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Speaker and Panelist Biographical Information

Richard G. Newell is the Gendell Associate Professor of Energy and Environmental Economics at the Nicholas School of the Environment, Duke University. He is a research associate of the National Bureau of Economic Research and a university fellow of Resources for the Future. He has served as the senior economist for energy and environment on the President’s Council of Economic Advisers, where he advised on policy issues ranging from automobile fuel economy and renewable fuels to management of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve. He has been a member of expert committees including the National Research Council Committee on Energy Externalities, Committee on Energy R&D, Committee on Innovation Inducement Prizes, and Committee on Energy Efficiency Measurement Approaches. Dr. Newell also served on the 2007 National Petroleum Council Global Oil and Gas Study. He currently serves on the boards of the Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, the journal Energy Economics, the Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, and the Automotive X-Prize. He has served as an independent expert reviewer and advisor for many governmental, non-governmental, international, and private institutions including the OECD, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, World Bank, National Commission on Energy Policy, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, U.S. Department of Energy, U.S. Energy Information Administration, U.S. National Science Foundation, and others. Dr. Newell received his Ph.D. from Harvard University.

Marilyn A. Brown joined the Georgia Institute of Technology in 2006 after a distinguished career at the U.S. Department of Energy’s Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ONRL). At ORNL, she held various leadership positions and led several major energy technology and policy scenario studies. Recognizing her stature as a national leader in the analysis and interpretation of energy futures in the United States, Dr. Brown remains affiliated with ORNL as a visiting distinguished scientist. Recent projects include an assessment of the $3 billion/year multi-agency R&D portfolio comprising the U.S. Climate Change Technology Program, development of a national climate change technology deployment strategy as required by the 2005 Energy Policy Act, and quantification of the carbon footprints of the nation’s largest 100 metropolitan areas. Dr. Brown has been an expert witness in hearings before Committees of both the U.S. House of Representatives and the U. S. Senate. She serves on the board of directors of the Southeast Energy Efficiency Alliance, the American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy, and the Alliance to Save Energy; she is on the editorial boards of several journals including the Journal of Technology Transfer. She is a member of the National Commission on Energy Policy and the National Academies’ Board of Energy and Environmental Systems, and she is a co-recipient of the 2007 Nobel Peace Prize, among other awards. She received her B.A. in political science from Rutgers University (1971), her M.R.P. in resource planning from the University of Massachusetts (1973), and her Ph.D. in geography from Ohio State University (1977). She is also a Certified Energy Manager.

John Weyant came to Stanford University in 1977, primarily to help develop the Energy Modeling Forum. Dr. Weyant was formerly a senior research associate in the Department of Operations Research, a member of the Stanford International Energy Project and a fellow in the U.S.-Northeast Asia Forum on International Policy. He is currently an adviser to the U.S. Department of Energy, Pacific Gas & Electric Company, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. His current research is focused on global climate change, energy security, corporate strategy analysis, and Japanese energy policy. He is on the editorial boards of The Energy Journal and Petroleum Management. His national society memberships include the American Economics Association, Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management, Econometric Society, International Association of Energy Economists, Mathematical



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B Speaker and Panelist Biographical Information Richard G. Newell is the Gendell Associate Professor of Energy and Environmental Economics at the Nicholas School of the Environment, Duke University. He is a research associate of the National Bureau of Economic Research and a university fellow of Resources for the Future. He has served as the senior economist for energy and environment on the President’s Council of Economic Advisers, where he advised on policy issues ranging from automobile fuel economy and renewable fuels to management of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve. He has been a member of expert committees including the National Research Council Committee on Energy Externalities, Committee on Energy R&D, Committee on Innovation Inducement Prizes, and Committee on Energy Efficiency Measurement Approaches. Dr. Newell also served on the 2007 National Petroleum Council Global Oil and Gas Study. He currently serves on the boards of the Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, the journal Energy Economics, the Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, and the Automotive X-Prize. He has served as an independent expert reviewer and advisor for many governmental, non-governmental, international, and private institutions including the OECD, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, World Bank, National Commission on Energy Policy, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, U.S. Department of Energy, U.S. Energy Information Administration, U.S. National Science Foundation, and others. Dr. Newell received his Ph.D. from Harvard University. Marilyn A. Brown joined the Georgia Institute of Technology in 2006 after a distinguished career at the U.S. Department of Energy’s Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ONRL). At ORNL, she held various leadership positions and led several major energy technology and policy scenario studies. Recognizing her stature as a national leader in the analysis and interpretation of energy futures in the United States, Dr. Brown remains affiliated with ORNL as a visiting distinguished scientist. Recent projects include an assessment of the $3 billion/year multi-agency R&D portfolio comprising the U.S. Climate Change Technology Program, development of a national climate change technology deployment strategy as required by the 2005 Energy Policy Act, and quantification of the carbon footprints of the nation’s largest 100 metropolitan areas. Dr. Brown has been an expert witness in hearings before Committees of both the U.S. House of Representatives and the U. S. Senate. She serves on the board of directors of the Southeast Energy Efficiency Alliance, the American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy, and the Alliance to Save Energy; she is on the editorial boards of several journals including the Journal of Technology Transfer. She is a member of the National Commission on Energy Policy and the National Academies’ Board of Energy and Environmental Systems, and she is a co-recipient of the 2007 Nobel Peace Prize, among other awards. She received her B.A. in political science from Rutgers University (1971), her M.R.P. in resource planning from the University of Massachusetts (1973), and her Ph.D. in geography from Ohio State University (1977). She is also a Certified Energy Manager. John Weyant came to Stanford University in 1977, primarily to help develop the Energy Modeling Forum. Dr. Weyant was formerly a senior research associate in the Department of Operations Research, a member of the Stanford International Energy Project and a fellow in the U.S.-Northeast Asia Forum on International Policy. He is currently an adviser to the U.S. Department of Energy, Pacific Gas & Electric Company, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. His current research is focused on global climate change, energy security, corporate strategy analysis, and Japanese energy policy. He is on the editorial boards of The Energy Journal and Petroleum Management. His national society memberships include the American Economics Association, Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management, Econometric Society, International Association of Energy Economists, Mathematical 36

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Programming Society, ORSA, and TIMS. He received his B.S. and M.S. in aerospace engineering and astronautics and an M.S. in operations research and statistics from Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, and his Ph.D. in management science from the University of California, Berkeley. Richard Bradley has been the head of the Energy Efficiency and Environment Division (EED) at the International Energy Agency in Paris since 2004. The EED provides analytical support to the IEA Standing Group on Long Term Co-Operation and to the Annex I Experts Group on a range of climate change and energy efficiency policy issues. For many years, he represented the United States as a senior negotiator on multilateral energy and environment agreements. He is also a former chair of the OECD/IEA Annex I Experts Group. He has written a number of articles on climate change issues. Dallas Burtraw’s research interests include the design of environmental regulation, the costs and benefits of environmental regulation, and the regulation and restructuring of the electricity industry. Recently, Burtraw investigated the effects on the value of assets of electricity generation companies of alternative approaches to implementing emissions permit trading programs. He is evaluating the use of emission trading to achieve carbon emission reductions in the European Union. He also has helped to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of trading programs for nitrogen dioxide in the eastern United States and sulfur dioxide trading programs under the Clean Air Act Amendments. He also contributed to the valuation of the benefits of ecological improvements due to reduced acidification in the Adirondacks. Dr. Burtraw has a Ph.D. in economics (1989) and M.P.P. in public policy (1986) from the University of Michigan and has a B.S. in community economic development (1980) from the University of California, Davis. Leon Clarke is a senior research economist at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), and he is a staff member of the Joint Global Change Research Institute (JGCRI), a collaboration between PNNL and the University of Maryland at College Park. Dr. Clarke’s current research focuses on the role of technology in addressing climate change, scenario analysis, and integrated assessment model development. Dr. Clarke coordinated the U.S. Climate Change Science Program’s emissions scenario development process, and he was a contributing author on the Working Group III contribution to the IPCC’s Fourth Assessment Report. Prior to joining PNNL, Dr. Clarke worked for RCG/Hagler, Bailly, Inc. (1990-1992), Pacific Gas & Electric Company (1992-1996), and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (2002-2003). He was also a research assistant at Stanford’s Energy Modeling Forum (1999- 2002), where he worked on issues related to technological change and integrated assessment modeling. Dr. Clarke received B.S. and M.S. degrees in mechanical engineering from University of California, Berkeley, and his M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in engineering economic systems and operations research at Stanford University. William R. Cline, senior fellow, has been associated with the Peterson Institute for International Economics since 1981 and holds a joint appointment at the Center for Global Development. During 1996- 2001 while on leave from the Institute, Dr. Cline was deputy managing director and chief economist of the Institute of International Finance (IIF) in Washington, D.C. The IIF conducts research on emerging- market economies for its membership of over 300 international banks, investment banks, asset management companies, insurance companies, and other financial institutions. He has been a senior fellow at the Peterson Institute for International Economics since its inception in 1981. Previously he was senior fellow, the Brookings Institution (1973-1981); deputy director of development and trade research, Office of the Assistant Secretary for International Affairs, U.S. Treasury Department (1971-1973); Ford Foundation Visiting Professor in Brazil (1970-1971); and lecturer and assistant professor of economics at Princeton University (1967-1970). He graduated summa cum laude from Princeton University in 1963 and received his M.A. (1964) and Ph.D. (1969) in economics from Yale University. John J. Conti is the director of the Office of Integrated Analysis and Forecasting (OIAF) at the Energy Information Administration (EIA). His office is responsible for the domestic and international midterm energy projections and the Greenhouse Gas Program and publishes the Annual Energy Outlook, the International Energy Outlook, Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States, and the Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gas Emissions. In addition, due to the interest in the impact greenhouse gas mitigation policies on energy markets, his office has produced a number of special analyses for the U.S. 37

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Congress. Mr. Conti has spent the past 28 years at the Department of Energy in the Office of Policy and International Affairs and the Energy Information Administration. Mr. Conti has a M.S. degree in management and policy sciences and an undergraduate degree in economics from the State University of New York at Stony Brook. Francisco C. de la Chesnaye is a senior project manager in the Global Climate Change Program at the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). His current research portfolio covers both domestic and international climate change issues. On domestic issues, his work focuses on modeling of the U.S. energy system, in particular the U.S. electric power sector, to evaluate the possible transformation of the system under alternative policies. On international issues, Mr. de la Chesnaye’s work is focused on analyzing post-2012 global climate change policies. Prior to joining EPRI, Mr. de la Chesnaye was the chief climate economist at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. He was responsible for developing and applying EPA’s economic models for domestic and international climate change policy analysis. He led EPA’s efforts to produce the agency’s first independent economic analysis of a climate policy, the McCain-Lieberman bill of 2007. Subsequent analyses were completed in 2008 on the Bingaman-Specter and Lieberman-Warner bills. Mr. de la Chesnaye was a lead author for the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change’s (IPCC) Fourth Assessment Report and served as the U.S. government’s lead technical expert on long-term economic and emission scenarios. Mr. de la Chesnaye is co-editor of Human- Induced Climate Change: An Interdisciplinary Assessment (2007). He is co-editor of “Multigas Mitigation and Climate Policy” an Energy Journal Special Issue (2006). Mr. de la Chesnaye is currently pursuing a Ph.D. in public policy at the University of Maryland. He holds graduate degrees in environmental science from Johns Hopkins University and in economics from American University, and an undergraduate degree in economics from Norwich University, the Military College of Vermont. Peter C. Evans is general manager of global strategy and planning at GE Energy Infrastructure where he tracks and analyzes political, economic, and regulatory policy trends around the world and the related implications for GE Energy’s long-term strategy. Prior to joining GE, he was director, Global Oil, and research director of the Global Energy Forum at Cambridge Energy Research Associates (CERA). He also worked as an independent consultant for a variety of corporate and government clients, including Rio Tinto, American Superconductor Corporation, U.S. Trade Promotion Coordinating Committee, U.S. Department of Energy, the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, and the World Bank. Dr. Evans has extensive international energy experience, including two years as a visiting scholar at the Central Research Institute for the Electric Power Industry in Tokyo, Japan. His many articles and policy monographs include Japan: Bracing for an Uncertain Energy Future (2006), Liberalizing Global Trade in Energy Services (2002), and “International Conflict and Cooperation in Government Export Financing” (2001). He also co-authored CERA’s global energy scenario study “Dawn of a New Age: The Energy Future to 2030.” Dr. Evans holds a B.A. in government and public policy from Hampshire College, an M.C.P. in economic development and regional planning from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), and a Ph.D. in political science from MIT. Richard J. Goettle IV is a lecturer in the Finance and Insurance Group at the College of Business Administration, Northeastern University. Dr. Goettle holds a B.A. degree in mathematics and computer science from Miami University, a M.B.A. from Northwestern University, and a Ph.D. in economics from the University of Cincinnati. He is the president, co-founder, and principal of Cambridge Planning and Analytics Inc., a developer and marketer of DATADISK Information Services. Dr. Goettle also serves as a senior economist with Dale W. Jorgenson Associates and was with the National Center for Analysis of Energy Systems at Brookhaven National Laboratory. He has written extensively on the general equilibrium consequences of U.S. energy, environmental, and tax policies. Dr. Goettle is a member of the American Economic Association and the Western Economic Association. Howard Gruenspecht has worked extensively on electricity policy issues, including restructuring and reliability, regulations affecting motor fuels and vehicles, energy-related environmental issues, and economy-wide energy modeling at the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA). Before joining EIA, he was a resident scholar at Resources for the Future. From 1993 to 2000, Dr. Gruenspecht served as director of economic, electricity, and natural gas analysis in the Department of Energy’s 38

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(DOE’s) Office of Policy, having originally come to DOE in 1991 as deputy assistant secretary for economic and environmental policy. His accomplishments as a career senior executive at DOE have been recognized with three Presidential Rank awards. Prior to his service at DOE, Dr. Gruenspecht was senior staff economist at the Council of Economic Advisers (1989-1991), with primary responsibilities in the areas of environment, energy, regulation, and international trade. His other professional experience includes service as a faculty member at the Graduate School of Industrial Administration, Carnegie- Mellon University (1981-1988), economic adviser to the chairman of the U.S. International Trade Commission (1988-1989), and assistant director, economics and business, on the White House Domestic Policy Staff (1978-1979). Dr. Gruenspecht received his B.A. from McGill University in 1975 and his Ph.D. in economics from Yale University in 1982. Bryan Hubbell is senior advisor for science and policy analysis for the Health and Environmental Impacts Division in the Office of Air and Radiation in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. He has written and presented extensively on the health impacts and economic benefits and costs of air quality regulations, serving as the principal benefits analyst for many of EPA’s recent regulatory analyses, and led the project team that developed the environmental Benefits Mapping and Analysis Program (BenMAP). His research interests include health impact assessments methods, integrated climate and air quality assessment models, reduced form air quality modeling, selection of optimal controls to maximize net benefits of air quality regulations, and improving valuation of health and environmental changes. Nathaniel Keohane is director of economic policy and analysis at Environmental Defense Fund (EDF). Dr. Keohane oversees EDF’s analytical work on the economics of climate policy, and helps to develop and advocate the organization’s policy positions on global warming. His academic research has focused on the design and performance of market-based environmental policies. Dr. Keohane has a Ph.D. in political economy and government (2001) from Harvard University, and a B.A. (1993) from Yale College. From 2001 to 2007, Dr. Keohane was an assistant and then associate professor of economics at the Yale School of Management. He has published articles on environmental economics in academic journals including the Journal of Public Economics, the RAND Journal of Economics, the Journal of Environmental Economics and Management and the Harvard Environmental Law Review. Dr. Keohane is also the co-author of Markets and the Environment (2007) and co-editor of Economics of Environmental Law (forthcoming). Ray Kopp holds Ph.D. and M.A. degrees in economics and an undergraduate degree in finance. He has been a member of the Resources for the Future (RFF) research staff since 1977 and has held a variety of management positions within the institution. Dr. Kopp’s interest in environmental policy began in the late 1970s when he developed techniques to measure the effect of pollution control regulations on the economic efficiency of steam electric power generation. He then led the first examination of the cost of major U.S. environmental regulations in a full, general equilibrium, dynamic context by using an approach that is now widely accepted as state of the art in cost-benefit analysis. During his career Dr. Kopp has specialized in the analysis of environmental and natural resource issues with a focus on federal regulatory activity. He is an expert in techniques of assigning value to environmental and natural resources that do not have market prices, which is fundamental to cost-benefit analysis and the assessment of damages to natural resources. Dr. Kopp’s current research interests focus on the design of domestic and international polices to combat climate change. Tom Kram is program manager for integrated assessment modeling at the Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency (now PBL: formerly MNP and RIVM). His core responsibilities include the development and application of the IMAGE modeling framework, working with national and international research partnerships. The IMAGE model is developed to address issues arising from human development and related environmental concerns, with focus on mutual relationships and feedbacks between natural and human systems at the global scale. He earned an M.Sc. degree in electrical engineering and operations research from Technical University Delft, specializing in economics of electric power production. Before coming to PBL, he worked at the Energy Research Centre. Besides sectoral and technological assessments, and energy, technology, and climate policy support work, he 39

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spent much of his time on running the Energy Technology Systems Analyis Project (ETSAP), developing and applying the MARKAL model. Over the life of IPCC, he has contributed to its work in a variety of functions, including lead author of the 2nd Assessment Report and the Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES). Currently he is member of IPCC-TGICA, a task group set up to support data and scenario information for impact and climate analysis. Current research focuses on the role of land use in as pivot for climate change impacts, adaptation and mitigation (e.g., bio-energy, forestry options) in close conjunction with providing other ecological goods and services for human development (food, water, biodiversity, and so on). John A. “Skip” Laitner is the director of economic analysis for the American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy (ACEEE). He previously served almost 10 years as a senior economist for technology policy for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), but chose to leave the federal service in June 2006 to focus his research on developing a more robust analytical characterization of energy efficiency resources for energy and climate policy analyses and within economic policy models. In 1998 Mr. Laitner was awarded the EPA’s Gold Medal for his work with a team of other EPA economists to evaluate the impact of different strategies that might assist in the implementation of greenhouse gas emissions reduction policies. In 2003 the U.S. Combined Heat and Power Association gave him an award to acknowledge his contributions to the policy development of that industry. In 2004 his paper “How Far Energy Efficiency?” catalyzed new research into the proper the characterization of efficiency as a long-term resource. Author of more than 200 reports, journal articles, and book chapters, Mr. Laitner has more than 38 years of involvement in the environmental and energy policy arenas. He has been invited to provide technical seminars in diverse places as Australia, Canada, China, France, Germany, Korea, South Africa, and Spain. He served as an adjunct faculty member for the Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University and the University of Oregon, teaching graduate courses on the economics of Technology. He has a master’s degree in Resource Economics from Antioch University in Yellow Springs, Ohio. Robert Marlay is the deputy director of the U.S. Climate Change Technology Program (CCTP). Dr. Marlay is a career member of the Government’s Senior Executive Service and serves concurrently as deputy director of the Office of Climate Change Policy and Technology (CCPT) in the Office of Policy and International Affairs at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). He has more than 30 years of federal service and has been with the DOE and its predecessor agencies since 1974. His contributions have focused primarily in the areas of national security, energy policy, science policy, and management of research and development programs. Earlier, Dr. Marlay served as director of DOE’s Office of Science and Technology Policy. He has also held leadership positions in the Offices of Science, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, and in the Federal Energy Administration. He holds a B.S.E. degree from Duke University, as well as two masters degrees and a Ph.D. from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. W. David Montgomery is vice president and co-leader of CRA International’s global energy and environment practice. He is an internationally recognized expert on economic issues associated with climate change policy, and his work on these topics has been published frequently in peer-reviewed journals. He was a principal lead author of the Second Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Working Group III, and has authored a number of peer-reviewed publications on climate policy over the past 20 years. Dr. Montgomery’s current research deals with economic impacts of climate policies, design of R&D policy, and how economic and political institutions affect the design and effectiveness of climate policies. He has led a number of strategic assessments for clients in the private sector, advising them on how future climate policies and other environmental regulations could affect their asset value, investment decisions, and strategic direction. He is the author of recent studies on the design of California’s policies to limit greenhouse gas emissions and on the economic impacts of U.S. climate legislation. He testified at hearings on climate policy held by the Ways and Means and Foreign Relations committees of the U.S. House of Representatives during the 110th Congress. Prior to joining CRA International, Dr. Montgomery held a number of senior positions in the United States government. He was assistant director of the U.S. Congressional Budget Office and deputy assistant secretary for policy in the U.S. Department of Energy. He taught economics at the California 40

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Institute of Technology and Stanford University, and he was a senior fellow at Resources for the Future. Dr. Montgomery holds a Ph.D. in economics from Harvard University and was a Fulbright Scholar at Cambridge University. He received the Association of Environmental and Resource Economists’ 2005 award for a “Publication of Enduring Quality” for his pioneering work on emission trading. Brian Murray joined the Nicholas Institute at Duke University in 2006 as director for economic analysis. Before that, he was director of the Center for Regulatory Economics and Policy Research at RTI International. He specializes in developing and applying economic models to analyze environmental and natural resource policies, programs, and regulations. He is a widely recognized expert in the integration of economic and biophysical models to assess greenhouse gas mitigation strategies in agriculture, land use change, and forestry. In pollution control, he has examined the economic effects of traditional command- based regulatory strategies and more market-oriented approaches such as emissions fees. Dr. Murray’s work has been published extensively in professional journals, edited book volumes, and commissioned reports. He has been invited as a co-author of several national and international assessments of forest resources, especially related to climate change. He received his Ph.D. in resource economics from Duke in 1992. Nebojša Nakićenović is professor of energy economics at the Vienna University of Technology (TU Wien), acting deputy director of the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), and director of the Global Energy Assessment (GEA). Dr. Nakićenović holds bachelor’s and master’s degrees in economics and computer science from Princeton University and the University of Vienna, where he also completed his Ph.D. He also holds an Honoris Causa Ph.D. degree in engineering from the Russian Academy of Sciences. William D. Nordhaus is Sterling Professor of Economics at Yale University. He has been on the faculty of Yale since 1967 and has been full professor of economics since 1973. He is a member of the National Academy of Sciences and a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. He is on the research staff of the Cowles Foundation and of the National Bureau of Economic Research and has been a member and senior advisor of the Brookings Panel on Economic Activity, Washington, D.C., since 1972. Dr. Nordhaus is current or past editor of several scientific journals and has served on the executive committees of the American Economic Association and the Eastern Economic Association. He serves on the Congressional Budget Office Panel of Economic Experts and was the first chair of the Advisory Committee for the Bureau of Economic Analysis. He was the first chair of the American Economic Association Committee on Federal Statistics. In 2004, he was awarded the prize of “Distinguished Fellow” by the American Economic Association. From 1977 to 1979, he was a member of the President’s Council of Economic Advisers. From 1986 to 1988, he served as the provost of Yale University. He has served on several committees of the National Research Council, including the Committee on Nuclear and Alternative Energy Systems, the Panel on Policy Implications of Greenhouse Warming, the Committee on National Statistics, the Committee on Data and Research on Illegal Drugs, and the Committee on the Implications for Science and Society of Abrupt Climate Change. His research has focused on economic growth and natural resources, as well as the question of the extent to which resources constrain economic growth. Since the 1970s, he has developed economic approaches to global warming, including the construction of integrated economic and scientific models (the DICE and RICE models) to determine the efficient path for coping with climate change, with the latest vintage, DICE- 2007, completed in the spring of 2007. Dr. Nordhaus completed his undergraduate work at Yale University and received his Ph.D. in economics in 1967 from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Tim Profeta came to Duke University in 2005 as founding director of the Nicholas Institute for Environmental Policy Solutions. Prior to this, he served as counsel for the environment to Senator Joseph Lieberman. As Senator Lieberman’s counsel, Mr. Profeta was a principal architect of the Lieberman- McCain Climate Stewardship Act of 2003. He also represented Senator Lieberman in legislative negotiations pertaining to environmental and energy issues, as well as coordinating the senator’s energy and environmental portfolio during his runs for national office. Mr. Profeta has served as a visiting lecturer at Duke Law School, where he taught a weekly seminar on the evolution of environmental law 41

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and the Endangered Species Act. Before joining Senator Lieberman’s staff, he was a law clerk for Judge Paul L. Friedman, U.S. District Court for the District of Columbia. John Reilly is an energy, environmental, and agricultural economist at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, where his work focuses on understanding the role of human activities as a contributor to global environmental change and the effects of environmental change on society and the economy. A key element of his work is the integration of economic models of the global economy as it represents human activity with models of biophysical systems including the ocean, atmosphere, and terrestrial vegetation. By understanding the complex interactions of human society with our planet, the goal is to aid in the design of policies that can effectively limit the contribution of human activity to environmental change, to facilitate adaptation to unavoidable change, and to understand the consequences of the deployment of large scale energy systems that will be needed to meet growing energy needs. Martin T. Ross specializes in environmental/energy economics and macroeconomic-simulation modeling at RTI International. While at RTI, Dr. Ross has developed the ADAGE model, a dynamic computable general equilibrium (CGE) model designed to estimate international and U.S. regional impacts of policies on economic variables such as GDP, industrial output, household consumption, and investment. The model is particularly useful for examining how climate-change mitigation policies limiting carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from energy consumption and non-CO2 greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions will affect all sectors of the economy. Current research being conducted for the U.S. EPA, the Pew Center on Global Climate Change, and the Nicholas Institute at Duke University involves using the ADAGE model to estimate U.S. macroeconomic impacts of several emissions reductions policies. Other work at RTI has involved developing a detailed technology model of electricity markets to examine how criteria pollutant and GHG policies affect capacity planning decisions and generation costs. Dr. Ross joined RTI in 2003 after spending several years at Charles River Associates where he developed regional models to look at effects of climate-change mitigation policies and macroeconomic impacts of electric- utility legislation. Ed Rubin is the Alumni Professor of Environmental Engineering and Science and a professor of engineering and public policy and of mechanical engineering at Carnegie Mellon University. Dr. Rubin’s research deals with technical, economic and policy issues related to energy and the environment. One major focus is on design and analysis of environmental control options for electric power systems. Research sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy has developed the Integrated Environmental Control Model (IECM)⎯a model widely used for engineering and economic analysis of current and advanced power generation systems and environmental control options. Recent model applications include a comparative assessment of coal combustion, natural gas combined cycle, and integrated coal gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power generation systems with and without CO2 capture and sequestration as a potential measure to mitigate global climate change. Recent research on technological innovation has examined the influence of government policies to meet environmental goals. Learning curves derived from case studies of environmental technologies and energy conversion processes have been used estimate future costs of carbon sequestration and global impacts of alternative climate policies. Professor Rubin also is actively involved in national and international assessments of technologies and policies related to energy R&D planning, coal utilization, and climate change mitigation. Robert Shackleton is a principal analyst in the Macroeconomic Analysis Division of the Congressional Budget Office. His principal areas of research include the economics of climate change, the international macroeconomic implications of the global demographic transition, and retirement preparations among baby boomers. He has also published on the quantification of dialect variation, especially as it bears on the origin and diffusion of features of American dialects. He earned his B.A. in economics and political science from Yale College and his M.A. and Ph.D. at the University of Maryland at College Park. Joel B. Smith, vice president with Stratus Consulting, has been analyzing climate change impacts and adaptation issues for more than 20 years. He was a coordinating lead author for the synthesis chapter on climate change impacts for the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change and was a lead author for the IPCC’s Fourth Assessment Report. He has provided technical advice, guidance, 42

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and training on assessing climate change impacts and adaptation to people around the world and for clients such as the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the U.S. Agency for International Development, the U.S. Country Studies Program, the World Bank, the United Nations, a number of states and municipalities in the United States, the Pew Center on Global Climate Change, the Electric Power Research Institute, the National Commission on Energy Policy, and the Rockefeller Foundation. Mr. Smith worked for the U.S. EPA from 1984 to 1992, where he was the deputy director of Climate Change Division. He is a coeditor of EPA’s Report to Congress: The Potential Effects of Global Climate Change on the United States (1989); As Climate Changes: International Impacts and Implications (1995); and Adaptation to Climate Change: Assessments and Issues (1996), Climate Change, Adaptive Capacity, and Development (2003 ), and The Impact of Climate Change on Regional Systems: A Comprehensive Analysis of California (2006). He joined Hagler Bailly in 1992 and Stratus Consulting in 1998. He has published more than two dozen articles and chapters on climate change impacts and adaptation in peer-reviewed journals and books. Besides working on climate change issues at EPA, he also was a special assistant to the assistant administrator for the Office of Policy, Planning, and Evaluation. Mr. Smith was a presidential management intern in the Office of the Secretary of Defense from 1982 to 1984. He has also worked in the U.S. Department of Energy and the U.S. Agency for International Development. Mr. Smith received a B.A. (magna cum laude) from Williams College in 1979, and a masters in public policy from the University of Michigan in 1982. Dimitri Zenghelis recently joined Cisco’s long term innovation group as chief economist of the Climate Change practice in the Global Public Sector organization. He has moved from heading the Stern Review Team at the Office of Climate Change, London. Previously, he was a senior economist who has spent a year working with Lord Stern on the Stern Review on Economics of Climate Change, commissioned by the then Chancellor Gordon Brown. He continues to act as an external advisor to the government of the United Kingdom and works closely with Lord Stern at the LSE where he is a senior visiting fellow at the Grantham Institute on Climate Change. He is also an associate fellow at the Royal Institute of International Affairs (Chatham House). Mr. Zenghelis joined HM Treasury in 1999, providing economic analysis and advice for the government of the United Kingdom as head of economic forecasting and head of the European Monetary Union Analysis Branch. 43

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