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Appendix D Acronyms and Abbreviations ABE acetone-butanol-ethanol HFC hydrofluorocarbon AEO Annual Energy Outlook HFCV hydrogen fuel cell vehicle AER all-electric range HICEV hydrogen-powered ICEV C d coefficient of drag ICE internal combustion engine CAFE corporate average fuel economy ICEV internal combustion engine vehicle CCS carbon capture and sequestration IEA International Energy Agency CO carbon monoxide IGCC integrated gasification-combined cycle CO2 carbon dioxide IPCC Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change CRP Conservation Reserve Program ISO International Organization for Standardization CVA camless valve actuation CVT continuously variable transmission kWh kilowatt-hour DME dimethyl ether LCC life-cycle cost DNGR distributed natural gas reforming LDV light-duty vehicle DOE U.S. Department of Energy LNG liquefied natural gas DSMR distributed steam methane reforming DWE distributed water electrolysis MCFC molten carbonate fuel cell MEA membrane electrode assembly EEG Renewable Energy Resources Act (Germany) mpg miles per gallon EIA Energy Information Administration mpgge miles per gallon of gasoline equivalent EISA Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 MPR maximum practicable rate of penetration EPA U.S. Environmental Protection Agency MTG methanol to gasoline EPACT Energy Policy Act of 2005 EV electric vehicle NEMS National Energy Modeling System NOx nitrogen oxides FC fuel cell NRC National Research Council FCFP FreedomCAR and Fuel Partnership FCV fuel cell vehicle OEM original equipment manufacturer GDI gasoline direct injection PEM proton exchange membrane GHG greenhouse gas PFC perfluorocarbon GIS geographic information system PHEV plug-in hybrid electric vehicle GW gigawatt ppm parts per million PTC production tax credit HCCI homogeneous-charge compression ignition PUC public utility commission HEV hybrid electric vehicle PV photovoltaic 125
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126 TRANSITIONS TO ALTERNATIVE TRANSPORTATION TECHNOLOGIES—A focus on hydrogen R&D research and development USDA U.S. Department of Agriculture RD&D research, development, and demonstration RPS renewable portfolio standard VEETC Volumetric Ethanol Excise Tax Credit VMT vehicle-miles traveled SAE Society of Automotive Engineers (now SAE VVT variable valve timing International) SMR steam methane reformer WTW well to wheel SO2 sulfur dioxide SOFC solid oxide fuel cell ZEV zero emissions vehicle SUV sport utility vehicle