M
Public Opinion Data on U.S. Attitudes Toward Government Counterterrorism Efforts

M.1
INTRODUCTION

Since September 11, 2001 (9/11), Americans have been forced to confront conflict between the values of privacy and security more directly than at any other time in their history. On one hand, in view of the unprecedented threat of terrorism, citizens must depend on the government to provide for their own and the nation’s security. On the other hand, technological advances mean that government surveillance in the interests of national security is potentially more sweeping in scope and more exhaustive in detail than at any time in the past, and thus it may represent a greater degree of intrusion on privacy and other civil liberties than the American public has ever experienced. In this appendix, we review the results of public opinion surveys that gauge the public’s reaction to government surveillance measures and information-gathering activities designed to foster national security. We attempt to examine the public’s view of the conflict between such surveillance measures and preservation of civil liberties.

Prior to 9/11, the American public’s privacy attitudes were located in the broad context of a tradition of limited government and assertion of

NOTE: The material presented in this appendix was prepared by Amy Corning and Eleanor Singer of the Survey Research Center of the University of Michigan, under contract to the National Research Council, for the committee responsible for this report. Apart from some minor editorial corrections, this appendix consists entirely of the original paper provided by Corning and Singer.



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M Public Opinion Data on U.S. Attitudes Toward Government Counterterrorism Efforts M.1 INTRODUCTION Since September 11, 2001 (9/11), Americans have been forced to con- front conflict between the values of privacy and security more directly than at any other time in their history. On one hand, in view of the unprec- edented threat of terrorism, citizens must depend on the government to provide for their own and the nation’s security. On the other hand, technological advances mean that government surveillance in the inter- ests of national security is potentially more sweeping in scope and more exhaustive in detail than at any time in the past, and thus it may repre- sent a greater degree of intrusion on privacy and other civil liberties than the American public has ever experienced. In this appendix, we review the results of public opinion surveys that gauge the public’s reaction to government surveillance measures and information-gathering activities designed to foster national security. We attempt to examine the public’s view of the conflict between such surveillance measures and preservation of civil liberties. Prior to 9/11, the American public’s privacy attitudes were located in the broad context of a tradition of limited government and assertion of NOTE: The material presented in this appendix was prepared by Amy Corning and Eleanor Singer of the Survey Research Center of the University of Michigan, under contract to the National Research Council, for the committee responsible for this report. Apart from some minor editorial corrections, this appendix consists entirely of the original paper provided by Corning and Singer. 

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 PROTECTING INDIVIDUAL PRIVACY IN THE STRUGGLE AGAINST TERRORISTS the individual rights of citizens. In the past, expanded government pow - ers have been instituted to promote security during national emergen- cies, but after the emergency receded, such powers have normally been rescinded.1 Although this historical context is one crucial influence, atti- tudes have been further shaped by developments of the postwar period. The importance of civil rights was highlighted by the social revolutions of the 1960s and 1970s, a period also characterized by growing distrust of government; the latter decade also brought legislation designed to secure individuals’ rights to privacy. During the 1980s, developments in com- puting and telecommunications laid the groundwork for new challenges to privacy rights. The public consistently opposed the consolidation of information on citizens in centralized files or databanks, and federal leg- islation attempted to preserve existing privacy protections in the context of new technological developments.2 By the 1990s, however, technological advances—including the rise of the Internet, the widespread adoption of wireless communication, the decoding of human DNA, the development of data mining software, increasing automation of government records, the increasing speed and decreasing cost of computing and online storage power—occurred so quickly that they outpaced efforts to modify legisla- tion to protect privacy, as well as the public’s ability to fully comprehend their privacy implications, contributing to high salience of privacy con- siderations and concerns.3 The terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, thus occurred in a charged environment, in which the public already regarded both business and government as potential threats to privacy. Almost immediately, the pas- sage of the Patriot Act in 2001 raised questions about the appropriate nature and scope of the government’s expanded powers and framed the public debate in terms of a sacrifice of civil liberties, including privacy, in the interests of national security. Citizens appeared willing to make such sacrifices at a time of national emergency, however, and in the months following 9/11, tolerance for government antiterrorism surveillance was extremely high. Nevertheless, the public did not uncritically accept government intrusions: to use Westin’s term, they exhibited “rational ambivalence” by simultaneously expressing support for surveillance and 1A.F. Westin, “How the public sees the security-versus-liberty debate,” pp. 19-36 in Protect- ing What Matters: Technology, Security, and Liberty Since / (C. Northouse, ed.), Brookings Institution Press, Washington, D.C., 2005. 2A.F. Westin, “Social and political dimensions of privacy,” Journal of Social Issues 59(2):411- 429, 2003. 3A. Corning and E. Singer, Surey of U.S. Priacy Attitudes, report prepared for the Center for Democracy and Technology, Washington, D.C., 2003.

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 APPENDIX M concern about protection of civil liberties as the government employed its expanded powers in investigating potential terrorist threats. 4 Like other analysts,5 we find that acceptance of government surveil- lance measures has diminished over the years since 9/11, and that people are now both less convinced of the need to cede privacy and other civil liberties in the course of terrorism investigation and personally less will- ing to give up their freedoms. We show that critical views are visible in the closely related domains of attitudes toward individual surveillance measures and toward recently revealed secret surveillance programs. More generally, public pessimism about protection of the right to privacy has increased. Westin identified five influences on people’s attitudes toward the bal- ance between security and civil liberties: perceptions of terrorist threat; assessment of government effectiveness in dealing with terrorism; per- ceptions of how government terrorism prevention programs are affect- ing civil liberties; prior attitudes toward security and civil liberties; and broader political orientations, which may in turn be shaped by demo- graphic and other social background factors.6 This review confirms the role of these influences on public attitudes toward privacy and security in the post-9/11 era. This examination of research on attitudes toward government surveil- lance since 9/11 leads us to draw the following general conclusions: 1. As time from a direct terrorist attack on U.S. soil increases, the pub- lic is growing less certain of the need to sacrifice civil liberties for terror- ism prevention, less willing to make such sacrifices, and more concerned that government counterterrorism efforts will erode privacy. 2. Tolerance for most individual surveillance measures declined in the five years after 9/11. The public’s attitudes toward recently revealed monitoring programs are mixed, with no clear consensus. 3. There is no strong support for health information databases that could be used to identify bioterrorist attacks or other threats to public health. 4 The term is Westin’s. See A.F. Westin, “How the public sees the security-versus-liberty debate,” pp. 19-36 in Protecting What Matters: Technology, Security, and Liberty Since / (C. Northouse, ed.), Brookings Institution Press, Washington, D.C., 2005. 5 See, for example, A.F. Westin, “How the public sees the security-versus-liberty debate,” pp. 19-36 in Protecting What Matters: Technology, Security, and Liberty Since / (C. Northouse, ed.), Brookings Institution Press, Washington, D.C., 2005; S.J. Best, B.S. Krueger, and J. Ladewig, “Privacy in the Information Age,” Public Opinion Quarterly, 70(3):375-401, 2006. 6A.F. Westin, “How the public sees the security-versus-liberty debate,” pp. 19-36 in Protect- ing What Matters: Technology, Security, and Liberty Since / (C. Northouse, ed.), Brookings Institution Press, Washington, D.C., 2005.

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 PROTECTING INDIVIDUAL PRIVACY IN THE STRUGGLE AGAINST TERRORISTS 4. However, few citizens feel that their privacy has been affected by the government’s antiterrorism efforts. 5. The public tends to defend civil liberties more vigorously in the abstract than in connection with threats for specific purposes. Despite increasingly critical attitudes toward surveillance, the public is quite will- ing to endorse specific measures, especially when the measures are justi- fied as necessary to prevent terrorism. 6. However, most people are more tolerant of surveillance when it is aimed at specific racial or ethnic groups, when it concerns activities they do not engage in, or when they are not focusing on its potential personal impact. We note that people are not concerned about privacy in general, but rather with protecting the privacy of information about themselves. 7. People are concerned with control over decisions related to privacy. 8. Attitudes toward surveillance and the appropriate balance between rights and security are extremely sensitive to situational influ- ences, particularly perceptions of threat. 9. The framing of survey questions, in terms of both wording and context, strongly influences the opinions elicited. M.2 DATA AND METHODOLOGY In this appendix, we examine data from relevant questions asked by major research organizations in surveys since September 11, 2001, incor- porating data from before that point when they are directly comparable to the later data or when they are pertinent. This review concentrates on trends, based on the same or closely similar questions that have been asked at multiple time points; we occasionally discuss the results from questions asked at only one point in time, when the information is illu- minating or when trend data on a particular subject are not available. We restrict this review to surveys using adult national samples (or occasion- ally, national samples of registered voters); for the most part, these surveys are conducted by telephone using random-digit-dialed (RDD) samples, 7 although occasionally we report on surveys conducted by personal inter- 7 These survey results may be biased by the fact that most or all of the surveys used did not attempt to reach cell-phone-only respondents; that is, the phone numbers called were land lines. In an era in which many individuals are using cell phones only, these surveys will not have reached many of such individuals. An article by the Pew Research Center for the People and the Press suggests that this problem is not currently biasing polls taken for the entire population, although it may very well be damaging estimates for certain subgroups (e.g., young adults) in which the use of a cell phone only is more common. (See S. Keeter, “How Serious Is Polling’s Cell-Only Problem? The Landline-less Are Different and Their Numbers Are Growing Fast,” Pew Research Center for the People and the Press, June 20, 2007, available at http://pewresearch.org/pubs/515/polling-cell-only-problem.)

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 APPENDIX M view. We have not reviewed Web surveys. In the few instances in which samples represent groups other than the U.S. national adult population, we indicate that in the text or relevant charts or tables. Surey List and In-Text Citations. The Annex at the end of this appen- dix lists the surveys to which we refer, identifying research organiza- tions and sponsors as well as details on administration dates, mode, and sample design. (Response rate information is not available.) The abbrevia- tions used in the text to identify the survey research organizations are also listed. The source citations in the text and in charts and tables are keyed to this list via the abbreviation identifying the research organization and survey date. Source citations appear as close as possible to the reported data; in other words, for data reported in figures or tables, the sources are generally indicated on the figures or tables. Response Rates. We alert readers that response rates to national RDD sample surveys have declined. In a study reported in 2006, mean response rates for 20 national media surveys were estimated at 22 percent, using American Association for Public Opinion Research response rates RR3 or RR4, with a minimum of 5 percent and a maximum of 40 percent. Mean response rates for surveys done by government contractors (N = 7 for such surveys) during the same period were estimated at 46 percent, with minimums of 28 percent and maximums of 70 percent.8 We also note that we have no way of detecting or estimating nonre- sponse bias. Recent research on the relationship between nonresponse rates and nonresponse bias indicates that there is no necessary relation- ship between the two.9 A 2003 Pew Research Center national study of non- response rates and nonresponse bias shows significant differences on only 7 of 84 items in a comparison of a survey achieving a 25 percent response rate and one achieving a 50 percent response rate through the use of more rigorous methods.10 Two other studies also report evidence that, despite very low response rates, nonresponse bias in the surveys examined has 8A.L. Holbrook, J.A Kronsnick, and A. Pfent, “Response Rates in Surveys by the News Media and Government Survey Research Firms,” paper presented at the Second Conference on Telephone Survey Methodology, Miami, Fla., January 14, 2006. 9 R.M. Groves, “Nonresponse rates and nonresponse bias in household surveys,” Public Opinion Quarterly 70(5):646-675, 2006. 10 S. Keeter, C. Kennedy, M. Dimock, J. Best, and P. Craighill, “Gauging the impact of growing nonresponse on estimates from a national RDD telephone survey,” Public Opinion Quarterly 70(5):759-779, 2006.

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 PROTECTING INDIVIDUAL PRIVACY IN THE STRUGGLE AGAINST TERRORISTS been negligible.11 These findings cannot, however, be generalized to the surveys used for this current examination. Thus, the possibility of non- response bias in the findings reported cannot be ruled out, nor is there a way to estimate the direction of the bias, if it exists. We can speculate that nonresponse bias in the surveys reviewed here might result, on one hand, in an overrepresentation of individuals espe- cially concerned about privacy or civil liberties, if they are drawn to such survey topics; on the other hand, nonresponse might be greatest among those most worried about threats to privacy, if they refuse to participate in surveys. Of the over 100 surveys used in this review, however, most are general-purpose polls that include some questions about privacy or civil liberties among a larger number of questions on broad topics, such as current social and political affairs, health care attitudes or satisfaction with medical care, technology attitudes, terrorism, etc. Fewer than 1 in 10 of the surveys examined could be construed as focusing primarily or even substantially on privacy or civil liberties. Thus, it is unlikely that the survey topics would produce higher response among those concerned with privacy. We expect that whatever bias exists will be in the direction of excluding those most concerned about privacy and that the findings reported will tend to underestimate levels of privacy concern. Sources of Data and Search Strategies. This examination draws on several different sources of survey data. First, we rely on univariate tabulations of opinion polling data that are in the public domain, available through the iPOLL Databank at the Roper Center for Public Opinion Research at the University of Connecticut (http://www.ropercenter.uconn.edu/ data_access/ipoll/ipoll.html) and through the Institute for Resource and Security Studies (IRSS) repository at the University of North Carolina (http://www.irss.unc.edu/odum/jsp/content_node.jsp?nodeid=140). We searched these repositories using combinations of the following keywords (or variants thereof): airport security, biometrics, bioterrorism, civil liberties, civil rights, data, database, data mining, health, medical, monitor, personal information, privacy, rights, safety, search, scan, screen, security, surveillance, technology, terrorism, trust, video. Second, we searched the reports archived at the Pew Research Center for the People and the Press (http://people-press.org/reports/) and data compiled by the Polling Report (http://www.pollingreport.com/). Searching was an iterative process, in the course of which we added 11 S. Keeter, C. Miller, A. Kohut, R. Groves, and S. Presser, “Consequences of reducing nonresponse in a national telephone survey,” Public Opinion Quarterly 64(2):125-148, 2000; R. Curtain, S. Presser, and E. Singer, “The effects of response rate changes on the index of consumer sentiment,” Public Opinion Quarterly 64(4):413-428, 2000.

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 APPENDIX M new keywords. Thus, it frequently turned out that the surveys we identi - fied through searches of the IRSS archives, the Pew reports, and the Poll- ing Report were also archived at the Roper Center when we searched on the new keywords. Since the Roper Center archive is more complete with respect to details on methodology, and since it allows those interested to easily obtain further data from the cited surveys, we identify it as the source of data, even when we initially identified a survey by searching other sources. Third, when tabulations of the original survey data are not available, we draw on reports that research organizations or sponsors have pre- pared and posted on the Internet. These reports were identified via Inter- net searches using the same keywords as for the data archive searches. When referring to data drawn from such reports, the source information included in the text identifies both the survey (listed by abbreviation in subsection M.8.3 in the Annex) and the report (listed in subsection M.8.4). Finally, we refer to several articles by researchers who have con- ducted their own reviews of poll results or who have conducted indepen- dent research on related topics. M.3 ORGANIZATION OF THIS APPENDIX The remainder of this appendix is divided into four sections. In Sec- tion M.4, “General Privacy Attitudes,” we briefly review public opinion on privacy in general, not directly related to antiterrorism efforts, in order to establish a context for understanding attitudes toward government monitoring programs. Section M.5, “Government Surveillance” begins with an overview of responses to a variety of surveillance measures, as examined in repeated surveys conducted by Harris Interactive. We then review data on attitudes toward seven specific areas of surveillance or monitoring: • Communications monitoring • Monitoring of financial transactions • Video surveillance • Travel security • Biometric identification technologies • Government use of databases and data mining • Public health uses of medical information Section M.6 is devoted to a consideration of attitudes toward the bal- ance between defense of privacy and other civil rights that may interfere with effective terrorism investigation, on one hand, and terrorism pre-

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 PROTECTING INDIVIDUAL PRIVACY IN THE STRUGGLE AGAINST TERRORISTS vention measures that may curtail liberties, on the other. Here we review survey results on public assessments of the proper balance between lib- erty and security, as well as trends in perceptions of the need to exchange liberty for security and personal willingness to make such sacrifices. In the concluding section, we discuss several factors that affect beliefs about the proper balance between liberty and security. M.4 GENERAL PRIVACY ATTITUDES Figure M.1 displays results from a question asked by survey research- ers throughout the 1990s: “How concerned are you about threats to your personal privacy in America today?” As the chart shows, respondents’ concern about this issue increased steadily throughout the decade; by the last years of the 1990s, roughly 9 in 10 respondents were either “very” or “somewhat” concerned about threats to personal privacy. Once pri- vacy issues became even more salient after September 11, 2001, the ques- tion was presumably no longer able to discriminate effectively between levels of concern about privacy, and it was not asked again by survey organizations. 100 Percent “Very” or “Somewhat” Concerned 95 90 85 80 75 70 1990 1991 1992 1994 1995 1998 1999 Survey Year FIGURE M.1 “How concerned are you about threats to your personal privacy in Fig M-1.eps America today?—very concerned, somewhat concerned, not very concerned, or not concerned at all?” (Harris Surveys, 1990-1999). SOURCE: A. Corning and E. Singer, 2003, “Surveys of U.S. Privacy Attitudes,” report prepared for the Center for Democracy and Technology.

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 APPENDIX M Related data for the post-9/11 period, however, suggest that general concerns about privacy have not abated. For example, public perceptions of the right to privacy are characterized by increasing pessimism. In July 2002, respondents to a survey conducted by the Public Agenda Founda- tion were asked “Do you believe that the right to privacy is currently under serious threat, is it basically safe, or has it already been lost?” (Table M.1). One-third of respondents thought it was basically safe, while 41 percent thought it was under serious threat and one-quarter regarded it as already lost. By September 2005, when the question was repeated in a CBS/New York Times poll, over half thought it was under serious threat, and 30 percent thought it had already been lost. Just 16 percent regarded it as “basically safe.” Such pessimism may reflect generalized fears of privacy invasion, fueled by media reports of compromised secu- rity and ads that play to anxiety about fraud and identity theft; in addi- tion, it may betray concerns about government intrusions on privacy in the post-9/11 era. The perception that privacy is under threat is also due in part to con- cerns that the privacy of electronic information is difficult, if not impos- sible, to maintain. Over the past decade, survey researchers have repeated a question about online threats to privacy: “How much do you worry that computers and technology are being used to invade your privacy—is that something you worry about a lot, some, not much, or not at all?” As Figure M.2 shows, at most of the time points, half or more of respondents worried “some” or “a lot.” The fluctuations from one observation to the next are probably due to house differences and to question context effects,12 rather than to any substantive change in attitudes, and overall there appears to be a slight trend toward increasing worry about online privacy since 1994. (Considered separately, both the Princeton Survey Research Associates, PSRA, and the ABC surveys show parallel upward trends.) As Best et al. note,13 growing concern about online privacy may be attributed to frequent reports of unauthorized access to or loss of 12 The two observations of lowest levels of concern—June 1994 and January 2000—both occurred in surveys carried out by ABC. In both cases and in contrast to all the other surveys (including the March 2005 ABC/Washington Post survey), the question about privacy threat from computers immediately followed other questions asking about computers and privacy threat. When survey respondents are asked several questions belonging to the same domain, they tend to avoid redundancy, excluding information used in answering prior questions when answering subsequent ones (see N. Schwarz, F. Strack, and H.-P. Mai, “Assimilation and contrast effects in part-whole question sequences: A conversational logic analysis,” Public Opinion Quarterly 55(1):3-23, 1991). Thus, the apparent lower levels of concern in the two ABC surveys may result from the fact that respondents had already expressed their concerns when answering previous questions. 13 S.J. Best, B.S. Krueger, and J. Ladewig, “Privacy in the Information Age,” Public Opinion Quarterly 70(3):375-401, 2006.

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0 PROTECTING INDIVIDUAL PRIVACY IN THE STRUGGLE AGAINST TERRORISTS TABLE M.1 Right to Privacy (Public Agenda Foundation and CBS/ New York Times Surveys) July 2002 September 2005 Percent Percent “Do you believe that the right to privacy is currently under serious threat, is it basically safe, or has it already been lost?”a Basically safe 34 16 Currently under serious threat 41 52 Has already been lost 24 30 Don’t know 2 2 aCBS/NYT 9/05: “Do you believe that currently the right to privacy is basically safe, under serious threat, or has already been lost?” SOURCES: PAF/RMA 7/02; CBS/NYT 9/05. 100 90 Percent worrying “a lot” or “some” 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Jan. 1994 (PSRA) June 1994 (ABC) May 1995 (PSRA) Feb. 1996 (MAR) Oct. 1998 (PSRA) Jan. 2000 (ABC) June 2003 (PSRA) Mar. 2005 (ABC/WP) Survey Date (Survey Organization) FIGURE M.2 “How much do you worry that computers and technology are being used to invade your privacy?” (surveys M-2.eps Fig by PSRA, ABC News, and Marist College, 1994-2005). NOTE: Marist wording: “. . . that computers and advances in technol- ogy used to . . .” SOURCES: PSRA/TM 1/94, 5/95; ABC 6/94, 1/00; MAR 2/96; PSRA/PEW 10/98, 6/03; ABC/WP 3/05.

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 APPENDIX M electronic data held by a wide variety of institutions, as well as to users’ experience with spam and viruses. These data on electronic privacy suggest that the public identifies multiple threats to privacy; surveillance by the federal government may be the most visible and controversial, but it is far from the only, or even the most important threat, in the public’s view. In July 2002, respondents to a National Constitution Center survey regarded banks and credit card companies as the greatest threat to personal privacy (57 percent), while 29 percent identified the federal government as the greatest threat (PAF/ RMA 7/02). When a similar question was asked in 2005 by CBS/NYT, 61 percent thought banks and credit card companies, alone or in com- bination with other groups, posed the greatest threat, while 28 percent named the federal government alone or in combination with other groups (CBS/NYT 9/05). (Responses cannot be compared directly, because of differences in the response options offered.) M.5 GOVERNMENT SURVEILLANCE M.5.1 Trends in Attitudes Toward Surveillance Measures Over the years since September 11, 2001, Harris Interactive has asked a series of questions about support for specific surveillance measures that have been implemented or considered by the U.S. government as part of its terrorism prevention programs. For most of the questions, six or eight observations are available, for the period beginning just one week after the terrorist attacks in September 2001 and extending to July 2006. Table M.2 displays percentages of respondents favoring each of the mea- sures at each time point. Support for nearly all the measures peaked in the immediate after- math of the 9/11 attacks, with support for stronger document and secu- rity checks and expanded undercover activities exceeding 90 percent. As the emotional response to the attacks subsided over the four years that followed, support for each of the measures declined, in many cases by more than 10 percentage points. As of the June 2005 observation, total decreases in support were fairly small for three of the more intrusive measures, which had not been as enthusiastically received in the first place: adoption of a national ID system, expanded camera surveillance in public places, and law enforcement monitoring of Internet discussions. In contrast, support for expanded monitoring of cell phone and e-mail communications—which had only barely received majority support in September 2001—had declined by 17 percentage points, to 37 percent, as of June 2005. At each time point it has been the least popular measure, by a margin of 9 or more percentage points.

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 PROTECTING INDIVIDUAL PRIVACY IN THE STRUGGLE AGAINST TERRORISTS M.8.3 List of Surveys ABC 6/94. ABC News Poll. Telephone survey conducted by ABC News, with a national adult sample of 813. Fieldwork carried out June 7-8, 1994. ABC 1/00. ABC News Poll. Telephone survey conducted by ABC News, with a national adult sample of 1,006. Fieldwork carried out January 21-26, 2000. ABC 9/02. ABC News Poll. Telephone survey conducted by TNS Inter- search for ABC News, with a national adult sample of 1,011. Field- work carried out September 5-8, 2002. ABC 9/03. ABC News Poll. Telephone survey conducted by TNS Inter- search for ABC News, with a national adult sample of 1,004. Field- work carried out September 4-7, 2003. ABC 9/06. ABC News Poll. Telephone survey conducted by TNS Inter- search for ABC News, with a national adult sample of 1,003. Field- work carried out September 5-7, 2006. ABC/WP 6/02. ABC News/Washington Post Poll. Telephone survey conducted by TNS Intersearch for ABC News/Washington Post, with a national adult sample of 1,004. Fieldwork carried out June 7-9, 2002. ABC/WP 3/05. ABC News/Washington Post Poll. Telephone survey conducted by TNS Intersearch for ABC News/Washington Post, with a national adult sample of 1,001. Fieldwork carried out March 10-13, 2005. ABC/WP 1/06. ABC News/Washington Post Poll. Telephone survey conducted by TNS Intersearch for ABC News/Washington Post with a national adult sample of 1,001. Fieldwork carried out January 5-8, 2006. ABC/WP 5/06. ABC News/Washington Post Poll. Telephone survey conducted by TNS Intersearch for ABC News/Washington Post with a national adult sample of 502. Fieldwork carried out May 11, 2006. CBS 3/98. CBS News Poll. Telephone survey conducted by CBS News with a national adult sample of 994. Fieldwork carried out March 30-April 1, 1998. CBS 10/01. CBS News Poll. Telephone survey conducted by CBS News with a national adult sample of 436. Fieldwork carried out on October 8, 2001. CBS 1/02a. CBS News Poll. Telephone survey conducted by CBS News, with a national adult sample of 1,000. Fieldwork carried out January 5-6, 2002. CBS 1/02b. CBS News Poll. Telephone survey conducted by CBS News, with a national adult sample of 1,030. Fieldwork carried out January 15-17, 2002.

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 APPENDIX M CBS 2/02. CBS News Poll. Telephone survey conducted by TNS Research for CBS News, with a national adult sample of 861. Fieldwork carried out February 24-26, 2002. CBS 4/02. CBS News Poll. Telephone survey conducted by CBS News, with a national adult sample of 1,119. Fieldwork carried out April 15-18, 2002. CBS 5/03. CBS News Poll. Telephone survey conducted by CBS News, with a national adult sample of 758. Fieldwork carried out May 27- 28, 2003. CBS 4/05. CBS News Poll. Telephone survey conducted by CBS News, with a national adult sample of 1,149. Fieldwork carried out April 13-16, 2005. CBS 7/05. CBS News Poll. Telephone survey conducted by CBS News, with a national adult sample of 632. Fieldwork carried out July 13-14, 2005. CBS 1/06. CBS News Poll. Telephone survey conducted by CBS News, with a national adult sample of 1,151. Fieldwork carried out January 5-8, 2006. CBS 5/06. CBS News Poll. Telephone survey conducted by CBS News, with a national adult sample of 636. Fieldwork carried out May 16- 17, 2006. CBS 8/06. CBS News Poll. Telephone survey conducted by CBS News, with a national adult sample of 974. Fieldwork carried out August 11-13, 2006. CBS/NYT 9/01a. CBS News/New York Times Poll. Telephone survey con- ducted by CBS News/New York Times, with a national adult sample of 959. Fieldwork carried out September 13-14, 2001. CBS/NYT 9/01b. CBS News/New York Times Poll. Telephone survey con- ducted by CBS News/New York Times, with a national adult sample of 1,216. Fieldwork carried out September 20-23, 2001. CBS/NYT 12/01. CBS News/New York Times Poll. Telephone survey con- ducted by CBS News/New York Times, with a national adult sample of 1,052. Fieldwork carried out December 7-10, 2001. CBS/NYT 11/02. CBS News/New York Times Poll. Telephone survey con- ducted by CBS News/New York Times, with a national adult sample of 996. Fieldwork carried out November 20-24, 2002. CBS/NYT 9/05. CBS News/New York Times Poll. Telephone survey con- ducted by CBS News/New York Times, with a national adult sample of 1,167. (An oversample of African Americans was employed, but results are weighted to be representative of the national adult popula- tion.) Fieldwork carried out September 9-13, 2005.

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 PROTECTING INDIVIDUAL PRIVACY IN THE STRUGGLE AGAINST TERRORISTS CBS/NYT 1/06. CBS News/New York Times Poll. Telephone survey con- ducted by CBS News/New York Times, with a national adult sample of 1,229. Fieldwork carried out January 20-25, 2006. CBS/NYT 8/06. CBS News/New York Times Poll. Telephone survey con- ducted by CBS News/New York Times, with a national adult sample of 1,206. Fieldwork carried out August 17-21, 2006. CRC/PAR 12/03. Parade/ResearchAmerica Health Poll. Telephone sur- vey conducted by Charleton Research Company for Parade Magazine, with a national adult sample of 800. Fieldwork carried out during December 2003. FOR/CHCF Summer/05. National Consumer Health Privacy Survey 2005. Telephone survey conducted by Forrester Research for the Cali- fornia HealthCare Foundation, with a sample of 1.000 adults. The total sample size of 2,100 includes an oversample (N = 1,000) of California residents and an oversample of respondents with HIV or substance abuse (N = 100). Results cited here are for the national sample only. Specific fieldwork dates are not provided; materials indicate that the survey was conducted in “Summer 2005.” Data reported in “Execu- tive Summary,” retrieved March 29, 2006, from http://www.chcf. org/topics/view.cfm?itemID=115694. GAL 11/03. Gallup Poll. Telephone survey conducted by Gallup Organi- zation, with a national adult sample of 1,004. Fieldwork carried out November 10-12, 2003. GAL/CNN/USA 1/02. Gallup/CNN/USA Today Poll. Telephone survey conducted by Gallup Organization for CNN and USA Today, with a national adult sample of 1,011. Fieldwork carried out January 25-27, 2002. GAL/CNN/USA 6/02. Gallup/CNN/USA Today Poll. Telephone survey conducted by Gallup Organization for CNN and USA Today, with a national adult sample of 1,020. Split sample employed so that only half of the sample responded to some questions reported here. Field- work carried out June 21-23, 2002. GAL/CNN/USA 9/02. Gallup/CNN/USA Today Poll. Telephone survey conducted by Gallup Organization for CNN and USA Today, with a national adult sample of 1,003. Split sample employed so that some questions reported here were asked of only half the sample. Field- work carried out September 2-4, 2002. GAL/CNN/USA 4/03. Gallup/CNN/USA Today Poll. Telephone survey conducted by Gallup Organization for CNN and USA Today, with a national adult sample of 1,001. Fieldwork carried out April 22-23, 2003. GAL/CNN/USA 8/03. Gallup/CNN/USA Today Poll. Telephone survey conducted by Gallup Organization for CNN and USA Today, with a

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 APPENDIX M national adult sample of 1,009. Split sample employed so that some questions reported here were asked of only half the sample. Field- work carried out August 25-26, 2003. GAL/CNN/USA 12/05. Gallup/CNN/USA Today Poll. Telephone survey conducted by Gallup Organization for CNN and USA Today, with a national adult sample of 1,003. Fieldwork carried out December 16- 18, 2005. GAL/IHF 8/00. Public Attitudes toward Medical Privacy. Telephone survey conducted by Gallup Organization for the Institute for Health Freedom, with a national adult sample of 1,000. Fieldwork carried out August 11-26, 2000. Data reported in Corning and Singer, 2003. GAL/USA 5/06. Gallup/USA Today Poll. Telephone survey conducted by Gallup Organization for USA Today, with a national adult sample of 809. Fieldwork carried out May 12-13, 2006. GRN/EBRI 5/99. Health Confidence Survey 1999. Telephone survey conducted by Matthew Greenwald and Associates for Employee Ben- efit Research Institute, Consumer Education Council, with a national adult sample of 1,001. Fieldwork carried out May 13-June 14, 1999. GRN/EBRI 4/01. Health Confidence Survey 2001. Telephone survey conducted by Matthew Greenwald and Associates for Employee Ben- efit Research Institute, Consumer Education Council, with a national adult sample of 1,001. Fieldwork carried out April 17-May 27, 2001. GRN/EBRI 4/02. Health Confidence Survey 2002. Telephone survey conducted by Matthew Greenwald and Associates for Employee Ben- efit Research Institute, Consumer Education Council, with a national adult sample of 1,000. Fieldwork carried out April 18-May 19, 2002. GRN/EBRI 4/03. Health Confidence Survey 2003. Telephone survey conducted by Matthew Greenwald and Associates for Employee Ben- efit Research Institute, Consumer Education Council, with a national adult sample of 1,002. Fieldwork carried out April 24-May 24, 2003. GRN/EBRI 6/05. Health Confidence Survey 2005. Telephone survey conducted by Matthew Greenwald and Associates for Employee Ben- efit Research Institute, Consumer Education Council, with a national adult sample of 1,003. Fieldwork carried out June 30-August 6, 2005. HARRIS 11/78. Dimensions of Privacy. Survey conducted by Louis Har- ris and Associates for Sentry Insurance, with a national adult sample of 1,513. The survey was conducted by personal interview November 30-December 10, 1978. HARRIS 4/99. Consumers and the 21st Century Survey. Telephone sur- vey conducted by Louis Harris and Associates for the National Con- sumers League, with a national adult sample of 1,006. Fieldwork carried out April 22-May 3, 1999.

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 PROTECTING INDIVIDUAL PRIVACY IN THE STRUGGLE AGAINST TERRORISTS HI 9/01. Harris Poll. Telephone survey conducted by Harris Interactive with a national adult sample of 1,012. Fieldwork carried out Septem- ber 19-24, 2001. HI 3/02. Harris Poll. Telephone survey conducted by Harris Interactive with a national adult sample of 1,017. Fieldwork carried out March 13-19, 2002. HI 2/03. Harris Poll. Telephone survey conducted by Harris Interactive with a national adult sample of 1,010. Fieldwork carried out February 12-16, 2003. HI 2/04. Harris Poll. Telephone survey conducted by Harris Interactive with a national adult sample of 1,020. Fieldwork carried out February 9-16, 2004. HI 9/04. Harris Poll. Telephone survey conducted by Harris Interactive with a national adult sample of 1,018. Fieldwork carried out Septem- ber 9-13, 2004. HI 6/05. Harris Poll. Telephone survey conducted by Harris Interactive with a national adult sample of 1,015. Fieldwork carried out June 7- 12, 2005. HI 2/06. Harris Poll. Telephone survey conducted by Harris Interactive with a national adult sample of 1,016. Fieldwork carried out February 7-14, 2006. HI 7/06. Harris Poll. Telephone survey conducted by Harris Interactive with a national adult sample of 1,000. Fieldwork carried out July 21- 24, 2006. HI/ID 9/01a. Airport Security Survey. Telephone survey conducted by Harris Interactive for Identix, with a national adult sample of 1,015. Fieldwork carried out September 21-24, 2001. HI/ID 9/01b. Airport Security Survey. Telephone survey conducted by Harris Interactive for Identix, with a national adult sample of 1,009. Fieldwork carried out September 26-29, 2001. H&M/NBC/WSJ 7/06. NBC News/Wall Street Journal Poll. Telephone survey conducted by Hart and McInturff Research Companies with a national adult sample of 1,010. Fieldwork carried out July 21-24, 2006. H&T 2/03. E-Government Survey. Telephone survey conducted by Hart and Teeter Research Companies for the Council for Excellence in Government, with a national adult sample of 1,023. Fieldwork carried out February 19-25, 2003. H&T 2/04. America Speaks Out About Homeland Security Survey. Telephone survey conducted by Hart and Teeter Research Companies for the Council for Excellence in Government, with a national adult sample of 1,633. Fieldwork carried out February 5-8, 2004.

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 APPENDIX M H&T/NBC/WSJ 8/96. NBC News/Wall Street Journal Poll. Telephone survey conducted by Hart and Teeter Research Companies with a national adult sample of 1,203. Fieldwork carried out August 2-6, 1996. H&T/NBC/WSJ 12/02. NBC News/Wall Street Journal Poll. Telephone survey conducted by Hart and Teeter Research Companies with a national adult sample of 1,005. Fieldwork carried out December 7-9, 2002. ICR/NPR 11/99. NPR/Kaiser/Harvard Technology Survey. Telephone survey conducted by International Communications Research for National Public Radio, the Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, and Harvard University’s Kennedy School of Government, with a national adult sample of 1,506. The sample included an overs- ample of black respondents, but results are weighted to represent the national adult population. Fieldwork carried out November 15- December 19, 1999. IR/QNS 6/06. Global Privacy of Data International Survey. Telephone survey conducted by Ipsos-Reid for Queens University, Canada/The Surveillance Project, with a U.S. national adult sample of 1,000. Field- work carried out June 27-July 28, 2006. Report retrieved March 29, 2006, from http://www.queensu.ca/sociology/Surveillance/files/ Ipsos_Report_Nov_2006.pdf. LAT 4/95. Los Angeles Times Poll. Telephone survey conducted by the Los Angeles Times with a national adult sample of 1,032. Fieldwork carried out April 26-27, 1995. LAT 12/02. Los Angeles Times Poll. Telephone survey conducted by the Los Angeles Times with a national adult sample of 1,305. Fieldwork carried out December 12-15, 2002. LAT 7/06. Los Angeles Times/Bloomberg Poll. Telephone survey con- ducted by the Los Angeles Times/Bloomberg with a national adult sample of 1,478. Fieldwork carried out July 28-August 1, 2006. LRP/AV 11/06. Connecting Americans to Their Health Care. Telephone survey conducted by Lake Research Partners and American View- point for the Markle Foundation, with a national adult sample of 1,003. Fieldwork carried out November 11-15, 2006. Data reported in Markle 2006, retrieved March 10, 2007, from http://www.markle. org/downloadable_assets/research_doc_120706.pdf. MAR 2/96. Marist College Institute for Public Opinion Poll. Telephone survey conducted by Marist College Institute for Public Opinion, with a national adult sample of approximately 900. Fieldwork carried out during February 1996.

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0 PROTECTING INDIVIDUAL PRIVACY IN THE STRUGGLE AGAINST TERRORISTS OD/FOX 5/01. Fox News/Opinion Dynamics Poll. Telephone survey conducted by Opinion Dynamics for Fox News, with a national reg- istered voters sample of 900. Fieldwork carried out May 9-10, 2001. OD/FOX 10/01. Fox News/Opinion Dynamics Poll. Telephone survey conducted by Opinion Dynamics for Fox News, with a national reg- istered voters sample of 900. Fieldwork carried out October 17-18, 2001. OD/FOX 4/02. Fox News/Opinion Dynamics Poll. Telephone survey conducted by Opinion Dynamics for Fox News, with a national regis- tered voters sample of 900. Fieldwork carried out April 16-17, 2002. OD/FOX 6/02. Fox News/Opinion Dynamics Poll. Telephone survey conducted by Opinion Dynamics for Fox News, with a national reg- istered voters sample of 900. Fieldwork carried out June 4-5, 2002. OD/FOX 9/02. Fox News/Opinion Dynamics Poll. Telephone survey conducted by Opinion Dynamics for Fox News, with a national reg- istered voters sample of 900. Fieldwork carried out September 8-9, 2002. OD/FOX 7/05. Fox News/Opinion Dynamics Poll. Telephone survey conducted by Opinion Dynamics for Fox News, with a national reg- istered voters sample of 900. Fieldwork carried out July 26-27, 2005. OD/FOX 1/06. Fox News/Opinion Dynamics Poll. Telephone survey conducted by Opinion Dynamics for Fox News, with a national reg- istered voters sample of 900. Fieldwork carried out January 10-11, 2006. OD/FOX 5/06. Fox News/Opinion Dynamics Poll. Telephone survey conducted by Opinion Dynamics for Fox News, with a national reg- istered voters sample of 900. Fieldwork carried out May 16-18, 2006. OSR/MSU 11/01. Civil Liberties Survey. Telephone survey conducted by the Office for Survey Research of the Institute for Public Policy and Social Research at Michigan State University, with a national adult sample of 1,448. An oversample of African American and Hispanic respondents was included, but results reported here are weighted to be representative of the national adult population. The response rate (calculated as RR4 in the “standard definitions” of the American Association for Public Opinion Research) was 52.3 percent, and the refusal rate was 19.0 percent. Fieldwork was carried out between November 14, 2001 and January 15, 2002. Study results reported in Darren W. Davis and Brian D. Silver, “Civil Liberties vs. Security: Public Opinion in the Context of the Terrorist Attacks on America,” American Journal of Political Science, 48(1):28-46, 2004. PAF/RMA 7/02. Knowing It By Heart: The Constitution and Its Mean- ing Survey. Telephone survey conducted by Public Agenda Founda- tion/Robinson and Muenster Associates, Inc. for the National Con-

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 APPENDIX M stitution Center, with a national adult sample of 1,520. Fieldwork carried out July 10-24, 2002. PSRA/CHCF 11/98. Medical Privacy and Confidentiality Survey. Tele- phone survey conducted by Princeton Survey Research Associates for the California Health Care Foundation, using a national adult sample of 1,000. A separate sample of California residents was also included, but results reported here are for the national sample only. Field- work carried out November 12-December 22, 1998. Data reported in “Topline Report,” retrieved April 7, 2007, from http://www.chcf. org/topics/view.cfm?itemID=12500 PSRA/NW 2/95. Princeton Survey Research Associates/Newsweek Poll. Telephone survey conducted by PSRA for Newsweek, with a national adult sample of 752. Fieldwork carried out February 16-17, 1995. PSRA/NW 9/01. Princeton Survey Research Associates/Newsweek Poll. Telephone survey conducted by Princeton Survey Research Associ- ates for Newsweek, with a national adult sample of 1,005. Fieldwork carried out September 20-21, 2001. PSRA/NW 8/02. Princeton Survey Research Associates/Newsweek Poll. Telephone survey conducted by Princeton Survey Research Associ- ates for Newsweek, with a national adult sample of 1,005. Fieldwork was carried out August 28-29, 2002. PSRA/NW 5/06. Princeton Survey Research Associates International/ Newsweek Poll. Telephone survey conducted by Princeton Survey Research Associates for Newsweek with a national adult sample of 1,007. Fieldwork carried out May 11-12, 2006. PSRA/PEW 3/96. Pew News Interest Index Poll. Telephone survey con- ducted by Princeton Survey Research Associates for the Pew Research Center, with a national adult sample of 1,500. A split sample was used for some of the questions reported here, so that they were asked only of half the sample. Fieldwork carried out March 28-31, 1996. PSRA/PEW 4/97. Pew News Interest Index Poll. Telephone survey con- ducted by Princeton Survey Research Associates for the Pew Research Center, with a national adult sample of 1,206. Fieldwork carried out April 3-6, 1997. PSRA/PEW 10/98. People and the Press 1998 Technology Survey. Tele- phone survey conducted by Princeton Survey Research Associates for the Pew Research Center, using a national adult sample of 3,184. (An oversample of 1,184 Internet users was included, but results are weighted to be representative of the national adult population.) Field- work carried out October 26-December 1, 1998. PSRA/PEW 7/00. Tracking Online Life Survey. Telephone survey con- ducted by Princeton Survey Research Associates for the Pew Research

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 PROTECTING INDIVIDUAL PRIVACY IN THE STRUGGLE AGAINST TERRORISTS Center, with a national adult sample of 2,109. Fieldwork carried out July 24-August 20, 2000. PSRA/PEW 9/01. People and the Press Post-Terrorist Attack Poll. Tele- phone survey conducted by Princeton Survey Research Associates for the Pew Research Center, with a national adult sample of 1,200. Fieldwork was carried out September 13-17, 2001, but data cited here are from questions asked September 14-17 only. PSRA/PEW 1/02. Pew News Interest Index Poll. Telephone survey con- ducted by Princeton Survey Research Associates for the Pew Research Center, with a national adult sample of 1,201. Fieldwork carried out January 9-13, 2002. PSRA/PEW 6/02. Pew News Interest Index Poll. Telephone survey con- ducted by Princeton Survey Research Associates for the Pew Research Center, with a national adult sample of 1,212. Fieldwork carried out June 19-23, 2002. PSRA/PEW 8/02. People and the Press 2002 Year-After-9/11 Poll. Tele- phone survey conducted by Princeton Survey Research Associates for the Pew Research Center, with a national adult sample of 1,001. Fieldwork was carried out August 14-25, 2002. PSRA/PEW 6/03. 2003 Methodology Study Poll 1. Telephone survey conducted by Princeton Survey Research Associates for the Pew Research Center, with a national adult sample of 1,000. The study included in this review was a standard survey; another study (the 2003 Methodology Study Poll 2) incorporated procedures designed to maximize response rates, but those results are not reported here. Fieldwork was carried out June 4-8, 2003. PSRA/PEW 7/03. 2003 Values Update Survey. Telephone survey con- ducted by Princeton Survey Research Associates for the Pew Research Center, with a national adult sample of 2,528. The sample included an oversample of blacks, but results are weighted to be representa- tive of the national adult population. Fieldwork was carried out July 14-August 5, 2003. PSRA/PEW 7/04. Foreign Policy and Party Images Poll. Telephone sur- vey conducted by Princeton Survey Research Associates for the Pew Research Center and the Chicago Council on Foreign Relations, with a national adult sample of 2,009. Fieldwork was carried out July 8-18, 2004. PSRA/PEW 7/05. Pew News Interest Index Poll. Telephone survey con- ducted by Princeton Survey Research Associates for the Pew Research Center, with a national adult sample of 1,502. Fieldwork was carried out July 13-17, 2005. PSRA/PEW 1/06. Pew News Interest Index Poll. Telephone survey con- ducted by Princeton Survey Research Associates for the Pew Research

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 APPENDIX M Center, with a national adult sample of 1,503. Fieldwork carried out January 4-8, 2006. PSRA/PEW 9/06. Pew News Interest Index Poll. Telephone survey con- ducted by Princeton Survey Research Associates for the Pew Research Center, with a national adult sample of 1,507. Fieldwork carried out September 6-10, 2006. PSRA/PEW 12/06. Pew News Interest Index Poll. Telephone survey con- ducted by Princeton Survey Research Associates for the Pew Research Center, with a national adults sample of 1,502. Fieldwork carried out December 6-10, 2006. PSRA/TM 1/94. Technology in the American Household. Telephone survey conducted by Princeton Survey Research Associates for Times Mirror, with a national adult sample of 3,667, including an oversample of 207 modem users. Fieldwork carried out January 4-February 17, 1994. PSRA/TM 5/95. Technology and Online Use Survey. Telephone survey conducted by Princeton Survey Research Associates for Times Mirror, using a national adult sample of 3,603. (An oversample of 402 online users was employed, but results are weighted to be representative of the national adult population). Fieldwork carried out May 25-June 22, 1995. QU 7/05. Quinnipiac University Poll. Telephone survey conducted by Quinnipiac University Polling Institute, with a national registered voters sample of 920. Fieldwork conducted July 21-25, 2005. QU 8/06. Quinnipiac University Poll. Telephone survey conducted by Quinnipiac University Polling Institute, with a national registered voters sample of 1,080. Fieldwork conducted August 17-23, 2006. RA/ACLUF 11/92. American Public Opinion about Privacy at Home and at Work. Personal interview survey conducted by Response Analysis for the American Civil Liberties Union Foundation, using a national adult sample of 993. Fieldwork carried out November 13- December 13, 1992. SRBI/TIME 8/06. Time/SRBI Poll. Telephone survey conducted by Schul- man, Ronca and Bucuvalas for Time, with a national adult sample of 1,002. Fieldwork carried out August 22-24, 2006. TNS/GMF 6/06. Transatlantic Trends 2006 Survey. Telephone survey conducted by TNS Opinion and Social Institutes for the German Marshall Fund of the U.S. and the Compagnia di San Paolo, Italy, with a U.S. national adult sample of 1,000. Surveys were conducted in thirteen nations; data are reported for the U.S. sample only. Fieldwork carried out June 6-24, 2006.

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 PROTECTING INDIVIDUAL PRIVACY IN THE STRUGGLE AGAINST TERRORISTS WIN 5/06. New Models National Brand Poll. Telephone survey con- ducted by Winston Group for New Models with a national sample of 1,000 registered voters. Fieldwork carried out May 16-17, 2006. M.8.4 References California Health Care Foundation (CHCF). 2005. “National Consumer Health Privacy Survey 2005: Executive Summary.” Retrieved March 10, 2007, from http://www.chcf.org/documents/ihealth/Consumer Privacy2005ExecSum.pdf California Health Care Foundation (CHCF). 1999. “Medical Privacy and Confidentiality Survey: Topline Report.” Retrieved April 7, 2007, from http://www.chcf.org/topics/view.cfm?itemID=12500 Ipsos-Reid, 2006. “Global Privacy of Data International Survey Summary Report.” November 2006. Queens University. Retrieved March 8, 2007, from http://www.queensu.ca/sociology/Surveillance/files/Ipsos_ Report_Nov_2006.pdf.