B
Reprinted Workshop Report

Options to Ensure the Climate Record from the NPOESS and GOES-R Spacecraft: A Workshop Report (National Research Council, The National Academies Press, Washington, D.C., 2008), which summarizes the National Research Council workshop “Options to Ensure the Climate Record from the NPOESS and GOES-R Spacecraft” held in June 2007 in Washington, D.C., is reprinted here in its entirety. Note that in the reprinted report’s table of contents, the page numbers added in italic reflect the pagination that applies for inclusion in the current report, rather than the pages numbers of the original report. The original report is available online at http://www.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=12033.



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B Reprinted Workshop Report Options to Ensure the Climate Record from the NPOESS and GOES-R Spacecraft: A Workshop Report (Na- tional Research Council, The National Academies Press, Washington, D.C., 2008), which summarizes the National Research Council workshop “Options to Ensure the Climate Record from the NPOESS and GOES-R Spacecraft” held in June 2007 in Washington, D.C., is reprinted here in its entirety. Note that in the reprinted report’s table of contents, the page numbers added in italic reflect the pagination that applies for inclusion in the current report, rather than the pages numbers of the original report. The original report is available online at http://www.nap. edu/catalog.php?record_id=12033. 82

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R E P R I N T E D W O R K S H O P R E P O R T 83 Options to Ensure the Climate Record from the NPOESS and GOES-R Spacecraft A Workshop Report Panel on Options to Ensure the Climate Record from the NPOESS and GOES-R Spacecraft Space Studies Board Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences

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R E P R I N T E D W O R K S H O P R E P O R T 84 THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, N.W. Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the panel responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This study is based on work supported by Contract NNH06CE15B between the National Academy of Sciences and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and Contract DG133R07SE1940 between the National Academy of Sciences and the U.S. Department of Commerce’s National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administra- tion. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the agencies that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-11276-5 International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-11276-1 Copies of this report are available free of charge from: Space Studies Board National Research Council The Keck Center of the National Academies 500 Fifth Street, N.W. Washington, DC 20001 Additional copies of this report are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, N.W., Lockbox 285, Washington, DC 20055; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area); Internet, http://www.nap.edu. Copyright 2008 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America

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R E P R I N T E D W O R K S H O P R E P O R T 85 The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Acad- emy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org

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R E P R I N T E D W O R K S H O P R E P O R T 86 OTHER REPORTS OF THE SPACE STUDIES BOARD Opening New Frontiers in Space: Choices for the Next New Frontiers Announcement of Opportunity (SSB, 2008) Science Opportunities Enabled by NASA’s Constellation System: Interim Report (SSB with the Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board [ASEB], 2008) Space Science and the International Traffic in Arms Regulations: Summary of a Workshop (SSB, 2008) United States Civil Space Policy: Summary of a Workshop (SSB with ASEB, 2008) Workshop Series on Issues in Space Science and Technology: Summary of Space and Earth Science Issues from the Workshop on U.S. Civil Space Policy (SSB, 2008) Assessment of the NASA Astrobiology Institute (2007) An Astrobiology Strategy for the Exploration of Mars (SSB with the Board on Life Sciences [BLS], 2007) Building a Better NASA Workforce: Meeting the Workforce Needs for the National Vision for Space Exploration (SSB with ASEB, 2007) Decadal Science Strategy Surveys: Report of a Workshop (2007) Earth Science and Applications from Space: National Imperatives for the Next Decade and Beyond (2007) Exploring Organic Environments in the Solar System (SSB with the Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology, 2007) Grading NASA’s Solar System Exploration Program: A Midterm Review (2007) The Limits of Organic Life in Planetary Systems (SSB with BLS, 2007) NASA’s Beyond Einstein Program: An Architecture for Implementation (SSB with the Board on Physics and Astronomy [BPA], 2007) A Performance Assessment of NASA’s Astrophysics Program (SSB with BPA, 2007) Portals to the Universe: The NASA Astronomy Science Centers (2007) The Scientific Context for Exploration of the Moon (2007) An Assessment of Balance in NASA’s Science Programs (2006) Assessment of NASA’s Mars Architecture 2007-2016 (2006) Assessment of Planetary Protection Requirements for Venus Missions: Letter Report (2006) Distributed Arrays of Small Instruments for Solar-Terrestrial Research: Report of a Workshop (2006) Issues Affecting the Future of the U.S. Space Science and Engineering Workforce: Interim Report (SSB with ASEB, 2006) Review of NASA’s 2006 Draft Science Plan: Letter Report (2006) The Scientific Context for Exploration of the Moon—Interim Report (2006) Space Radiation Hazards and the Vision for Space Exploration (2006) Limited copies of these reports are available free of charge from: Space Studies Board National Research Council The Keck Center of the National Academies 500 Fifth Street, N.W., Washington, DC 20001 (202) 334-3477/ssb@nas.edu www.nationalacademies.org/ssb/ssb.html NOTE: These reports are listed according to year of approval for release, which in some cases precedes the year of publication.

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R E P R I N T E D W O R K S H O P R E P O R T 87 PANEL ON OPTIONS TO ENSURE THE CLIMATE RECORD FROM THE NPOESS AND GOES-R SPACECRAFT ANTONIO J. BUSALACCHI, JR., University of Maryland, Chair PHILIP E. ARDANUY, Raytheon Information Solutions JUDITH A. CURRY, Georgia Institute of Technology JUDITH L. LEAN, Naval Research Laboratory BERRIEN MOORE III, University of New Hampshire JAY S. PEARLMAN, The Boeing Company JAMES F.W. PURDOM, Colorado State University CHRISTOPHER S. VELDEN, University of Wisconsin-Madison THOMAS H. VONDER HAAR, Colorado State University FRANK J. WENTZ, Remote Sensing Systems Consultant STACEY W. BOLAND, Jet Propulsion Laboratory Staff ARTHUR A. CHARO, Study Director, Space Studies Board CURTIS H. MARSHALL, Program Officer, Board on Atmospheric Sciences and Climate THERESA M. FISHER, Program Associate, Space Studies Board CATHERINE A. GRUBER, Assistant Editor, Space Studies Board

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R E P R I N T E D W O R K S H O P R E P O R T 88 SPACE STUDIES BOARD LENNARD A. FISK, University of Michigan, Chair A. THOMAS YOUNG, Lockheed Martin Corporation (retired), Vice Chair DANIEL N. BAKER, University of Colorado STEVEN J. BATTEL, Battel Engineering CHARLES L. BENNETT, Johns Hopkins University ELIZABETH R. CANTWELL, Los Alamos National Laboratory ALAN DRESSLER, The Observatories of the Carnegie Institution JACK D. FELLOWS, University Corporation for Atmospheric Research FIONA A. HARRISON, California Institute of Technology TAMARA E. JERNIGAN, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory KLAUS KEIL, University of Hawaii MOLLY MACAULEY, Resources for the Future BERRIEN MOORE III, University of New Hampshire KENNETH H. NEALSON, University of Southern California JAMES PAWELCZYK, Pennsylvania State University SOROOSH SOROOSHIAN, University of California, Irvine RICHARD H. TRULY, National Renewable Energy Laboratory (retired) JOAN VERNIKOS, Thirdage, LLC JOSEPH F. VEVERKA, Cornell University WARREN M. WASHINGTON, National Center for Atmospheric Research CHARLES E. WOODWARD, University of Minnesota GARY P. ZANK, University of California, Riverside MARCIA S. SMITH, Director

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R E P R I N T E D W O R K S H O P R E P O R T 89 Preface NPOESS, which has been driven by the imperative of reliably providing short-term weather information, is itself a union of heretofore separate civilian and military programs. . . . The same considerations of expediency and economy motivate the present attempts to add to NPOESS the goals of climate research. The technical complexities of combining seemingly disparate requirements are accompanied by the programmatic complexities of forging fur- ther connections among three different agencies, with different mandates, cultures, and congressional appropriators. Yet the stakes are very high, and each agency gains significantly by finding ways to cooperate, as do the taxpayers. Beyond cost savings, benefits include the possibility that long-term climate observations will reveal new phenomena of interest to weather forecasters, as happened with the El Niño/Southern Oscillation. Conversely, climate researchers can often make good use of operational data.1 In January 2007, the National Research Council’s (NRC’s) Earth science decadal survey committee deliv- ered to agency sponsors a prepublication version of its final report, Earth Science and Applications from Space: National Imperatives for the Next Decade and Beyond.2 However, prior to the delivery of that report, NASA and NOAA requested that additional items be added to the committee’s statement of task. The new tasks focused on recovery of measurement capabilities, especially those related to climate research, that were lost as a result of changes in plans for the next generation of polar and geostationary environmental monitoring satellites, NPOESS and GOES-R (see Appendix A).3 By mutual agreement, the new tasks were to be addressed by a separate panel in a report that would draw on the results of a major workshop. Specifically, the new tasks were as follows: 1. Analyze the impact of the changes to the NPOESS program that were announced in June 2006 and changes to the GOES-R series as described in the NOAA testimony to Congress on September 29, 2006. These changes included reduction in the number of planned NPOESS satellites, the deletion or descoping of particular instruments, and a delay in the planned launch of the first NPOESS satellite. In addition, recent changes to the GOES-R series resulted in deletion or descoping of instrumentation and a delay in the first spacecraft launch. The committee should give 1Excerpted from the Foreword to National Research Council (NRC), Issues in the Integration of Research and Operational Satellite Systems for Climate Research: II. Implementation, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 2000. 2NRC, Earth Science and Applications from Space: National Imperatives for the Next Decade and Beyond, The National Academies Press, Washington, D.C., 2007. 3Note that acronyms not defined in the text, especially those denoting individual instruments and missions, are defined in Appendix D.

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R E P R I N T E D W O R K S H O P R E P O R T 90 particular attention to impacts in areas associated with climate research, other NOAA strategic goals, and related Global Earth Observation System of Systems/Integrated Earth Observation System (GEOSS/IEOS) societal benefit areas. The analysis should include discussions related to continuity of existing measurements and development of new research and operational capabilities. 2. Develop a strategy to mitigate the impact of the changes described in the item above. The committee will prioritize capabilities that were lost or placed at risk following the changes to NPOESS and the GOES-R series and present strategies to recover these capabilities. Included in this assessment will be an analysis of the capabilities of the portfolio of missions recommended in the decadal strategy to recover these capabilities, especially those related to research on Earth’s climate. The changes to the NPOESS and GOES-R programs may also offer new opportunities. The committee should provide a preliminary assessment of the risks, benefits, and costs of placing—on NPOESS, GOES-R, or on other platforms—alternative sensors to those planned for NPOESS. Finally, the committee will consider the advantages and disadvantages of relying on capabilities that may be developed by our European and Japanese partners. This workshop report, prepared by the NRC’s Panel on Options to Ensure the Climate Record from the NPOESS and GOES-R Spacecraft, presents the initial response to this request. It summarizes the presentations and discussions at a June 19-21, 2007, workshop but does not necessarily reflect the consensus views of the panel or the NRC. A second report, which will include recommendations for a strategy to recover recently descoped observational and measurement capabilities, is scheduled for transmittal by January 31, 2008. The workshop, titled “Options to Ensure the Climate Record from the NPOESS and GOES-R Spacecraft,” was held at the National Academies’ Keck Center in Washington, D.C. Some 100 scientists and engineers from academia, government, and industry attended the workshop, which gave participants a chance to review and com- ment on the NASA-NOAA assessments of the impacts to climate observations associated with the changes made to the NPOESS program following the June 2006 Nunn-McCurdy certification, 4 as well as potential mitigation strategies. Participants also discussed the impact of the September 2006 cancellation of the HES instrument on GOES-R, which was to have contributed to NOAA strategic goals and to GEOSS/IEOS societal benefit areas. 5 The workshop was divided into morning plenary sessions and afternoon breakouts. To guide breakout discus- sions, participants were given templates to be filled out during discussions. The workshop agenda is shown in Appendix B. When considering questions regarding recovery of climate observation capabilities on NPOESS, participants were asked to discuss the impacts and mitigation options associated with the June 2006 Nunn-McCurdy certifica- tion and the GOES-R descoping in terms of both the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS) essential climate variables (ECVs)6 and related climate data records, and in terms of the sensors themselves. Participants then reviewed the options discussed in a NOAA-NASA report to the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP);7 however, participants were also asked to consider a wider universe of mitigation options, includ- ing free flyers, formation flying, and constellations; flights of opportunity; and international partner opportunities beyond the European MetOp program. At the request of OSTP, NASA and NOAA are also performing such an analysis as part of the second phase of their study, the final results of which were not available at the time of the workshop. Their preliminary assessment is summarized in Appendix C, which reproduces the text and figures of a presentation given at the workshop. 4See U.S. House of Representatives Committee on Science and Technology, Hearing Charter, “The Future of NPOESS: Results of the Nunn-McCurdy Review of NOAA’s Weather Satellite Program,” June 8, 2006, available at http://gop.science.house.gov/hearings/full06/ June%208/charter.pdf. 5Presentations made at the April 23-24, 2007, workshop organizing meeting and presentations made at plenary sessions and notes taken on the breakout sessions at the June 19-21, 2007, workshop are available at http://www7.nationalacademies.org/ssb/SSB_NPOESS2007_ Presentations.html. 6The GCOS was established in 1992 to ensure that the observations and information needed to address climate-related issues are obtained and made available to all potential users. It is co-sponsored by the World Meteorological Organization, the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO, the United Nations Environment Programme, and the International Council for Science. For information on the GCOS ECVs, see http://www.wmo.ch/pages/prog/gcos/index.php?name=essentialvariables. 7NOAA-NASA, “Impacts of NPOESS Nunn-McCurdy Certification on Joint NASA-NOAA Climate Goals,” draft white paper, January 8, 2007.

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R E P R I N T E D W O R K S H O P R E P O R T 91 Workshop participants were asked to consider how the following programs will or could play into a mitigation strategy in the period before and after NPOESS launches: 1. NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP),8 2. Extended-phase operations of instruments on the Earth Observing System spacecraft, 9 and 3. Implementation of the recommendations made in the decadal survey, Earth Science and Applications from Space.10 Of the three items above, consideration of the potential impact of the decadal survey dominated participant discussions. In part, this emphasis resulted from recognition that with limited funds, recovery strategies, especially for NPOESS, would effectively compete with the new starts recommended in the decadal survey. In addition, the measurement capabilities of sensors on some of the missions recommended in the decadal survey overlap with those recently lost in the descoped NPOESS and GOES-R programs. 11 The organization of this report follows loosely that of the workshop agenda (Appendix B), which was designed to have participants consider the impact of changes to the NPOESS and GOES-R program according to the impact on the measurement of ECVs (breakout sessions on day 1 of the workshop) and on the specific sensors that con- stituted the pre-Nunn-McCurdy NPOESS and the pre-descoped GOES-R program baselines (breakout sessions on day 2 of the workshop). The panel recognized that there would be overlap in these discussions but thought it useful for participants to consider the broader issues of ECV measurement and development of climate data records apart from specific concerns about NPOESS sensors. Indeed, many workshop participants noted repeatedly that ensuring the measurement(s) of a particular climate variable(s) was only a necessary first step toward enabling the creation of time series of measurements of sufficient length, consistency, and continuity to determine climate variability and change—that is, to generate climate data records. 12 In closing, the panel notes with deep regret the sudden death of Anthony Hollingsworth, from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts, on July 29, 2007. Tony was a world-class meteorologist and, as noted in the many tributes that followed his passing, a key figure in fostering international collaborations among EUMETSAT, the European Space Agency, and space agencies worldwide. At the time of his death, Tony was heading Europe’s GEMS environmental monitoring project; he also was advising the panel on the international dimensions of mitigation options for NPOESS. 8The National Polar-Orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS) Preparatory Project (NPP) is a joint mission involving NASA and the NPOESS Integrated Program Office. See http://jointmission.gsfc.nasa.gov/. 9See http://eospso.gsfc.nasa.gov/eos_homepage/description.php. 10NRC, Earth Science and Applications from Space: National Imperatives for the Next Decade and Beyond, The National Academies Press, Washington, D.C., 2007. 11For descriptions of the decadal survey missions, see Chapter 4 of NRC, Earth Science and Applications from Space, 2007. For discussions of decadal survey missions and NPOESS, see Chapter 2 and Tables 2.4 and 2.5 in that report. 12NRC, Climate Data Records from Environmental Satellites: Interim Report, The National Academies Press, Washington, D.C., 2004.

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R E P R I N T E D W O R K S H O P R E P O R T 92 Acknowledgment of Reviewers This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report: Eric J. Barron, University of Texas, Craig Donlon, Hadley Centre, Met Office, United Kingdom, Dennis P. Lettenmaier, University of Washington, Ralph F. Milliff, Colorado Research Associates, and R. Keith Raney, Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory. Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations, nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Byron D. Tapley, University of Texas at Austin. Appointed by the National Research Council, he was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring panel and the institution.

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R E P R I N T E D W O R K S H O P R E P O R T 156 – Examined 2 operational-grade missions • Used sensor analysis from NASA plus spacecraft development analysis from NOAA Polar Extended Mission study (2006) Climate Data Record (CDR) Science Support [p. 16] • Includes development, production, reprocessing, stewardship, and distribution • Assumes data from all NPOESS certified sensors and mitigation sensors/sources • Covers about 30 Climate Change Science Program essential climate variables • Will be covered in more detail in following presentation Free Flyer Climate Satellite [p. 17] • Would fly in formation with NPOESS PM to provide imager data • Two options were examined: – Research spacecraft • Planned 5-year mission • Single string development with selective redundancy • Inexpensive, non-standard launch vehicle • Ground segment leverages existing systems – Operational spacecraft • Planned 7-year mission with additional redundancy • Standard launch vehicle • Additional investment in ground segment • Current cost estimate range for a 3-sensor satellite is approximately $700M-$1100M – CDR Science Support is an additional $300M-$450M Altimetry Options [p. 18] • NPOESS sun-synchronous orbits are NOT ideal for precision altimetry • Flight of an altimeter on NPOESS is NOT recommended • For this analysis, “free flyer” satellites in the NOAA/EUMETSAT JASON series are assumed – Three satellites beyond JASON 2 required to provide coverage to 2026 – Costs estimated for JASON 3, 4, and 5 – Advanced altimeter costs also estimated • May replace JASON class missions starting with JASON 4 • Independent of this study, U.S. Navy is working with the IPO to develop costs and options to procure an operational oceanography radar altimeter • Current total cost estimate for a series of 3 missions ranges from approximately $1.5B-$2.1B – CDR Science Support is an additional ~$200M – Current cost estimate for a single JASON follow-on is approximately $470M with the potential for 50/50 cost sharing with partners

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R E P R I N T E D W O R K S H O P R E P O R T 157 157 APPENDIX C TABLE Climate Goal Partnering Opportunities (Preliminary) [p. 19] Partner Sensor or Capability Timeframe Role EUMETSAT Jason-3 2013-2018 Mitigate NASA/Navy Adv. Altimeter TBD Mitigate Increasing Potential → ESA/JAXA (Earthcare) APS/ERBS-like 2010-20xx Mitigate ESA GMES Sentinel 3 Altimeter Complement Navy (NPOESS) Altimeter (Op) 2016-2026 Complement Navy (DoD Space Test Program) Altimeter (Op) Complement CNES Megha-Tropiques ERBS-like Complement Chinese SOA (HY series) Altimeter Mitigate Brazilian Space Agency (Amazonia) Flight Opportunity 2010/2015 Accommodation EUMETSAT (MSG) ERBS-like on-orbit Complement Chinese Met. Agency (FY series) ERBS-like Mitigate ESA PARASOL APS-like on-orbit Complement Related Concerns [p. 20] • VIIRS – Reduced imaging capability for mid-morning orbit • Discussions on-going with EUMETSAT about an advanced imager on METOP-D – Optical Crosstalk • MIS – Reduced capability microwave imager – First MIS scheduled to fly on NPOESS C2 (2016) – Discussion on-going with JAXA about AMSR-2 – Pursuing several options for continuity of ocean vector wind measurements TABLE Near-Term Planning [p. 21] Decision/Funding Commitment Launch Readiness Date CERES on NPP September 2007 / FY07* September 2009 TSIS on LDCM January 2008 / FY09 Late 2011 JASON-3 Decision CY08 / FY10 2013 First Climate Free-Flyer Mid 2009 / Pre-Phase A FY08 2014 * Would require re-allocation of existing funds Next Steps [p. 22] • Listen closely to the input from this Workshop • Continue to work with OSTP • Continue dialogue regarding potential international and/or domestic partnerships

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R E P R I N T E D W O R K S H O P R E P O R T 158 Backups [pp. 23-24] Reductions of Climate-Relevant Sensors EARLY-AM MID-AM PM New C2 New C4 New C1 New C3 NPOESS Instruments NPP (2016) (2022) (2013) (2020) Old (C6) Old (C3) MetOp (2013) (2016) Old (C2) Old (C5) Old (C1) Old (C4) (2011) (2015) (2009) (2014) Reduced Capability Sensors CMIS* Reduced Coverage Sensors CrlS/ATMS IASI/AMSU VIIRS AVHRR De-manifested Sensors TSIS CERES/ERBS CERES ALT OMPS** APS *CMIS to be redefined as a less capable, less expensive sensor Remains Intact No Change/Not Relevant **OMPS Limb Subsystem is cancelled and only the Nadir Reduced Capability Related Missions capability is maintained Deleted Implies Sensor Present FIGURE [C.9] NPOESS Nunn-McCurdy Certification. Reductions of Climate-Relevant Sensors. [p. 24] 9 AppC figure.eps

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R E P R I N T E D W O R K S H O P R E P O R T 159 Appendix D Abbreviations and Acronyms (A)ATSR Advanced Along-Track Scanning Radiometer (also AATSR) ABI Advanced Baseline Imager ACE aerosol-cloud-ecosystem (mission) ACRIMSAT Active Cavity Radiometer Irradiance Monitor Satellite ADCS Altitude Determination and Control System ADM Air Data Management AIRS Atmospheric Infrared Sounder ALOS Advanced Land Observation Satellite ALT altimeter AMSR-E Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for the Earth Observing System AMSU Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit AoA Analysis of Alternatives APS Aerosol Polarimeter Sensor ASAR Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar ASCAT advanced scatterometer ASCENDS Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons ASTER Advanced Spacebone Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer ATLID Atmospheric Light Detection and Ranging Instrument ATMS Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder AVHRR Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer BIOMASS Biomass monitoring mission for carbon assessment (ESA) CALIPSO Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations CDR climate data record CEOS Committee on Earth Observations Satellites CERES Clouds and Earth’s Radiant Energy System CERES S’COOL Clouds and Earth’s Radiant Energy System Students’ Clouds Observations On-Line CGMS Coordination Group for Meteorological Satellites

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R E P R I N T E D W O R K S H O P R E P O R T 160 CHAMP Coral Health and Monitoring Project or Challenging Minisatellite Payload CLARREO Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory CMIS Conical Microwave Imager and Sounder CNES Centre National d’Etude Spatiales COSMIC Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere, and Climate CrIS Cross-track Infrared Sounder CryoSat Cryosphere Satellite (mission) DESDynI Deformation, Ecosystem Structure, and Dynamics of Ice Mission DMSP Defense Meteorological Satellite Program DOD Department of Defense DSCOVR Deep Space Climate Observatory EarthCARE ESA’s cloud and aerosol (mission) ECMWF European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts ECV essential climate variable EDR environmental data record ENVISAT Environmental Satellite EOS Earth Observing System ERB Earth’s radiation budget ERBS Earth Radiation Budget Sensor ESA European Space Agency ET-EGOS Expert Team on Evolution of the Global Observing System EUMETSAT European Organization for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites Feng Yun Feng Yun Wind and Cloud (meteorological satellite) FPAR fraction of photosynthetically active radiation GACM Global Atmospheric Composition Mission GCOM Global Change Observation Mission GCOS Global Climate Observing System GEMS Global and regional Earth-system (Atmosphere) Monitoring GEO geosynchronous Earth orbit GEOSS Global Earth Observation System of Systems GERB geostationary Earth radiation budget GFO Geosat (Geodetic Satellite) Follow-on GHRSST-PP Global High Resolution SST Pilot Project GIFTS Geosynchronous Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer GLAS Geoscience Laser Altimeter System GLI Global Imager GLM Geostationary Lightning Mapper GMES Global Monitoring for Environmental Security GMI Giant Magneto-Impedance GMS Geostationary Meteorological Satellite GOES Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite GOME Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment GOS Global Observing System GOSAT Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite GPM Global Precipitation Measurement GPS/RO Global Positioning System/Radio Occultation

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R E P R I N T E D W O R K S H O P R E P O R T 161 161 APPENDIX D GRACE Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment GRAS Global Navigation Satellite System Receiver for Atmospheric Sounding HES Hyperspectral Environmental Suite HIRDLS High-Resolution Dynamics Limb Sounder HIRS High-Resolution Infrared Radiation Sounder IASI Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer ICESat Ice, Cloud, and Land Elevation Satellite IEOS Integrated Earth Observation System IOCCG International Ocean Colour Coordination Group IORD Integrated Operational Requirements Document (NPOESS) IOS Integrated Observing System IPCC Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change IR infrared IRS Indian Remote Sensing Satellite ISRO Indian Space Agency ITAR International Traffic in Arms Regulations ITSC Information Technology Support Center JAXA Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency LAI leaf area index LDCM Landsat Data Continuity Mission LEO low Earth orbit MAM mirror attenuated mosaic MERIS Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (ESA) Meteosat Meteorological satellite for European counterpart to GOES MetOp Meteorological Operational Satellite (European) METSAT Meteorological Satellite MIPAS Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding MIS Microwave Imager and Sounder MISR Multi-angle Imaging Spectro-Radiometer MLS microwave limb sounder MODIS Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectro-Radiometer MSG Meteosat Second Generation MSU microwave sounding unit NASA National Aeronautics and Space Administration NESDIS National Environmental Satellite Data and Information Service NESDIS/STAR National Environmental Satellite Data and Information Service/Center for Satellite Applications and Research NIR near infrared NIST National Institute of Standards and Technology NOAA National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration NODC National Oceanic Data Center (NOAA) NPOESS National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System NPP NPOESS Preparatory Project NRC National Research Council

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R E P R I N T E D W O R K S H O P R E P O R T 162 NSTC National Science and Technology Council OCO Orbiting Carbon Observatory OLS Operational Line Scanner OMI Ozone Monitoring Instrument OMPS Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite OPAG Open Programme Area Group OSIP Operational Satellite Improvement Program OSSE Observing System Simulation Experiment OSTM Ocean Surface Topography Mission OSTP Office of Science and Technology Policy OSTST Ocean Surface Topography Science Team P 3I preplanned product improvement PALSAR Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar PARASOL Polarization and Anisotropy of Reflectances for Atmospheric Sciences coupled with Observations from a Lidar PATH Precipitation and All-Weather Temperature and Humidity POES Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite POLDER Polarization and Directionality of Earth’s Reflectances QuikSCAT Quick Scatterometer RADARSAT Radar Satellite (Canada) SAGE Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment SAR synthetic aperture radar SARAL Satellite with Argos and AltiKa SARSAT Search and Rescue Satellite Aided Tracking SBUV Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet Instrument SBUV/2 Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet Spectral Radiometer, MOD 2 ScaRAB Scanner for the Radiation Budget SCIAMACHY Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric Chartography SCLP Snow and Cold Land Processes SeaWiFS Sea-Viewing Wide-Field Sensor SESS Space Environment Sensor Suite SEVIRI Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager SGLI Second Generation Global Imager SIM Spectral Irradiance Monitor SMAP Software Assurance Management Program SMMR Scanning Multichannel (or Multifrequency) Microwave Radiometer SMOS Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity SOHO Solar and Heliospheric Observatory SORCE Solar Radiation and Climate Experiment SPOT Satellite Probatoire de l’Observation de la Terre SSI spectral solar irradiance SSM/I Special Sensor Microwave Imager SSMIS Special Sensor Microwave Imager/Sounder SST sea surface temperature STAR Center for Satellite Applications and Research

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R E P R I N T E D W O R K S H O P R E P O R T 163 163 APPENDIX D SuS Survivability Sensor SWOT Surface Water-Ocean Topography TES Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer TIM Total Irradiance Monitor TMI TRMM [Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission] Microwave Imager TOMS Total Ozone Mapping (Spectrolab/System/Spectrometer) TOPEX Ocean Topography Experiment TRMM Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission TSI total solar irradiance TSIS Total Solar Irradiance Suite UARS Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite UNEP United Nations Environment Programme UNESCO United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization UV ultraviolet VAS VISSR Atmospheric Sounder VIIRS Visible/Infrared Imager/Radiometer Suite VIRI visible and infrared imager VISSR Visible and Infrared Spin Scan Radiometer WindSat a joint Integrated Program Office/DOD/NASA satellite-based polarimetric microwave radiometer WMO World Meteorological Organization XOVWM Extended Ocean Vector Winds Mission

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R E P R I N T E D W O R K S H O P R E P O R T 164 Appendix E Biographical Sketches of Panel Members ANTONIO J. BUSALACCHI, JR., Chair, is director of the Earth System Science Interdisciplinary Center and a professor in the Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Science at the University of Maryland. His research interests include tropical ocean circulation and its role in the coupled climate system, and climate variability and predictability. Dr. Busalacchi has been involved in the activities of the World Climate Research Program (WCRP) for many years as co-chair of the scientific steering group for its subprogram on climate variability and predict- ability, and he currently is a member of the Joint Scientific Committee of the WCRP. Dr. Busalacchi has extensive NRC experience as a member of the Climate Research Committee, the Committee on Earth Studies, the Panel on the Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere Program, and the Panel on Ocean Atmosphere Observations Supporting Short-Term Climate Predictions. PHILIP E. ARDANUY is chief scientist and director of Remote Sensing Applications at Raytheon Information Solu- tions. Dr. Ardanuy specializes in developing integrated mission concepts through government-industry-academic partnerships. His research has included network-centric and system-of-systems concepts, telepresence-telescience- telerobotics, tropical meteorology, Earth’s radiation budget and climate, satellite instrument calibration and char- acterization, remote sensing applications and systems engineering, scientific applications research-to-operational transition, and validation of environmental observations. He is the associate editor of the International Society for Optical Engineering’s (SPIE) Journal of Applied Remote Sensing and chair of the American Meteorological Society’s (AMS) Committee on Satellite Meteorology and Oceanography. Dr. Ardanuy has received multiple honors, including his 2007 elevation to the position of Raytheon Engineering Fellow and his receipt of the Raytheon Excellence in Business Development Award and the Raytheon Peer Award for “dedication in the excellence in his work and unimagined expertise in algorithms, ground processing, mission understanding, and mission experience.” Dr. Ardanuy served on the NRC Panel on Earth Science Applications and Societal Benefits of the Committee for Earth Science and Applications from Space: A Community Assessment and Strategy for the Future, and on the Committee on Utilization of Environmental Satellite Data: A Vision for 2010 and Beyond. JUDITH A. CURRY is chair of the School of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences at the Georgia Institute of Tech- nology. Her research interests include remote sensing, climate of the polar regions, atmospheric modeling, and air/sea interactions. She participates in the World Meteorological Organization’s World Climate Research Program, was a member of the Science Steering Group of the Arctic Climate System Program, and chairs the Global Energy

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R E P R I N T E D W O R K S H O P R E P O R T 165 165 APPENDIX E and Water Cycle Experiment Cloud System Studies Working Group on Polar Clouds. She co-chaired the Surface Heat Budget of the Arctic Ocean program’s Science Working Group. Dr. Curry previously served on the NRC Committee to Review NASA’s Polar Geophysical Data Sets, the Panel on Coastal Meteorology, and the Climate Research Committee. She currently serves on the Space Studies Board. JUDITH L. LEAN has worked in the Naval Research Laboratory’s Space Science Division since 1986, where her research focuses on the mechanisms, measurements, and modeling of variations in the Sun’s radiative output and the effects of this variability on Earth’s global climate and space weather. She is a guest investigator on NASA’s Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite and the Living with a Star and Sun-Earth Connection programs. She is a co- investigator on the Solar Radiation and Climate, Thermosphere-Ionosphere-Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics, and Solar Dynamics Explorer space missions. Dr. Lean has testified before the U.S. Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources and the U.S. Senate Committee on Commerce, Science and Transportation Subcommittee on Science, Technology and Space on the science of climate change. She is a fellow of the American Geophysical Union and a member of the International Association of Geomagnetism and Aeronomy, the American Astronomical Society-Solar Physics Division, and the American Meteorological Society. Dr. Lean served on the NRC Commit- tee on Radiative Forcing Effects on Climate, the Board on Atmospheric Sciences and Climate, and the Panel on Climate Variability and Change of the Committee for Earth Science and Applications from Space: A Community Assessment and Strategy for the Future. BERRIEN MOORE III is a professor of systems research at University of New Hampshire (UNH) and is executive director of Climate Central, Inc. He was director of UNH’s Institute for the Study of Earth, Oceans, and Space from 1987 to early 2008. He stepped down as director of the Institute to direct Climate Central. Dr. Moore’s research focuses on the carbon cycle, global biogeochemical cycles, and global change as well as policy issues in the area of the global environment. At UNH, he received the university’s 1993 Excellence in Research Award and was named University Distinguished Professor in 1997. In 2005, he was honored with National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Administrator’s Special Recognition award for his service as chair of the NOAA Research Review Team. Dr. Moore was the recipient of the 2007 Dryden Lectureship in Research by the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA). Most recently, he shared in the 2007 Nobel Peace Prize awarded to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC); Dr. Moore was the coordinating lead author for the final chapter, “Advancing our Understanding,” of the IPCC’s Third Assessment Report (2001). He has served on several NASA advisory committees and in 1987 chaired the NASA Space and Earth Science Advisory Committee. Dr. Moore led the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme (IGBP) Task Force on Global Analysis, Interpretation, and Modeling prior to serving as chair of the overarching Scientific Committee of the IGBP. He chaired the 2001 Open Science Conference on Global Change in Amsterdam and is one of the four architects of the Amsterdam Declaration on Global Change. Dr. Moore has contributed actively to committees at the NRC, and he served as vice chair of the NRC Committee on Earth Science and Applications from Space: A Community Assessment and Strategy for the Future. He is chair of the Committee on Earth Studies and is a member of the Space Studies Board. JAY S. PEARLMAN is chief engineer of Network Centric Operations (NCO) Programs and Technologies at the Boeing Company. Dr. Pearlman’s background includes basic research program management and program develop- ment in sensors, remote sensing, and information systems. He was Boeing’s chief architect for the NOAA GOES- R study contract and the chief scientist for the Landsat Data Continuity contract. He was also deputy principal investigator for the NASA Hyperion Program. Dr. Pearlman is currently leading the NCO research and technology coordination and is a Boeing technical fellow. He is a senior member of the IEEE and is chair of the IEEE Com- mittee on Earth Observation. He is active in promoting systems-of-systems architecture and information system development for large-scale national and global applications, including advancing ocean and coastal information systems. Dr. Pearlman has more than 70 publications and 25 U.S. and international patents. He served on the NRC Panel on Enabling Concepts and Technologies of the Committee for the Review of NASA’s Pioneering

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R E P R I N T E D W O R K S H O P R E P O R T 166 Revolutionary Technology Program and on the Steering Committee, Space Applications and Commercialization. He is currently a member of the Ocean Studies Board. JAMES F.W. PURDOM is a senior research scientist at the Cooperative Institute for Research in the Atmosphere (CIRA) at Colorado State University. Before joining CIRA in 2001, he spent 4 years as director of the Office of Research and Applications in NOAA-NESDIS. Dr. Purdom’s research focuses on remote sensing of Earth and its environment from space, as well as the development and evolution of atmospheric convection, with emphasis on the study of mesoscale processes using satellite data. He received the U.S. Department of Commerce Silver Medal in 1994, the National Weather Association Special Award in 1996, the American Meteorological Society Special Award in 1997, and the Presidential Rank Award in 2001. He served on the NRC Task Group on the Availability and Usefulness of NASA’s Space Mission Data. CHRISTOPHER S. VELDEN is currently a research scientist at the University of Wisconsin. He heads a small group that develops satellite products mainly for tropical cyclone applications. He served as a member of the U.S. Weather Research Project Science Steering Committee (1996-1999), the GOES Science Team (1996-1998), and the Geostationary Microwave Sounder Working Group (1995-1996). He served as chair of the AMS Committee on Satellite Meteorology and has also been a member of the AMS Tropical Committee. In the last 5 years he has been honored by AMS with two awards, and he has published numerous papers. He served on the NRC Committee on NOAA-NESDIS Transition from Research to Operations, the Committee on the Future of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission, and the Panel on Weather of the Committee on Earth Science and Applications from Space: A Community Assessment and Strategy for the Future. THOMAS H. VONDER HAAR is the director of the Cooperative Institute for Research in the Atmosphere and University Distinguished Professor of Atmospheric Science at Colorado State University. His research includes work on Earth’s radiation budget and fundamental relationships with the climate system and incorporates some of the first results of direct solar irradiance measurements from satellites and the exchange of energy between Earth and space. Dr. Vonder Haar is also director of the Center for Geosciences, a Department of Defense-sponsored research center that focuses on the study of weather patterns and how they affect military operations, and includes investigations of fog, cloud layering, cloud drift winds, and dynamics of cloud persistence as detected from satel- lites. He currently serves on the NRC Board on Atmospheric Sciences and Climate and was the vice chair of the Panel on Weather of the Committee on Earth Science and Applications from Space: A Community Assessment and Strategy for the Future. He was elected to the National Academy of Engineering in 2003. FRANK J. WENTZ serves as director of Remote Sensing Systems, a research company specializing in satellite microwave remote sensing of Earth. His research focuses on radiative transfer models that relate satellite obser- vations to geophysical parameters, with the objective of providing reliable geophysical data sets to the Earth science community. He is currently working on satellite-derived decadal time series of atmospheric moisture and temperature, the measurement of sea surface temperature through clouds, and advanced microwave sensor designs for climatological studies. He is a member of the American Geophysical Union. Mr. Wentz served on the NRC Panel on Reconciling Temperature Observations of the Climate Research Committee, and he was a member of the Committee on Earth Studies.