for medical education. She has served as a trustee of SUNY and as a member of the board of directors of Kaleida Health—a five- hospital system in western New York. She is currently associate medical director for quality and interim chief medical officer at Independent Health Association, a major health insurer in New York.

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2 LEARNING WHAT WORKS Parashar B. Patel, M.P.A., joined Boston Scientific Corporation as vice president of health economics and reimbursement for the Healthcare Strate- gies and Programs group in 2003. Dr. Patel is responsible for the company’s corporate and site health economics and reimbursement functions, chiefly focusing on the development and implementation of global strategic, reim- bursement, and legislative initiatives. He is also closely involved in health economics analysis and outcomes research for the company. Prior to join- ing, Dr. Patel was deputy director of the Hospital and Ambulatory Policy Group in the Center for Medicare Management at CMS. The group was responsible for Medicare payment policy for a wide range of acute and ambulatory care services, including inpatient and outpatient hospital ser- vices and physician services. He has extensive experience in healthcare financing policy through his work with the American Association of Health Plans, the Office of (then) Senate Majority Leader George J. Mitchell, the U.S. Office of Management and Budget, and Connecticut’s Medicaid agency. He holds a B.A. in political science and a master of public affairs from the University of Connecticut. Steve E. Phurrough, M.D., M.P.A., C.P.E., is the director of the coverage and analysis group for CMS. Using evidence-based medicine principles, he assists in developing national policy on the appropriate devices, diagnos- tics, and procedures that should be provided by the Medicare program. Dr. Phurrough joined CMS in 2001 as the director of the division of medical and surgical services in the coverage and analysis group after completing a long and distinguished career in the U.S. Army. In addition to being a practicing family practitioner, his military career also included manag- ing Department of Defense regional healthcare delivery systems, creating national and international healthcare policy for the U.S. Army, and devel- oping practice guidelines. Dr. Phurrough received his M.D. from the UAB and an M.P.A. from the University of Colorado in Colorado Springs. He is board certified by the American Board of Family Practice and is a certified physician executive. William Z. Potter, M.D., Ph.D., earned his degrees at Indiana University, after which he functioned in positions of increasing responsibility and seniority over the next 25 years at the NIH focused on translational neuro- science. While at the NIH, Dr. Potter was widely published and appointed to many societies, committees, and boards, a role that enabled him to develop a wide reputation as an expert in psychopharmacological sciences and championing the development of novel treatments for central nervous system (CNS) disorders. Dr. Potter left the NIH in 1996 to accept a posi- tion as executive director and research fellow at Lilly Research Laborato-

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 APPENDIX G ries, specializing in the neuroscience therapeutic area and in 2004 joined Merck Research Laboratories as vice president of clinical neuroscience, then the newly created position of translational neuroscience in 2006. His experience at Lilly and Merck in identifying, expanding, and developing methods of evaluating CNS effects of compounds in human brain cover state-of-the-art approaches across multiple modalities. These include brain imaging and cerebrospinal fluid proteomics (plus metabolomics), as well as the development of more sensitive clinical, psychophysiological, and perfor- mance measures that allow a range of novel targets to be tested in a manner that actually addresses the underlying hypotheses. Dr. Potter has become a widely recognized champion for the position that more disciplined hypoth- esis testing of targets in humans is the best near-term approach to moving CNS drug development forward. John W. Rowe, M.D., is currently a professor in the Department of Health Policy and Management at the Columbia University Mailman School of Public Health. From 2000 until his retirement in late 2006, Dr. Rowe served as chairman and chief executive officer of Aetna, Inc., one of the nation’s leading health care and related benefits organizations. Before his tenure at Aetna, from 1998 to 2000, Dr. Rowe served as president and chief executive officer of Mount Sinai–NYU Health, one of the nation’s largest academic healthcare organizations. From 1988 to 1998, prior to the Mount Sinai–NYU Health merger, Dr. Rowe was president of the Mount Sinai Hospital and the Mount Sinai School of Medicine in New York City. Before joining Mount Sinai, he was a professor of medicine and the founding director of the Division on Aging at the Harvard Medical School, as well as chief of gerontology at Boston’s Beth Israel Hospital. He has authored over 200 scientific publications, mostly on the physiology of the aging process, including a leading textbook of geriatric medicine, in addition to more recent publications on healthcare policy. Dr. Rowe has received many honors and awards for his research and health policy efforts regard- ing care of elderly people. He was director of the MacArthur Foundation Research Network on Successful Aging and is coauthor, with Dr. Robert Kahn, of Successful Aging (Pantheon, 1998). Dr. Rowe currently leads the MacArthur Foundation’s Initiative on an Aging Society. He was elected a member of the IOM and a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. In addition, Dr. Rowe is a former member of MedPAC. He is also chairman of the board of trustees at the University of Connecticut and the Marine Biological Laboratory in Woods Hole, Massachusetts. Richard N. Shiffman, M.D., M.C.I.S., is professor of pediatrics and asso- ciate director of the Center for Medical Informatics at Yale School of Medicine. Dr. Shiffman is a fellow of the American College of Medical

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 LEARNING WHAT WORKS Informatics and the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP). Dr. Shiffman serves on the AAP’s Partners for Policy Implementation. He has served on several guideline development panels for national professional societies and on the AAP’s Steering Committee on Quality Improvement and Manage- ment. In addition, Dr. Shiffman leads the GuideLines Into DEcision Sup- port Project—an AHRQ-sponsored collaboration that is demonstrating transparent, systematic, and replicable processes for transforming guideline knowledge into computer-mediated decision support. Jean R. Slutsky, P.A., M.S.P.H., has directed the Center for Outcomes and Evidence (COE) at AHRQ since June 2003. Prior to Ms. Slutsky’s appointment as director of COE, she served as acting director of the Cen- ter for Practice and Technology Assessment at AHRQ. Most recently, Ms. Slutsky has implemented a comparative effectiveness research program that includes evidence synthesis, evidence generation, and evidence communica- tion. The Effective Health Care Program is authorized under Section 1013 of the Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act. Ms. Slutsky oversees the Evidence-Based Practice Center Program; Technol- ogy Assessment Program; extramural and intramural research portfolios concerning translating research into practice, outcomes, and effectiveness research, including pharmaceutical outcomes, and cost-effectiveness anal- yses; and the National Guideline, Quality Measures, and QualityTools Clearinghouses. She is a vice chair of the Guidelines International Network and a member of the editorial board of Implementation Science. Prior to becoming acting director of the Center for Practice and Technology Assess- ment, Ms. Slutsky served as project director of the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force, an internationally recognized panel of experts who make evi- dence-based recommendations on clinical preventive services. Ms. Slutsky received her Bachelor of Science degree at the University of Iowa, a Master’s of Science in Public Health (health policy and administration) from UNC at Chapel Hill, and trained as a physician assistant at the University of Southern California. Donald M. Steinwachs, Ph.D., is a professor in the Department of Health Policy and Management and director of the Health Services Research and Development Center at the Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health. Dr. Steinwachs’s research seeks to identify opportunities to improve quality of health care and patient outcomes and, when fea- sible, evaluate promising quality improvement interventions. His previous research includes studies of medical effectiveness and patient outcomes for individuals with specific medical (e.g., asthma), surgical (e.g., cataract sur- gery), and psychiatric (e.g., schizophrenia) conditions. Dr. Steinwachs has contributed to the literature on the impact of managed care and payments

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 APPENDIX G systems on access to care, quality, utilization, and cost. He was a codevel- oper of the widely used adjusted clinical groups case mix adjustment. He has developed methods for measuring provider continuity, needs and unmet needs for care, and measures of the timeliness of care. He has a particular interest in the role of routine management information systems (MIS) as source of data for evaluating the effectiveness and cost of health care. This includes work on the integration of outcomes management systems with existing MIS in managed care settings. He is a member of the IOM and its Board of Health Care Services. A member of the National Committee on Vital and Health Statistics since 2002, he chairs the Subcommittee on Populations and serves on the executive committee. He also serves on the board of Mathematica Policy Research, Inc. Dr. Steinwachs holds a B.S. in engineering mathematics and an M.S. in systems engineering from the Uni- versity of Arizona and a Ph.D. in operations research from Johns Hopkins University. Robert J. Temple, M.D., is director of the Office of Medical Policy of the FDA’s Center for Drug Evaluation and Research and is also acting director of the Office of Drug Evaluation I (ODE-I). ODE-I is responsible for the regulation of cardio-renal, neuropharmacologic and psychopharmacologic drug products. The Office of Medical Policy is responsible for regulation of promotion through the Division of Drug Marketing, Advertising, and Communication and for assessing quality of clinical trials. Dr. Temple has a long-standing interest in the design and conduct of clinical trials and has written extensively on this subject, especially on the choice of control groups in clinical trials, evaluation of active control trials, trials to evaluate dose–response, and trials using “enrichment” designs. Sean R. Tunis, M.D., M.Sc., is the founder and director of the Center for Medical Technology Policy in San Francisco, where he works with healthcare decision makers, experts, and stakeholders to improve the value of clinical research on new and existing medical technologies. He con- sults with a range of domestic and international healthcare organizations on issues of comparative effectiveness, evidence-based medicine, clinical research, and technology policy. Through September 2005, Dr. Tunis was the director of the Office of Clinical Standards and Quality and chief medi- cal officer at CMS. In this role, he had lead responsibility for clinical policy and quality for the Medicare and Medicaid programs, which provide health coverage to over 100 million U.S. citizens. Dr. Tunis supervised the devel- opment of national coverage policies, quality standards for Medicare and Medicaid providers, quality measurement and public reporting initiatives, and the Quality Improvement Organization program. As chief medical officer, Dr. Tunis served as the senior advisor to the CMS administrator

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 LEARNING WHAT WORKS on clinical and scientific policy. He also co-chaired the CMS Council on Technology and Innovation. Dr. Tunis joined CMS in 2000 as the director of the Coverage and Analysis Group. Before joining CMS, Dr. Tunis was a senior research scientist with the Technology Assessment Group, where his focus was on the design and implementation of prospective compara- tive effectiveness trials and clinical registries. Dr. Tunis also served as the director of the health program at the Congressional Office of Technology Assessment and as a health policy advisor to the U.S. Senate Committee on Labor and Human Resources, where he participated in policy develop- ment regarding pharmaceutical and device regulation. He received a B.S. degree in biology and history of science from the Cornell University School of Agriculture, and an M.D. and M.A. in health services research from the Stanford University School of Medicine. Dr. Tunis did his residency training at UC at Los Angeles and the University of Maryland in emergency medi- cine and internal medicine. He is board certified in internal medicine and holds adjunct faculty positions at Johns Hopkins and Stanford University schools of medicine. Steven A. Wartman, M.D., Ph.D., M.A.C.P., became the third president of the Association of Academic Health Centers, based in Washington, DC, in July 2005. Before assuming this position, he was the executive vice presi- dent for academic and health affairs and dean of the school of medicine at the University of Texas Health Science Center in San Antonio. Prior to his tenure in San Antonio, Dr. Wartman held a number of other positions in academic medicine, including the Edward Meilman Distinguished Chair- man of Medicine and physician-in-chief at Long Island Jewish Medical Center and professor of medicine at Albert Einstein College of Medicine. Dr. Wartman began his career at Brown University and Rhode Island Hos- pital where he founded the Division of General Internal Medicine and the General Internal Medicine Residency Program. A graduate of Cornell Uni- versity, Dr. Wartman received both his M.D. and Ph.D. degrees from Johns Hopkins University. He was an RWJF Clinical Scholar at Johns Hopkins, a Henry Luce Scholar in Indonesia, and is a past president of the Society of General Internal Medicine. He is a board-certified internist, a sociologist, and a master of the American College of Physicians. His publications and interests lie in the areas of the structure and function of academic health centers, healthcare delivery, health policy, medical education, and academic leadership. He currently is a distinguished professor in the Department of Medicine at Georgetown University and is an adjunct professor of medicine at George Washington and Johns Hopkins universities. Gail R. Wilensky, Ph.D., is an economist and a senior fellow at Project HOPE who analyzes and develops policies relating to healthcare reform

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 APPENDIX G and to ongoing changes in the healthcare environment. Dr. Wilensky is a commissioner on the World Health Organization’s Commission on the Social Determinants of Health and an elected member of the IOM of the National Academies where she served two terms on its governing council, is vice chair of the Maryland Health Care Commission, and serves as a trustee of the Combined Benefits Fund of the United Mineworkers of America and the National Opinion Research Center. She is an advisor to the RWJF and the Commonwealth Fund, past chair of the board of directors of AcademyHealth, and director on several corporate boards. From 1990 until 1992 she was administrator of the Health Care Financing Administration, directing the Medicare and Medicaid programs. She also served as deputy assistant to President George H.W. Bush for policy development, advis- ing him on health and welfare issues from 1992 to 1993. From 1997 to 2001 she chaired MedPAC, which advises Congress on payment and other issues relating to Medicare, and from 1995 to 1997 she chaired the Physi- cian Payment Review Commission. From 2001 to 2003 she co-chaired the President’s Task Force to Improve Health Care Delivery for Our Nation’s Veterans, which covered health care for both veterans and military retir- ees. In 2007 she was appointed to the President’s Commission on Care for America’s Returning Wounded Warriors and also as the co-chair of the Department of Defense task force on the future of military health care. Dr. Wilensky testifies frequently before congressional committees, acts as an advisor to members of Congress and other elected officials, and speaks nationally and internationally before professional, business, and consumer groups. She received a bachelor’s degree in psychology and a Ph.D. in eco- nomics at the University of Michigan. Mary E. Woolley, M.A., is the president of Research!America, the nation’s largest not-for-profit alliance working to make research to improve health a higher national priority. Research!America’s 500-plus organizational mem- bers represent the voices of 125 million Americans. Ms. Woolley is an elected member of the IOM and a fellow of the AAAS. She serves on several boards and committees, including the IOM Health Sciences Policy Board, the National Council for Johns Hopkins Nursing, and the board of over- seers of the Harvard School of Public Health. She is a founding member of the board of associates of the Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research. She has served as president of the Association of Independent Research Institutes, as editor of the Journal of the Society of Research Administra- tors, as a reviewer for the NIH and National Science Foundation, and as a consultant to several research organizations. Ms. Woolley has a 25-year editorial and publication history on science advocacy and research-related topics. She is a sought-after speaker and is frequently interviewed by sci- ence, news, and policy journalists.

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