Appendix F
State of the Art in Light-Duty Electric Vehicles

A wide range of data have been published on light-duty vehicles, such as electric vehicles, with high-capacity electrical storage systems. These data, presented in Table F-1, can be used to show the progress of various technologies over time as well as defining the state of the art today.

TABLE F-1 Technical Specifications for Production and Near-Production Vehicle Batteries

Model Year

Vehicle

Vehicle Type

Battery Technology

Battery Manufacturer

Total Voltage

Nominal Capacity (Ah)

Nominal Power Capacity (kW)

Nominal Energy Capacity (Wh)

Pack Weight (lb)

1995

Solectria Force

Electric vehicle

Nickel-metal Hydride

GM Ovonic

185

85 (1C)

>34.4

<15,725

559

1995

Solectria E-10

Electric vehicle

Sealed Lead Acid

Hawker

144

30 (1C)

>71.6

<4,320

1,261

1996

Rav4

Electric vehicle

Valve Regulated Lead Acid

Matsushita

288

55 (1C)

>58.6

<15,840

1,210

1997

Chevrolet S-10

Electric vehicle

Valve Regulated Lead Acid

Delphi Energy

312

48 (C/2)

>104.3

<14,976

1,265

1997

GM EV1

Electric vehicle

Valve Regulated Lead Acid

Dephi

312

53 (1C)

>116.4

<16,536

1,175

1998

Chevrolet S-10

Electric vehicle

Nickel-metal Hydride

Ovonic Energy Products

343

85 (C/2)

>98.5

<29,155

1,079

1998

RAV4

Electric vehicle

Nickel-metal Hydride

Panasonic

288

95 (C/3)

>57.3

<27,360

1,014

1998

Ford Ranger

Electric vehicle

Valve Regulated Lead Acid

Delphi Energy

312

60 (C/2)

>87.4

<18,720

1,914

1999

Chrysler Epic

Electric vehicle

Nickel-metal Hydride

SAFT

336

82 (C/3)

>91.3

<27,552

1,170

1999

GM EV1

Electric vehicle

Nickel-metal Hydride

Ovonic Energy Products

343

85 (C/2)

>104

<29,155

1,058

1999

Ford Th!nk

“Universal electric vehicle”

Nickel Cadmium (NiCd)

SAFT

114

100 (C/3)

>9.5

<11,400

245

2001

Frazer-Nash City

Car

“Neighborhood electric vehicle”

Absorptive Glass Mat

Electrosource

48

136 (C/2)

>4.24

<6,528

462

2001

Frazer-Nash Truck

“Neighborhood electric vehicle”

Absorptive Glass Mat

Electrosource

48

136 (C/2)

>5.23

<6,528

462

2002

Columba ParCar 2 passenger

“Neighborhood electric vehicle”

Flooded Lead Acid

Trojan

48

146 (C/2)

>2.65

<7,008

493



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appendix F state of the art in light-duty electric Vehicles A wide range of data have been published on light-duty vehicles, such as electric vehicles, with high-capacity elec- trical storage systems. These data, presented in Table F-1, can be used to show the progress of various technologies over time as well as defining the state of the art today. TABLE F-1 Technical Specifications for Production and Near-Production Vehicle Batteries Nominal Nominal Nominal Power Energy Pack Model Battery Battery Total Capacity Capacity Capacity Weight Year Vehicle Vehicle Type Technology Manufacturer Voltage (Ah) (kW) (Wh) (lb) 1995 Solectria Force Electric vehicle Nickel-metal GM Ovonic 185 85 (1C) >34.4 <15,725 559 Hydride 1995 Solectria E-10 Electric vehicle Sealed Lead Hawker 144 30 (1C) >71.6 <4,320 1,261 Acid 1996 Rav4 Electric vehicle Valve Regulated Matsushita 288 55 (1C) >58.6 <15,840 1,210 Lead Acid 1997 Chevrolet S-10 Electric vehicle Valve Regulated Delphi Energy 312 48 (C/2) >104.3 <14,976 1,265 Lead Acid 1997 GM EV1 Electric vehicle Valve Regulated Dephi 312 53 (1C) >116.4 <16,536 1,175 Lead Acid 1998 Chevrolet S-10 Electric vehicle Nickel-metal Ovonic Energy 343 85 (C/2) >98.5 <29,155 1,079 Hydride Products 1998 RAV4 Electric vehicle Nickel-metal Panasonic 288 95 (C/3) >57.3 <27,360 1,014 Hydride 1998 Ford Ranger Electric vehicle Valve Regulated Delphi Energy 312 60 (C/2) >87.4 <18,720 1,914 Lead Acid 1999 Chrysler Epic Electric vehicle Nickel-metal SAFT 336 82 (C/3) >91.3 <27,552 1,170 Hydride 1999 GM EV1 Electric vehicle Nickel-metal Ovonic Energy 343 85 (C/2) >104 <29,155 1,058 Hydride Products 1999 Ford Th!nk “Universal Nickel Cadmium SAFT 114 100 (C/3) >9.5 <11,400 245 electric vehicle” (NiCd) 2001 Frazer-Nash City “Neighborhood Absorptive Glass Electrosource 48 136 (C/2) >4.24 <6,528 462 Car electric vehicle” Mat 2001 Frazer-Nash “Neighborhood Absorptive Glass Electrosource 48 136 (C/2) >5.23 <6,528 462 Truck electric vehicle” Mat 2002 Columba ParCar “Neighborhood Flooded Lead Trojan 48 146 (C/2) >2.65 <7,008 493 2 passenger electric vehicle” Acid continued 

OCR for page 114
 APPENdIX F TABLE F-1 Continued Nominal Nominal Nominal Power Energy Pack Model Battery Battery Total Capacity Capacity Capacity Weight Year Vehicle Vehicle Type Technology Manufacturer Voltage (Ah) (kW) (Wh) (lb) 2002 Columba ParCar “Neighborhood Flooded Lead Trojan 48 146 (C/2) >3.06 <7,008 493 4 passenger electric vehicle” Acid 2002 GEM E825 2 “Neighborhood Flooded Lead Trojan 72 79 (C/2) >2.53 <5,688 396 passenger electric vehicle” Acid 2002 GEM E825 4 “Neighborhood Flooded Lead Trojan 72 79 (C/2) >3.12 <5,688 396 passenger electric vehicle” Acid 2001 Honda Insight Hybrid electric Nickel-metal Panasonic EV 144 6.0 (C/2) >1.35 <864 48 vehicle Hydride Energy 2001 Toyota Prius Hybrid electric Nickel-metal 274 N/A N/A N/A N/A vehicle Hydride 2002 Toyota Prius Hybrid electric Nickel-metal Panasonic EV 274 6.5 (C/2) >2.0 <1,781 86 vehicle Hydride Energy 2003 Honda Civic Hybrid electric Nickel-metal Panasonic EV 144 6.0 (C/2) >1.35 <864 48 vehicle Hydride Energy 2004 Toyota Prius Hybrid electric Nickel-metal Panasonic EV 201.6 6.5 (C/2) <4.435 <1,310.4 65 vehicle Hydride Energy 2004 Chevrolet Hybrid electric Valve Regulated Panasonic 36 70 (C/?) <2.250 <2520 137 Silverado vehicle Lead Acid 2005 Ford Escape Hybrid electric Nickel-metal Sanyo Electric 330 5.5 (C/?) <4.752 <1,815 110 vehicle Hydride 2005 Honda Accord Hybrid electric Nickel-metal Sanyo Electric 144 6 (C/?) <2.045 <864 48 vehicle Hydride 2006 Honda Civic Hybrid electric Nickel-metal Panasonic EV 158.4 5.5 (C/?) <1.072 <871 N/A vehicle Hydride Energy 2006 Lexus RX400h Hybrid electric Nickel-metal Panasonic EV 288 6.5 (C/?) <3.02 <1,872 N/A vehicle Hydride Energy 2006 Toyota Hybrid electric Nickel-metal Panasonic EV 288 6.5 (C/?) <3.07 <1,872 N/A Highlander vehicle Hydride Energy 2007 GM Saturn Vue Hybrid electric Nickel-metal Cobasys 36 18.4 (C/?) <0.514 <662 N/A vehicle Hydride 2007 Toyota Camry Hybrid electric Nickel-metal Panasonic EV 244.8 6.5 (C/?) <2,247.264 <1,591 160 vehicle Hydride Energy 2008 Toyota Hybrid electric Nickel-metal N/A 288 N/A 45 kW N/A N/A Highlander vehicle Hydride 2008 Toyota Prius Hybrid electric Nickel-metal N/A 201.6 N/A 21 kW N/A N/A vehicle Hydride 2008 Toyota Camry Hybrid electric Nickel-metal N/A 244.8 N/A 30 kW N/A N/A vehicle Hydride Military HE-HMMWV Heavy-duty Li-ion SAFT 300 152 18,000 N/A hybrid electric vehicle Military RSTV Heavy-duty Lithium ion SAFT 216 70 17,200 N/A hybrid electric vehicle Military LANCER Tank Lithium ion SAFT 5,600 150 N/A N/A Military US Army Future Heavy-duty Nickel metal Cobasys 336 280 11,000 N/A Tactical Truck hybrid electric hydride System (FTTS) vehicle TBD GMC 2500 Van Nickel metal Cobasys 336 8.5 (C/?) 70 2,800 N/A hydride 2006 Toyota Prius Parallel hybrid Lithium ion Valence 230.4 43 N/A N/A N/A electric vehicle 2007 Toyota Prius Parallel hybrid Lithium ion A123 184.8 25 N/A N/A N/A electric vehicle