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Risk of Vessel Accidents and Spills in the Aleutian Islands: Designing a Comprehensive Risk Assessment CHAPTER 2 Fundamentals of Risk Assessment Risk is the combination of the likelihood and consequences of an undesirable event. For example, the risk of pollution from a vessel accident could be expressed as the likelihood of a spill combined with the impact of that spill. As noted in Chapter 1, to calculate risk, situations must be evaluated to answer the following questions: What can go wrong? How likely is it? What are the impacts? The first question involves creation of a risk scenario; the second, determination of likelihood; and the third, specification of consequences. The process for answering these three questions is called “risk analysis,” and the answers derived, for all possible scenarios, are a complete expression of the risk being assessed. This chapter provides an overview of risk assessment; describes the overall organization of and approach to risk assessment; and summarizes the committee’s proposed approach for a risk assessment of shipping operations in the Aleutian Islands, which is detailed in Chapters 5 and 6.
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Risk of Vessel Accidents and Spills in the Aleutian Islands: Designing a Comprehensive Risk Assessment OVERVIEW OF RISK ASSESSMENT Risk assessment combines risk analysis with risk management, the latter term denoting the processes of establishing risk tolerance criteria and selecting and implementing risk reduction measures. Risk assessment is a rational and structured approach for identifying hazards, analyzing risk, and identifying risk reduction measures. Properly implemented within an organization that follows a long-term risk management process, it provides a cost-effective basis for maintaining risk within appropriate limits. In the marine industry, various risk assessment frameworks exist. One established approach is the International Maritime Organization’s (IMO’s) Formal Safety Assessment (FSA). FSA is described by IMO as a “rational and systematic process for assessing risks relating to maritime safety and the protection of the marine environment” (IMO 2002, 1). This process is also used by IMO for evaluating the cost and benefits of options for reducing risks (IMO 2002). The results of risk assessments, including those employing FSA approaches, can be used to compare options, weigh costs against benefits, and aid in making decisions among options. Figure 2-1 outlines the FSA process. Most risk assessment processes, including those applied in other fields, such as the aviation and nuclear power industries (NRC 1997; NRC 1994; NRC 1983), use the same overall approach as FSA and generally comprise the following steps: Hazard identification, Risk analysis, Risk control options, Cost–benefit assessment, and Recommendations for decision making. Step 1: Hazard Identification The hazard identification step, in the IMO approach, might more properly be called the hazard and accident scenario identification step. Hazards are materials or conditions with the potential to result in harm to human life or health, property, or the environment. During this preliminary hazard identification stage, analysts use a combination of techniques aimed at identifying all relevant hazards
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Risk of Vessel Accidents and Spills in the Aleutian Islands: Designing a Comprehensive Risk Assessment FIGURE 2-1 IMO’s FSA process. (Source: IMO 2002.) and associated scenarios within the scope of the risk assessment study. In the case of shipping operations, the objectives of hazard identification are to Identify specific hazards involved in shipping that have the potential to harm human life and health, property, or the environment;1 Identify accident types (e.g., drift groundings, powered groundings, collisions) and scenarios and provide an understanding of the causal factors (e.g., loss of steering, inadequate stability) and conditions (e.g., sea state, weather, current) leading to these accidents; Provide an understanding of the likelihood and consequences of these accidents and scenarios; and Identify the high-risk scenarios and conditions under which they may occur. Hazard identification generally involves both high-level analytical and qualitative assessments. Various techniques are applied, such as checklists, HaZID (Center for Chemical Process Safety 2008), and expert judgment. (The formal use of expert opinion and evidence is summarized in Appendix C. The discussion covers the use of expert opinion, the “facilitator,” and the issue of controlling bias.) The analytical assessment helps ensure that historical expe- 1 All other consequences of concern to stakeholders that are discussed later in this report are direct impacts of such harm or fear that it will occur.
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Risk of Vessel Accidents and Spills in the Aleutian Islands: Designing a Comprehensive Risk Assessment rience and accident data are taken into account; it is performed at a coarse level, sufficient to help identify the principal hazards and scenarios. The hazard identification should not be restricted to situations that have occurred in the past; rather, the approach used should allow for creative thinking such that potential hazards not previously encountered are also postulated. Keeping the analysis as broad as possible at this stage is essential to a quality assessment (Atwood et al. 2003; DNV 2002; NRC 1994; O’Hara et al. 2004). Step 2: Risk Analysis Once hazards and accident scenarios have been identified, detailed analysis of risks can begin. This step involves more rigorous investigations into the conditions and causes of the most significant scenarios. It commonly includes processing and analyzing large quantities of data and performing modeling. The analysis relies on historical experience, analytical methods, and expert knowledge or judgment. To conduct a risk assessment, analysts must make practical decisions about the techniques to be used, such as hazard and operability analysis (HaZOP) (CCPS 2008), event and fault trees, elicitation of expert judgment, human reliability analysis (discussed in Appendix D), simulation, and consequence (fate and transport) analysis. Analysts must also determine the effort necessary to achieve a level of precision from the risk analysis that will ultimately result in beneficial, usable results for all concerned or potentially affected. Thus analysts must determine whether quantitative, semiquantitative, or qualitative techniques or a combination thereof will provide the most appropriate risk estimates. Regardless of what techniques are used, careful identification of the sources of uncertainty is required, along with estimates of the uncertainty in stated results (Atwood et al. 2003; DNV 2002; O’Hara et al. 2004). (Appendix E examines issues associated with uncertainty, including sources of uncertainty, sensitivity analysis, propagation of uncertainty, and Bayesian statistical analysis.) The choice of techniques is influenced by the nature of the available information and the precision necessary to determine a credible risk value. Figure 2-2 illustrates how qualitative or quantitative techniques can be used for risk analysis (ABS 2000). Regardless of the techniques chosen, the goal of the analysis remains the same: to derive
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Risk of Vessel Accidents and Spills in the Aleutian Islands: Designing a Comprehensive Risk Assessment FIGURE 2-2 Risk analysis techniques. (Source: ABS 2002.) estimations of risk and to provide detail sufficient for examining risk reduction measures that can achieve a tolerable level of risk (NRC 1989). The output of the risk analysis should be a refined characterization of scenarios, their likelihood, and their consequences, allowing risks to be ranked in order of consideration for risk control options. Scenarios Scenarios are initially narrative descriptions of what can happen. In the case of shipping operations, developing scenarios requires extensive experience in those operations, good engineering knowledge, and a grasp of the modeling required to develop scenarios that can be analyzed efficiently. (See Appendix F for a detailed description of event sequence diagram methodology and risk scenario development.) Figure 2-3 illustrates the primary aspects of marine scenarios. The scenario begins with an initiating cause, such as a loss of propulsion, a fire, or adverse weather. The next step is to develop a sequence of events that represents the response of the “system” (the ship, its hardware and software, its crew) to the cause. The safeguards in place (barriers, operational controls, and risk control options) are delineated. If the cause is not controlled by the safeguards, failures may occur (hardware failures, human and organizational failures, or failures caused by environmental stressors). This
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Risk of Vessel Accidents and Spills in the Aleutian Islands: Designing a Comprehensive Risk Assessment FIGURE 2-3 Primary aspects of marine scenarios. sequence of events either is arrested or leads to an accident that can have immediate consequences, such as loss of life, physical damage to the ship, and spills of hazardous materials. If a spill is involved, the scenario continues through transport of the material and its deposition in the environment. Should a spill occur, mitigation measures (additional safeguards) can limit the environmental and subsequent economic and social consequences. Remediation, or cleaning up the contamination, can limit harm to life in the area. Likelihood Estimates of the likelihood of the identified scenarios come first from experienced judgment and second from simple statistics based on analysis of accident reports. Finally, when needed, likelihood estimates are derived from evaluation of detailed models of the scenarios. Consequences The consequences of concern to stakeholders are identified through literature reviews and interactions with stakeholders (NRC 1994; NRC 1989). For the present study, the committee identified preliminary consequences of concern following a series of informational meetings (see the “Risk Assessment Approach” section later in this chapter). Analysts will need to refine this list. Historical consequences related to loss of life and damage to ships and cargoes can be
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Risk of Vessel Accidents and Spills in the Aleutian Islands: Designing a Comprehensive Risk Assessment quantified from accident data. Consequences to the environment can be identified through modeling efforts. The few historical events with significant consequences can indicate the potential extent of consequences but are not adequate for prediction purposes. One aim of the risk analysis is to determine and characterize the risk levels of various scenarios. Often this characterization will use categories such as the following to determine the importance of risk reduction for a given scenario: Negligible—no risk reduction methods required; Tolerable—risk should be reduced to “as low as reasonably practical”; and Intolerable—risk reduction must be undertaken irrespective of cost. Such characterization allows comparison across scenarios and risks and provides a means for properly considering risk reduction for situations outside acceptable boundaries given the concerns and needs of the various stakeholders. Step 3: Risk Control Options The next step is to identify possible risk control measures, prioritize and identify those that are more promising, and analyze their effectiveness. The results of the screening process associated with hazard identification and the risk analysis of the existing system allow the assessment of risk control measures to focus on scenarios identified as having the highest risk, considering the combination of likelihood of occurrence and consequences. However, it is also important to consider scenarios identified as having the highest likelihood of occurrence even if their consequences are modest, and scenarios having the highest consequences even if their likelihood is small. Once screened, the more promising risk control measures are subjected to risk analysis as described in Step 2 above to quantify their impact on the likelihood and consequences of accidents. Step 4: Cost–Benefit Assessment The purpose of cost–benefit assessment is to provide an additional tool for decision making that identifies the implementation
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Risk of Vessel Accidents and Spills in the Aleutian Islands: Designing a Comprehensive Risk Assessment costs and the expected benefits of risk reduction measures. Cost-effectiveness is often expressed in terms of net cost per unit reduction in risk, enabling the ranking of risk reduction measures. While determining implementation costs and understanding the relationship between costs and benefits yield valuable input for the decision-making process, that process is inevitably more complex than simply selecting the most cost-effective solutions. For example, certain benefits, such as damage to natural resources and societal impacts, are difficult to quantify in monetary terms yet need to be considered in the overall assessment. In cost–benefit assessment, costs usually are discounted to present value. Benefits generally are not discounted; rather, the cumulative benefits over the study period are applied. Thus, a cost-effectiveness index for a risk reduction measure is calculated as the net cost of the measure divided by its gross benefits. For shipping operations, typical indices are dollars per fatality avoided or dollars per gallon of oil spill avoided. Alternatively, a multidimensional comparison of costs and risk curves or risk matrices (described later in this chapter) can be more informative than calculation of a cost–benefit ratio. Step 5: Recommendations for Decision Making The final step in IMO’s FSA methodology is to present decision makers with a set of well-defined recommendations. Those recommendations should reflect all relevant findings, including the following: Comparison and ranking of the hazards and risk scenarios, Comparison and ranking of risk control measures as a function of costs and benefits, and Consideration of risk control measures that keep risks as low as reasonably practical. Documentation of the recommendations should include a description of the evaluation criteria used in ranking the risks and risk reduction measures. It should also include an explanation of significant uncertainties associated with the recommendations (NRC 1989)—in the case of costs, for example, the interest rate used for discounting (see the discussion of addressing uncertainty in Appendix E).
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Risk of Vessel Accidents and Spills in the Aleutian Islands: Designing a Comprehensive Risk Assessment ORGANIZATION OF RISK ASSESSMENT Definition of the Problem Before beginning a risk analysis, it is important to define the problem carefully. The purpose of problem definition is to identify objectives and set the bounds for and focus of the analysis. As an example of defining the problem at hand, the risk assessment addressed by the present study focuses on accidents and spills rather than intentional operational releases. This is but one of many dimensions that must be defined for this risk assessment. The charge to the committee and this report define the problem and scope of the approach for this risk assessment study. Management of the Assessment The previous section described the sequence of steps to be followed in a risk assessment. Other important analytical choices include whether the assessment should be tiered in a way that permits broad-brush qualitative aspects of risk to be examined first, on the chance that easily identified risks can be addressed by measures that are relatively easy to implement, saving both time and expense. If this approach is applied, measures with high benefit and relatively low implementation costs may prove sufficient in some circumstances, obviating the need to extend the assessment into areas of greater precision whereby quantitative estimates of risk are developed. When a risk assessment is intended to aid decision makers in identifying and reducing technological risks of considerable public concern, some elements of how best to organize the study are matters of choice that are not easily prescribed. Primary among these is the relationship to be developed among managers and decision makers, analysts, those with local knowledge of the technological system undergoing analysis, others with a detailed understanding of the potential local environmental and socioeconomic impacts associated with the risks of concern, and the broader stakeholder community of interested and affected parties. The modern approach to risk assessment increasingly emphasizes formal roles for all these parties.
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Risk of Vessel Accidents and Spills in the Aleutian Islands: Designing a Comprehensive Risk Assessment Stakeholder Engagement Recent years have seen a trend in risk assessment toward extensive engagement of stakeholders throughout the process of defining and analyzing risks and identifying risk reduction measures (Bonano et al. 2000; NRC 1996; Presidential/Congressional Commission on Risk Assessment and Risk Management 1997; Omenn 2006). For example, the Presidential/Congressional Commission on Risk Assessment and Risk Management (1997) divided the risk assessment and management process into six stages. Only the final “evaluation” stage (which involves assessing the effectiveness of measures adopted to address the identified risks) is cited as being appropriately conducted without explicit stakeholder involvement (see Figure 2-4). FIGURE 2-4 Engagement of stakeholders in the risk assessment and management process. (Source: Omenn 2006. Reprinted with permission from the American Association for the Advancement of Science.)
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Risk of Vessel Accidents and Spills in the Aleutian Islands: Designing a Comprehensive Risk Assessment Engaging stakeholders, decision makers, and analysts—typically contractors—in the design and conduct of a risk assessment has been termed “collaborative risk assessment” (Charnley 2000). This was the approach taken in the Prince William Sound Risk Assessment Study (PWS study) (Merrick et al. 2002), in which a “highly interactive and cooperative” steering committee (NRC 1998) played a significant role in shaping the overall study through frequent meetings with the analytical team. The steering committee operated by means of consensus decision making. In the end, although it had begun as an advisory body with many members skeptical about the outcome of the study, it fully endorsed the study results and volunteered to be the publisher of record for the final study report (Merrick et al. 2002; PWS Steering Committee 1996). The PWS study’s steering committee was constituted to be broadly representative of the main groups with an interest in risk reduction in Prince William Sound, groups that, in the aftermath of the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill, had highly adversarial relationships. The committee’s unanimous acceptance of the study results, together with self-reports by the study team (Merrick et al. 2002), suggest that stakeholder engagement accomplished an important goal of collaborative risk assessment—organizational learning that led not only to new understanding of the nature of risks within the system but also to a new collaborative decision-making approach to managing the identified risks. Stakeholders contributed resources, knowledge, and information to the study, and the resulting collaborative learning induced not only policy but also organizational change (Busenberg 2000). In the PWS study, local stakeholders played another important role—supplying substantive domain expertise that helped the study team quantify the relative importance, in terms of relative conditional probabilities, of various situational factors that could influence risk in the Prince William Sound shipping system (Merrick et al. 2002). A group consisting of pilots, deck officers, and shipboard engineers who had worked aboard trade vessels of the Trans-Alaska Pipeline System rated the relative likelihood of a large number of different scenarios resulting in accidents. The results of questionnaires in which 120 scenarios were rated (Merrick et al. 2002) became a primary data source for the PWS study.
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Risk of Vessel Accidents and Spills in the Aleutian Islands: Designing a Comprehensive Risk Assessment analysts to review various scenarios and risk controls and safeguards in place and to compare them against broad risk criteria with established thresholds to determine which scenarios require further assessment. The further assessment can be conducted with either qualitative or quantitative methods, again depending on the nature of the information available and the level of precision required. At the same time, it is important to retain the list of screened scenarios. In fact, it is better to think of this process as one of setting priorities, because assumptions used in the screening process need to be tested later in the analysis to ensure that important scenarios have not been set aside. In addition, new information often emerges that challenges early assumptions. Analysts must expand the potentially important, high-level, simplified accident scenarios with detailed information from the available data sources. To extract the most useful information from the historical record, a model is needed. For this purpose, the committee proposes an extension of the simplified accident scenario model illustrated in Figure 2-7. It begins with the three elements shown in Figure 2-8 that represent the initial or boundary conditions for the scenario: the ship type (including its fuel and cargo); its location in the Aleutian chain; and the conditions, such as sea state and weather, before and during the sequence of events of the accident. All ship types must be considered; those of importance will surely include tankers, containerships, service and refueling support ships, fishing boats, local commercial ships, and passenger ships. As for locations, the Risk Analysis Team will likely need to break up the areas near the Aleutians into zones mapped onto the sea, identifying areas of similar hazard and sensitivity, such as passes and harbors (see Figure 2-9). Conditions of importance identified by the committee include weather (sea state, freak waves, icing, wind, rain, and fog), traffic, season of the year, and time of day. Incorporated next are the additional elements identified in the simplified accident scenario of Figure 2-7: the cause, the accident FIGURE 2-8 Initial conditions.
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Risk of Vessel Accidents and Spills in the Aleutian Islands: Designing a Comprehensive Risk Assessment FIGURE 2-9 Illustrative zones in the Aleutians. category, and the immediate damage. Adding the opportunities for crew/rescuer control, the environmental consequences, and possible remediation yields the basic scenario model for the risk analysis (see Figure 2-10). This model can be used in several ways to facilitate the risk analysis, as described below. The elements of the model can be defined as follows: Cause [fire or explosion, flooding, human error, loss of propulsion, loss of steerage, and weather (from the conditions identified earlier)]. Accident category (drift grounding, powered grounding, collision, allision, structural failure). FIGURE 2-10 Basic scenario model for Aleutian shipping risk analysis.
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Risk of Vessel Accidents and Spills in the Aleutian Islands: Designing a Comprehensive Risk Assessment Immediate damage [spill (material, amount, rate, duration), loss of life (crew and rescuers), physical damage to property]. Opportunities for control. [Crew and rescuers usually have multiple opportunities to control the accident, and the analysis team must identify and model them. They are grouped into two general types in the basic scenario model: the opportunity to control events (a) before the causal event actually becomes an accident and (b) after the accident has caused immediate damage but before subsequent consequences accrue.] Environmental consequences. (Because of the rare nature of serious spills, modeling is needed to evaluate environmental and subsequent socioeconomic damage; anecdotal evidence is available in the data.) Possible remediation (the final opportunity to control long-term losses). Event analysis proceeds with cataloging of the results of the review of accident records within the framework of the scenario model. For this purpose, a table with headings corresponding to the elements of the scenario model can be used (see Table 2-2). Once analysts have populated the table (referred to as the event database) by using the available data, they will find that many of the cells are empty because of incompleteness in the accident reports. Nevertheless, a variety of useful analyses can be performed: Major accident categories can be grouped on the basis of events in the database. TABLE 2-2 Elements of the Scenario Model Event Ship Type and Cargo Location Conditions Cause Opportunity for Control Accident Category Immediate Damage Opportunity for Control Environmental Consequences Remediation Event 1 Event 2
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Risk of Vessel Accidents and Spills in the Aleutian Islands: Designing a Comprehensive Risk Assessment The frequencies of representative sequences of events through immediate damage can be determined by combining data from the Aleutian events table, the generic (worldwide) table, and expert judgment. Pairs of consequences and conditions can be examined, and conditional probability estimates can be developed, such as the likelihood of drift groundings involving bad weather or collisions occurring in passes compared with other locations. Finally, the basic scenario model provides a useful structure for evaluating and comparing risk control options. Figure 2-11 illustrates how risk control options can intervene at every stage of the scenario. Interventions before the accident occurs are known as “prevention” and are clearly preferred. However, it is impossible, economically and in principle, to prevent every accident. Some unanticipated events will occur, and one must be able to control such events. Moreover, in many cases it is more feasible and economically viable to control an event than to try to prevent it. Therefore, the best approach is to distribute risk control options throughout the scenario, some offering prevention and others providing mitigation of accident consequences (Atwood et al. 2003; DNV 2002; O’Hara et al. 2004; USNRC 1981). An approach for evaluating competing options qualitatively is to evaluate each option against each stage of the model. In this process, favored solutions must be considered on the same FIGURE 2-11 Risk control can intervene at every stage of the scenario.
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Risk of Vessel Accidents and Spills in the Aleutian Islands: Designing a Comprehensive Risk Assessment basis as all others. Overstated claims must be proved. Table 2-2, based on the scenario model, provides a tool for this evaluation. As each option is considered, analysts ask for which scenarios and where in each the option offers improvement. They then enter in the table the effectiveness of the option versus the stages. Also included are the basis for that claim and the feasibility and practicality of the option and its expected costs. These evaluations can be based on judgment, but it must be informed and documented judgment. Many proposed options can be expected to be seen as offering improvements for similar effects. In such cases, it is likely that only one of the competing options should be instituted. Careful cost–benefit analysis will suggest which one to choose. Note that after qualitative analysis and preliminary quantitative analysis, it may be possible to select some particularly obvious options for implementation. In most cases, however, more thorough, detailed models and quantification will be required. RISK ASSESSMENT OF ALEUTIAN SHIPPING OPERATIONS The approach for the Aleutian Islands risk assessment proposed by the committee encompasses all the steps in IMO’s FSA identified earlier in Figure 2-1: hazard identification, risk analysis, risk control options, cost–benefit assessment, and recommendations for decision making. However, the organization and sequencing of the specific tasks necessary to complete these steps need to reflect lessons learned from many previous risk assessments. The progress of the PWS study illustrated many problems that need to be avoided. Risk analysts tend to attack the problem in bottom-up fashion, attempting to perform the best and most complete analysis possible. By the time they make their first attempt to quantify their model, the majority of the available funding has been spent. Many corrections, reframings, and additions are required, but there are no resources to complete the work. Experience has revealed that a phased approach can avoid many of these problems, better focus the detailed analysis effort, and provide useful results at an early stage. The committee’s plan for the risk assessment of Aleutian shipping operations begins with a Phase A Preliminary Risk Assess-
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Risk of Vessel Accidents and Spills in the Aleutian Islands: Designing a Comprehensive Risk Assessment ment that structures the overall problem. It is as complete as possible in formulating the range of possible scenarios, but modeling is limited. The Phase A assessment relies heavily on data analysis and expert judgment. The follow-on Phase B Focused Risk Assessment is aimed at providing careful and detailed comparisons of risk before and after risk control options are applied. The committee proposes an organizational structure for the risk assessment consisting of four groups or panels—a Management Team, an Advisory Panel, a Risk Analysis Team, and a Peer Review Panel. The Management Team would assume overall responsibility for ensuring that the work is carried out in an effective and useful way. The Advisory Panel would consist of stakeholders and experts who could provide local knowledge and expertise. The Risk Analysis Team would be provided by the contractor. Finally, the Peer Review Panel would provide technical oversight. The four groups would interact to move the project through the risk management process shown in Figure 2-12. Details are provided in Chapters 5 and 6. The entire risk assessment must encompass the steps outlined in Figure 2-13. The work begins with the Phase A risk analysis, which provides a high-level estimate of the likelihood and consequences of FIGURE 2-12 Steps in the risk management process for the Aleutian Islands.
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Risk of Vessel Accidents and Spills in the Aleutian Islands: Designing a Comprehensive Risk Assessment FIGURE 2-13 Steps in the proposed tiered risk management process. accidents and dominant accident scenarios. This is followed by a ranking of accidents and accident scenarios by level of risk and development of a list of potential risk reduction measures. Next are a qualitative assessment and prioritization of risk reduction measures. In Phase B, detailed analysis provides more rigorous comparisons of risk with and without specific risk control measures. The analysis includes quantitative risk analysis to estimate the effectiveness and benefit–cost of risk reduction measures, ranking of the measures, and the recommendation of measures for implementation. To avoid misleading results, groups of control measures must be examined to ensure that the potential improvements offered by one measure are not already provided by others. The basic task structure of the proposed risk assessment approach is shown in Table 2-3, which indicates how the Aleutian Islands risk assessment tasks relate to IMO’s FSA steps. Phase A includes the
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Risk of Vessel Accidents and Spills in the Aleutian Islands: Designing a Comprehensive Risk Assessment TABLE 2-3 How the Tasks of the Aleutian Islands Phased Risk Assessment Relate to the Steps in IMO’s FSA Task IMO FSA Step 1. Hazard Identification 2. Risk Analysis 3. Risk Control Options 4. Cost-Benefit Assessment 5. Decision-Making Recommendations Phase A Preliminary Risk Assessment 1. Traffic Study 2. Baseline Spill Study 3. Identification of High-Risk Accidents 4. Phase A Consequence Analysis 5. Accident Scenario and Causality Study 6. Development of Rankings for Accident Scenarios 7. Development of List of Potential Risk Reduction Options 8. Evaluation of Risk Reduction Options 9. Prioritizing of Risk Reduction Measures 10. Peer Review Phase B Focused Risk Assessment: Comparative Analysis of Risk Control Options 1a. Detailed Risk Comparison: Base Case Versus Option Set 1 1b. Cost–Benefit Assessment: Base Case Versus Option Set 1 2a. … Decision-Making Recommendations
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Risk of Vessel Accidents and Spills in the Aleutian Islands: Designing a Comprehensive Risk Assessment FSA’s hazard identification step; the qualitative and initial quantitative portions of the risk analysis step; and preliminary portions of the risk control options, cost–benefit assessment, and decision-making recommendations steps. Upon completion of Phase A, the risk analysts will have identified the major accident categories and estimated their likelihood. The analysts will have defined the full range of scenarios that may be of interest and investigated the fate of a representative set of spills in a representative set of locations along the Aleutian chain. Local experts and stakeholders will have proposed a set of risk reduction options, evaluated their feasibility and potential impacts on each element of the scenarios, and made preliminary recommendations for prioritizing the options. This approach will ensure that a well-defined subset of the full risk assessment with a closely controlled scope is performed initially. Phase A will provide useful preliminary results and a sound basis for scoping future work while retaining a substantial portion of the budget for specific analyses. Phase B is expected to be performed in a series of follow-on tasks aimed at refining the Phase A results for evaluation of specific risk reduction options. Organizing the steps of a risk assessment in a series of phases is a well-tested approach for improving the quality and cost-effectiveness of the endeavor. Careful structuring of tasks is required to ensure that the initial phase provides useful information, does not mask important aspects of the problem, and does not bias future work (Atwood et al. 2003; DNV 2002; O’Hara et al. 2004). REFERENCES Abbreviations ABS American Bureau of Shipping CCPS Center for Chemical Process Safety DNV Det Norske Veritas IMO International Maritime Organization NRC National Research Council PWS Prince William Sound USNRC U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission ABS. 2000. ABS Guidance Notes on Risk Assessment. Houston, Tex. Atwood, C. L., J. L. LaChance, H. F. Martz, D. L. Anderson, M. Englehardte, D. Whitehead, and T. Wheeler. 2003. Handbook of Parameter Estimation for
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Risk of Vessel Accidents and Spills in the Aleutian Islands: Designing a Comprehensive Risk Assessment Probabilistic Risk Assessment. NUREG/CR-6823, SAND2003-3348P. Sandia National Laboratories for U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, D.C. Bonano, E. J., G. E. Apostolakis, P. F. Salter, A. Ghassemi, and S. Jennings. 2000. Application of Risk Assessment and Decision Analysis to the Evaluation, Ranking and Selection of Environmental Remediation Alternatives. Journal of Hazardous Materials, Vol. 71, pp. 35–57. Busenberg, G. 2000. Innovation, Learning, and Policy Evolution in Hazardous Systems. American Behavioral Science, Vol. 44, No. 4, pp. 1–11. CCPS. 2008. Guidelines for Hazard Evaluation Procedures, 3rd ed. John Wiley and Sons, N.J. Charnley, G. 2000. Enhancing the Role of Science in Stakeholders-Based Risk Management Decision-Making. Health Risk Strategies, Washington, D.C. DNV. 2002. Marine Risk Assessment. Offshore Technology Report 2001/063. Health and Safety Executive, London. IMO. 2002. Guidelines for Formal Safety Assessment (FSA). IMO MSC/Circ. 1023, MEPC/Circ 392. April 5. Merrick, J. R. W., J. R. van Dorp, T. Mazzuchi, J. R. Harrald, J. E. Spahn, and M. Grabowski. 2002. The Prince William Sound Risk Assessment. Interfaces, Vol. 32, No. 6, pp. 25–40. Mikalsen, K., and S. Jentoft. 2001. From User-Groups to Stakeholders? The Public Interest in Fisheries Management. Marine Policy, Vol. 25, No. 4, pp. 281–292. Mitchell, R. K., B. R. Agle, and D. J. Wood. 1997. Toward a Theory of Stakeholder Identification and Salience: Defining the Principle of Who and What Really Counts. Academy of Management Review, Vol. 22, pp. 853–886. Murphy, C., and P. Gardoni. 2006. The Role of Society in Engineering Risk Analysis: A Capabilities-Based Approach. Risk Analysis, Vol. 26, No. 4, pp. 1073–1083. NRC. 1983. Risk Assessment in the Federal Government: Managing the Process. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C. NRC. 1989. Improving Risk Communication. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C. NRC. 1994. Science and Judgment in Risk Assessment. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C. NRC. 1996. Understanding Risk: Informing Decisions in a Democratic Society. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C. NRC. 1997. Risk Assessment and Management at Deseret Chemical Depot and the Tooele Chemical Agent Disposal Facility. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C. NRC. 1998. Review of the Prince William Sound, Alaska, Risk Assessment Study. Marine Board, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C. O’Hara, J. M., J. C. Higgins, J. J. Persensky, P. M. Lewis, and J. P. Bongarra. 2004. Human Factors Engineering Program Review Model. NUREG-0711, Rev. 2. U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, D.C.
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Risk of Vessel Accidents and Spills in the Aleutian Islands: Designing a Comprehensive Risk Assessment Omenn, G. S. 2006. Presidential Address: Grand Challenges and Great Opportunities in Science, Technology, and Public Policy. Science, Vol. 314, Dec. 15, pp. 1696–1704. Presidential/Congressional Commission on Risk Assessment and Risk Management. 1997. Framework for Environmental Health Risk Management. Final Report, Vol. 1. Washington, D.C. PWS Steering Committee. 1996. Prince William Sound, Alaska, Risk Assessment Study Final Report. DNV, George Washington University, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, and Le Moyne College, Dec. 15. Ritchie, L., and D. Gill. 2006. The Selendang Ayu Oil Spill: A Study of the Renewable Resource Community of Dutch Harbor/Unalaska. Quick Response Report 181. Natural Hazards Center, University of Colorado, Boulder. USNRC. 1981. Fault Tree Handbook. NUREG-0492. Washington, D.C.