• Mild TBI and long-term adverse social functioning, including unemployment, diminished social relationships, and decrease in the ability to live independently.

  • TBI and mania or bipolar disorder.

  • TBI and attempted suicide.

  • TBI and multiple sclerosis.

  • TBI and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

Limited/Suggestive Evidence of No Association

Evidence from several adequate studies, covering the full range of severity of TBI that humans are known to encounter, is consistent in not showing a positive association between TBI and a specific health outcome. A conclusion of no association is inevitably limited to the conditions, magnitudes of exposure (types of TBI—mild, moderate, and severe or penetrating), and length of observation in the available studies. The possibility of a very small increase in risk of the health outcome after TBI cannot be excluded.

  • None.

The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine
500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001

Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement