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D Acronyms ABI Advanced Baseline Imager ABS Advanced Baseline Sounder ACRIM Active Cavity Radiometer Irradiance Monitor ADCS Advanced Data Collection System ADM Atmospheric Dynamics Mission AIRS Atmospheric Infrared Sounder ALT altimeter AMS American Meteorological Society AMSR-E Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for the Earth Observing System AMSU Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit APS Aerosol Polarimeter Sensor APU accuracy, precision, and uncertainty ATMS Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder ATOVS Advanced TIROS Operational Vertical Sounder AVHRR Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer CCSP Climate Change Science Program CDR climate data record CEOS Committee on Earth Observation Satellites CERES Clouds and Earth’s Radiant Energy System CGMS Coordination Group for Meteorological Satellites CIMSS Cooperative Institute for Meteorological Satellite Studies CLARREO Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory CMIS Conical Microwave Imager and Sounder CNES Centre National d’Etudes Spatiales CNSA China National Space Administration COCTS Chinese Ocean Color and Temperature Scanner CONAE Comision Nacional de Actividades Espaciales CRE cloud radiative effect 171

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172 APPENDIX D CrIS Cross-track Infrared Sounder CryoSat-2 Cryosphere Satellite 2 CWI Coastal Waters Imager CZCS Coastal Zone Color Scanner CZI Coastal Zone Imager DAAC Distributed Active Archive Center DMSP Defense Meteorological Satellite Program DOD Department of Defense DORIS Doppler Orbitography and Radiopositioning Integrated by Satellite ECCO Estimating the Circulation and Climate of the Ocean ECV essential climate variable EDR environmental data record ENSO El Niño/Southern Oscillation EOS Earth Observing System/Satellite ERB Earth radiation budget ERBE Earth Radiation Budget Experiment ERBS Earth Radiation Budget Sensor ESA European Space Administration ESSP Earth System Science Pathfinder EUMETSAT European Organization for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites FAA Federal Aviation Administration FM flight model GCOM Global Change Observation Mission GCM global climate model GCOS Global Climate Observing System GEO geostationary Earth orbit GEO Group on Earth Observations GEO-CAPE Geostationary Coastal and Air Pollution Events GEOSS Global Earth Observation System of Systems GEWEX Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment GMES Global Monitoring for Environment and Security GMI GPM Microwave Imager GOCE Gravity field and steady-state Ocean Circulation Explorer GOES Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite GOME-2 Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment-2 GPM Global Precipitation Mission GPS Global Positioning System GRACE Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment HAB harmful algal bloom HES Hyperspectral Environmental Suite HIRS High-Resolution Infrared Radiation Sounder IASI Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer IDPS Integrated Data Processing System IEOS Integrated Earth Observation System

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APPENDIX D 173 IFA integrated filter assembly IJPS Initial Joint Polar-orbiting Satellite system IOOS Integrated Ocean Observing System IORD Integrated Operational Requirements Document (NPOESS) IPCC Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change IPO Integrated Program Office IR infrared ISRO Indian Space Research Organisation ITAR International Traffic in Arms Regulations JAXA Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency JPS Joint Polar System KPP key performance parameter LDCM Landsat Data Continuity Mission LEO low Earth orbit LT local time LW longwave MERIS Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer MetOp Meteorological Operational Satellite (European) MIS Microwave Infrared and Sounder MISR Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer MMRS Multispectral Medium Resolution Scanner MODIS Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer MSU Microwave Sounding Unit MTG Meteosat Third Generation MW microwave NAO North Atlantic Oscillation NASA National Aeronautics and Space Administration NDVI Normalized Difference Vegetation Index NESDIS National Environmental Satellite Data and Information Service NIR near infrared NIST National Institute of Standards and Technology NOAA National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration NPOESS National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System NPP NPOESS Preparatory Project NRC National Research Council NRL Naval Research Laboratory NSTC National Science and Technology Council NWA National Weather Association NWP Numerical Weather Prediction NWS National Weather Service OCM Ocean Colour Monitor OGCM Ocean General Circulation Model OLR outgoing longwave radiation OLS Operational Linescan System

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174 APPENDIX D OMI Ozone Monitoring Instrument OMPS Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite OSSE Observing System Simulation Experiment OSIP Operational Satellite Improvement Program OSTM Ocean Surface Topography Mission OSTP Office of Science and Technology Policy PDO Pacific Decadal Oscillation POES Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites POLDER Polarization and Directionality of the Earth’s Reflectances SAGE Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment SARSAT Search and Rescue Satellite Aided Tracking SBUV/2 Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet Spectral Radiometer, MOD 2 SeaWiFS Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor SEM Space Environment Monitor SESS Space Environment Sensors SI Le Système International d’Unités SIM Spectral Irradiance Monitor SLR satellite laser ranging SMM Solar Maximum Mission SMMR Scanning Multi-channel Microwave Radiometer SMOS soil moisture and ocean salinity SODA simple ocean data assimilation SOHO Solar and Heliospheric Observatory SORCE Solar Radiation and Climate Experiment SSM/I Special Sensor Microwave Imager SST sea-surface temperature STAR Center for Satellite Applications and Research SUAG Science User Advisory Group SVW surface vector winds SW shortwave SWIR shortwave infrared TIM Total Irradiance Monitor TOA top of atmosphere TOMS Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer TOPEX Ocean Topography Experiment T/P TOPEX/Poseidon TRMM Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission TSI total solar irradiance TSIS Total Solar Irradiance Suite UARS Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite UV ultraviolet VAS VISSR Atmospheric Sounder VIIRS Visible/Infrared Imager/Radiometer Suite VIRGO Variability of solar Irradiance and Gravity Oscillations VIS visible

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APPENDIX D 175 WCRP World Climate Research Programme WMO World Meteorological Organization WOCE World Ocean Circulation Experiment XBT expendable bathythermograph XOVWM Extended Ocean Vector Winds Mission