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Appendix C R&D Funding Trends of the FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies Program funding DETAILS There are three activities: Energy Storage, Advanced Power Electronics, and Subsystem Integration and The research and development programs of the Freedom- Development. CAR and Vehicle Technologies (FCVT) Program (the U.S. • Advanced Combustion Engine R&D. The Advanced Department of Energy [DOE] parent program of the 21st Combustion Engine R&D subprogram focuses on Century Truck Partnership) have been funded as shown in removing critical technical barriers to commercializa- Table C-1. Note that the table includes some funding that tion of more efficient advanced internal combustion explicitly support the 21CTP as well as the FreedomCAR engines in light-, medium-, and heavy-duty vehicles. and Fuel Partnership. (The left-hand column of the table The goals are to improve the efficiency of internal includes such notations where applicable.) combustion engines to 45 percent by 2010 for light- duty applications and to 55 percent for heavy-duty 21CTP Subprograms applications by 2013, while meeting cost, durability, and emissions constraints. Research is conducted in The subprogram descriptions are as follows: collaboration with industry, national laboratories, and universities, and in conjunction with the FreedomCAR • Vehicle Systems. The Vehicle Systems subprogram and Fuel Partnership and 21st Century Truck Partner- funds research and development (R&D) on advanced ship. The Advanced Combustion Engine R&D sub- vehicle technologies and auxiliary equipment that program includes Combustion and Emission Control, could achieve significant improvements in fuel econ- Heavy Truck Engine, Waste Heat Recovery, and Health omy for light- and heavy-duty vehicles without sac- Impacts Research. rificing safety, the environment, performance, and • Materials Technologies. The Materials Technologies affordability. This subprogram’s funding contributes subprogram supports the development of cost-­effective to both the FreedomCAR Partnership and the 21st materials and materials manufacturing processes that Century Truck Partnership. can contribute to fuel-efficient cars and trucks. This • Innovative Concepts. The Innovative Concepts sub- subprogram is a critical enabler for concepts developed program funds the Graduate Automotive Technology in the FreedomCAR and 21st Century Truck Partner- Education (GATE) activity, which aids in the develop- ships. The activity consists of three activities: Propul- ment of interdisciplinary curricula to train the future sion Materials Technology, Lightweight ­ Materials workforce of automotive engineers. This is accom- Technology, and the High-Temperature Materials plished by setting up GATE Centers of Excellence Laboratory (HTML). at universities that have been competitively selected, • Fuels Technologies. The Fuels Technology sub­program establishing focused curriculum, and providing funds supports R&D that will provide vehicle users with fuel for research fellowships. options that are cost competitive, enable high fuel • Hybrid and Electric Propulsion. From the Hybrid economy, deliver low emissions, and contribute to and Electric Propulsion subprogram funds R&D petroleum displacement. It consists of two activities: for passenger vehicles. Research and development Advanced Petroleum-Based Fuels (APBF) and Non- efforts include research in energy storage systems, Petroleum-Based Fuels and Lubricants (NPBFL). advanced power electronics and electric machines. 105

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106 REVIEW OF THE 21ST CENTURY TRUCK PARTNERSHIP TABLE C-1  Budget Appropriations, Vehicle Technology Program, Office of FreedomCar and Vehicle Technologies, Parent Agency of 21st Century Truck Partnership in U.S. Department of Energy, FY 2003 through FY 2008 Funding (thousands of U.S. dollars) by fiscal year (FY) Subprogram FY 2003 FY 2004 FY 2005 FY 2006 FY 2007 Requesta FY 2008 Request Vehicle Systemsb 13,485 1,4335 13,004 13,056 1,3315 0 Innovative Concepts 1,590 494 500 495 500 0 Hybrid and Electric Propulsion 41,996 45,002 44,066 43,977 50,841c 80,664 Advanced Combustion Engine R&Dd 55,267 54,405 48,480 42,746 46,706 34,550 Materials Technologiese 36,094 39,744 35,922 35,269 29,786 33,382 Fuels Technologies 19,164 16,494 12,419 13,709 13,845 13,845 Technology Introduction 4,570 4,939 4,944 6,250 11,031 0 Technical/ Program Management Support 2,005 2,095 1,877 2,475 0f 0 Biennial Peer Reviewsg 0 494 0 990 0 0 Congressionally Directed Activitiesh 0 0 120 24,255 0 0    Vehicle Technology Total 174,171 178,002 161,236 182,104 166,024 176,138 aThe FY 2007 request includes funding ($4,393,000) for the Clean Cities activity previously funded in the Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, U.S. Department of Energy. Weatherization and Intergovernmental Activities Program, U.S. Department of Energy. bContributes both to the FreedomCAR and Fuel Partnership and to the 21st Century Truck Partnership. cFunding requested in FY 2007 is funding for research and development on those technologies needed for plug-in hybrid-electric vehicles. dResearch is conducted in collaboration with industry, national laboratories, and universities, and in conjunction with the FreedomCAR and Fuel Partner- ship and the 21st Century Truck Partnership. eThis subprogram is a critical enabler for concepts developed in the FreedomCAR Fuel Partnership and the 21st Century Truck Partnerships. fBeginning with the FY 2007 request, these activities will be funded from the R&D activities that they support. gBiennial reviews of the FreedomCAR and Fuel Partnership and 21st Century Truck Partnership will be conducted by an independent party such as the National Research Council, to evaluate progress and program direction. hThese are activities not requested by the FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technology Program, but conducted at the direction of congressional appropriations legislation. SOURCE: DOE, FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies Program. Available at fcvt_budget.html. Accessed June 3, 2008. FY 2005-2008 figures from DOE, Feb. 2007, Congressional Budget Request. Vol. 3, Office of Chief Financial Officer. Doc No. DOE/CF-016. • Technology Introduction. The Technology Introduction R&D feasibility studies; R&D option development subprogram accelerates the adoption and use of alter- and trade-off analyses; and technical, economic, and native fuel and advanced technology vehicles to help m ­ arket evaluations of research. These activities pro- meet national energy and environmental goals. This vide important benefits directly to the Vehicle Tech- subprogram’s efforts logically follow and complement nologies Program and are therefore an integral part of successful research and by industry and government. the R&D program. The primary functions of Technology Introduction • Biennial Peer Reviews. Biennial reviews of the include legislative and rulemaking supporting the FreedomCAR and Fuel Partnership and 21st ­Century Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPAct) alternative fuel Truck Partnership will be conducted by an independent and fleet activities; testing and evaluation of advanced party such as the National Academy of ­ Sciences/ technology vehicles; and advanced vehicle competi- National Academy of Engineering, to evaluate ­progress tions. As identified in the National Energy Policy, and program direction. This continuous (biennial) consumer education and demonstration activities are activity supports the President’s Management Agenda critical to accelerating the use of advanced energy (PMA), Program Assessment Rating Tool (PART), technologies. and Research and Development Investment Criteria • Technical/Program Management Support. Consistent (R&DIC). The reviews will include evaluation of with other U.S. Department of Energy programs under p ­ rogress toward achieving the technical goals and the jurisdiction of the Interior and Related Agencies program direction of each partnership. Based on the Appropriations Committees, the Energy Conserva- evaluation, resource availability, and other factors, the tion programs provide funding for technical/program Partners will consider new opportunities, make adjust- management support. This includes activities such as ments to program targets, and set goals appropriately.