Empirically Supported Principles of Practice for Environmental Public Participation
MANAGEMENT PRACTICES (Chapter 4)
Clarity of purpose
Commitment to use the process to inform decisions
Commitment to learning
ORGANIZING PARTICIPATION (Chapter 5)
Inclusiveness of participation
Collaborative problem formulation and process design
Transparency of process
INTEGRATING SCIENCE (Chapter 6)
Iteration between analysis and broadly based deliberation with:
participants select from among the great variety of available formats and practices those that may help address the particular difficulties they can expect to encounter.
However, there are limits in offering prescriptions. As the following chapters show, it is neither possible nor advisable to identify any single “best practice” for conducting public participation or even for overcoming particular difficulties that certain contexts present. Rather, the best that can be done after identifying the likely difficulties is to select practices collaboratively to try to address them and then to monitor the process to see whether the practices are accomplishing the desired results, keeping open the possibility of changing practices or formats when they are unsuccessful.