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Index

A

Acanthocephalans, 2, 64, 68, 69, 72, 80

Acidobacteria, 129-143, 144-146

Ackerly, David, 254

Actinomycetes, 157

Adenostoma, 254

Adopt-A-Park Volunteer Program, 327

Adriatic Sea, 11, 15

Africa

clade disjunctions, 256

deforestation, 298

diversity peak, 267

extinctions, 30, 230, 236

Agriculture

and extinctions, xvi

nutrient pollution from, 11-12, 15, 23, 24, 43, 332

subsidy and tax policies, 25

sustainable, 307

Alainosquillidae, 49

Alaska, 39, 196, 230

Algal blooms, toxic, 16, 23, 24

Alismatales, 250

Allison, Steven D., 84, 149-166

alpha-Proteobacteria, 157

Alroy, John, 168, 207-225

Alseis blackiana, 116

Amazon Basin

area, 108, 113

mammalian species, 265

plant species, 113, 117

Amazon River, 15

Amazonian tree diversity

Brazillian portion, 107, 108, 112, 113-114, 115, 117, 118-124, 338

deforestation scenarios, 84, 107-108, 118-123

extinction risk, 84, 107, 118-123

Fisher’s logseries predictions, 109, 110, 111, 112-113, 124

neutral biodiversity theory applied to, 83, 107, 110-112

number and abundance of species, 84, 107, 108-109, 111, 112-114, 119, 121, 122, 124

Peruvian portion, 112, 330

Preston’s lognormal predictions, 109, 110, 111, 112

range sizes, 107, 108, 111, 114-118, 119, 120, 121

rare species, 84, 107, 108, 110, 114, 117, 121, 123, 124

species–area relationship, 113

American bullfrog (Rana catesbieana), 42

American Cetacean Society, 325



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Index A Amazon Basin area, 108, 113 Acanthocephalans, 2, 64, 68, 69, 72, 80 mammalian species, 265 Acidobacteria, 129-143, 144-146 plant species, 113, 117 Ackerly, David, 254 Amazon River, 15 Actinomycetes, 157 Amazonian tree diversity Adenostoma, 254 Brazillian portion, 107, 108, 112, 113-114, Adopt-A-Park Volunteer Program, 327 115, 117, 118-124, 338 Adriatic Sea, 11, 15 deforestation scenarios, 84, 107-108, Africa 118-123 clade disjunctions, 256 extinction risk, 84, 107, 118-123 deforestation, 298 Fisher’s logseries predictions, 109, 110, diversity peak, 267 111, 112-113, 124 extinctions, 30, 230, 236 neutral biodiversity theory applied to, Agriculture 83, 107, 110-112 and extinctions, xvi number and abundance of species, 84, nutrient pollution from, 11-12, 15, 23, 107, 108-109, 111, 112-114, 119, 121, 24, 43, 332 122, 124 subsidy and tax policies, 25 Peruvian portion, 112, 330 sustainable, 307 Preston’s lognormal predictions, 109, Alainosquillidae, 49 110, 111, 112 Alaska, 39, 196, 230 range sizes, 107, 108, 111, 114-118, 119, Algal blooms, toxic, 16, 23, 24 120, 121 Alismatales, 250 rare species, 84, 107, 108, 110, 114, 117, Allison, Steven D., 84, 149-166 121, 123, 124 alpha-Proteobacteria, 157 species–area relationship, 113 Alroy, John, 168, 207-225 American bullfrog (Rana catesbieana), 42 Alseis blackiana, 116 American Cetacean Society, 325 

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 / Index Ammonoids, xv, 175, 176-177, 184, 185, 186, Atlantic walrus (Odobenus rosmarus 197, 199 rosmarus), 7 Amphibians Audubon Society, 323 chytridiomycosis, 2, 35-37, 38, 42, 44 Australia. See also Indo-Australian climate change and, 2, 30, 38-41, 42, 44 Archipelago conservation, 35, 36, 42 amphibian populations, 2, 32, 37, 38 current extinction spasm, 2, 28, 30, 37, butterfly declines, 322 40, 42, 43-44, 331 fishery collapse, 11 diversity geographically, 31, 32, 34, 43, human impacts, 233, 269 266 marsupials, 203 habitat modification, 2, 30, 37, 40, 41, 42 mass extinctions, 229, 230, 231-232, 233, invasive species and, 35, 42 269 new species, 40-41, 42, 43 megafauna biomass, 239 number of recognized species, 31, 42, 68 parks and preserves, 336 parasites, 68, 72 phytoplankton pigment concentration, pollution and, 30-31, 35, 332 50 Rana of Sierra Nevada, 33-37 Aves. See Birds survival of mass extinctions, 2, 28-29, Avise, John C., iv, xiii-xiv, 244, 281-296 30, 43 Ayala, Francisco J., xiii-xiv threatened and endangered species, 27, Ayala, Hana, 290 30-33, 34, 41-43, 72 Angiosperm Phylogeny Group II, 144 B Angiosperms classification, 248 Back to Natives program, 326 elevational diversity gradients, 127-147 Bacterial communities Annelida, 66 abiotic filtering, 133, 134, 156 Apicomplexa/Microspora, 66 ecosystem services, 150 Aquaculture, 11, 23, 24, 25 elevational diversity gradients in soil Aquarium of the Pacific, 327 communities, 127-147 Arborescent lycopsids, 182 Baltic Sea, 15 Archaea, 150, 156, 287 Baltica continental plate, 199 Archaeocyathids, 179 Barbados, coral reefs, 19 Architectural diversity, 171, 179-180, 182, Barnosky, Anthony D., 168-169, 227-241 183, 184, 186-187 Barro Colorado Island, 115, 116, 117 Arctostaphylos, 254 Bartlett, Troy, 320-321 Artiodactyls, 273 Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, 35-36, 38, Arthur M. Sackler Colloquium, iv, viii, xiii- 42, 44 xiv, xvi, 103-104, 147, 166 Bats, 124, 265, 273 Arthur M. Sackler Gallery of Asian Art, viii Bay of Fundy, 7-8, 11 Arthropleura, 175 Beach Bluffs Restoration Project, 327 Arthropoda, 66, 174, 181, 319-320, 321 Bees, 308, 324, 339 Asia Beetles, 65, 322, 324 clade disjunctions, 256, 258 Behavioral and social complexity, 171, 180, species diversity, 259 182-183, 184, 294-295 Asteraceae (sunflower family), 248-249, Beilschmiedia pendula, 116 250, 259 Belding’s Savannah sparrow, 327 Atelopus spp., 37, 39 Belemnites, 185 Atlantic Ocean Beringia, 75, 229, 230, 231-232, 257, 258 sea floor spreading, 29, 256 Bielby, Jon, 263-279 species declines and extinctions, 7, 8, 9, Bignoniaceae, 115, 117 12, 13, 17, 29, 59 Billfishes, 16, 17

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Index /  Bininda-Emonds, Olaf R. P., 263-279 geographical distribution of, 73-74, 75- BioBlitz biodiversity surveys, 314, 317 76, 252, 266 Biodiversity. See also individual taxa and habitat loss, 205, 323 introduced species, 99 ecosystems benefits, xv, 150 island species, 91, 93-94, 101 center of origin hypothesis, 50-51 land species, 73-76 centers of, 45, 48 land-use changes and, 75-76 cradles of, 266, 267 marine species, 9 defined, xiii, 28 parasites, 68, 69, 73-75 economic importance, 307-308 pollution and, 332 energy/productivity hypothesis, 49-50 predation and, 93, 323 global estimates, 66 surveys, 321, 323, 324-325 gradients, 47-51, 69-70, 73-74, 75 Bivalve mollusks. See also specific bivalves hotspots, xvi, 2, 51-55, 253, 289, 290, 319 collapse of fisheries, 13 human impacts, 1-2, 330-335; see also recovery dynamics after K-T extinction, Habitat fragment and loss; Human 168, 199, 200, 201-203 population; Hunting; rudist, 175, 176, 179, 180, 185, 193, losses, xvi, 28, 88; see also Extinction; 196-197 Mass extinctions Black Sea, 24 network of interactions, 173, 186 Blastoids, 175, 184 number of species, 63, 64-69, 88 Blastozoans, 176 outlook for, xvi, 24, 260-261, 331-335 Bluegill sunfish, 295 saturation point, 93 Bobcat, 324 scientific efforts, xvi Body size Biodiversity genetics bivalve, 192, 194, 195 legacy biotas in Pleistocene Parks, 244, and ecosystem process rates, 164 281-282, 289-292 and endemism, 2, 45, 53, 54, 55-56, 57- public education applications, 244, 282, 58, 59, 60-61 293-296 and energy budget, 237 standardization of biological and extinction/speciation dynamics, 45, classification, 244, 281, 283-289 46, 49-50, 51, 54, 56, 59, 60-61, 168, Biodiversity Project, 300, 302 192, 194, 195, 196, 265, 271, 272, 273, Biofuel production, 335, 336 275 Biogeochemical cycling, 18, 24, 129, 153 and geographic range size, 57-60, 61, Biomass 194, 272 carrying capacity for megafauna, and habitat saturation, 55, 57 236-237 and hitchhiking effects, 196 crash, 227, 231-234 and life history patterns, 51, 55-58 domesticates, 232, 239-240 megafauna, 228-229, 237 estimating, 238-240 productivity and, 49, 53-54, 60-61, 229 fisheries, 8-10, 14, 16-17 and reproductive capacity, 55, 56, 59, human, 227, 231, 233, 234, 236, 237, 238 265 nonhuman megafauna, 227, 239 stomatopods, 45, 46, 48, 49-50, 51, 53, parasites, 81 54, 55-58, 59, 60-61 recovery after QME, 227, 234-236 terrain elevation and, 49-50, 54, 55, 60, tradeoffs, 168-169, 229, 233 61, 272 Biophilia, 306 Bohai Sea, 9, 13 Bioreactor models, 158 Bolitoglossini, 31, 40 Bird diversity Bolivia, 112 extinctions, 8, 9, 86, 88, 91, 93, 186, 197, Borda-De-Água, Luis, 107-125 205, 231 Brachiopods, 59, 175, 176, 179, 180, 183, 184, 199

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 / Index Braulio Carrillo National Park, 38 Cardillo, Marcel, 263-279 Brazil Caribbean Amazonian tree species, 107, 108, 112, coral reefs, 10, 18, 19, 20, 21, 47 113, 114, 115-116, 117, 118-124, 338 monk seal, 21 amphibian species, 32 recovery from mass extinctions, 198, 221 biofuel production, 335 Carnivores, 9, 10, 31, 89, 90, 101, 177, 191, deforestation rates, 298, 330, 335 235, 239, 240, 265, 273, 274-275, 333 Bromeliaceae, 259 Carpinteria Salt Marsh, 70 Brown, Elisabeth, 319 Carrying capacities for ecosystems, 185- Brown widow spider, 323-324 186, 236-237 Bryant, Jessica A., 84, 127-147 Caryophyllales, 250 Bryant, Peter J., 245, 317-327 Ceanothus, 254 Bryozoans, 179, 180, 184, 197 Cenozoic Bufo spp., 33, 37 diversity increases, 174, 209, 212 Bugguide web site, 320-321 extinctions, 48, 59, 174, 187, 189, 202, Butterfly monitoring, 321-323, 324, 325, 327 217 hotspots and coldspots, 204 invasive species, 189 C mollusks, 174, 192, 193, 202 reefs, 180 Cactaceae, 250 species counts, 212 Caecilians, 2, 27, 31, 43 Center of accumulation hypothesis, 48-49 California Central America Academy of Sciences, 313 amphibians, 37, 39 Channel Islands, 92 chytridiomycosis in amphibians, 37, 38 chaparral, 254-256 isthmus, 59 Coastal Commission, 326 Central Pacific, coral reefs, 2, 19, 20, 22, 45, conservation initiatives, 245, 295, 313, 47, 53, 54, 61 318-327 CENTURY model, 151 Orange County, 245, 318-327 Cephalopods, 195 plant species richness, 92 Cestodes, 2, 64, 68, 69, 72 salt marshes, 70 Chaetognatha, 66 Sierra Nevada amphibians, 27-28, 33, Chavez, Hugo, 331 35, 37, 38, 30, 40, 41 Chesapeake Bay, 7, 13, 15 California gnatcatcher (Polioptila californica), China, viii, 32 319 Chondrichthys, 68, 72 California least tern, 327 Chordata, 66 Cambrian Christmas Island, 104, 106 biotic recoveries, 186, 210, 212 Chytridiomycosis, 2, 35-37, 38, 42, 44 Burgess Shale fauna, 176 Ciliophora, 66 developmental diversity, 181 Citizen science, 313-314, 318-327 diversity patterns, 186, 212, 215, 223 Clark University, vii extinctions, 175, 182, 185 Climate change food webs, 179 adaptation to, 247, 249, 250-251, 252, reefs, 179-180 254-255, 258, 260-261 temporal banding, 287 and amphibian declines, 2, 30, 38-41, 42, Cane toad (Bufo marinus), 42 44 Captain Dave’s Dolphin Safari, 323 and avian-parasite diversity, 75-76 Carbon, 18, 136, 137, 142, 146, 150, 154, 155, bolide impacts and, 28-29 157, 165, 183, 309, 329, 332, 335, 339 cloud line, 39 Carbon dioxide, 18, 154, 155, 157, 165, 332 and coral reefs, 21, 22, 23, 26, 46, 332 Carcharhinus spp., 9 El Niño conditions, 17, 38

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Index /  energy policy and, 25-26 California initiatives, 245, 295, 313, Holocene warming (current episode), 318-327 29-30, 230, 234, 235 challenges, 35, 36, 227-228 human role, 25-26, 44 charismatic megabiota, 293, 302, 341 and island biodiversity, 98 cost-benefit assessments, 278 and mass extinctions, 28, 29, 30, 108 in developing regions, 342 and migration changes, 322-324 economic incentives, 338 modeling effects of, 275-276 endowments, 336-337 and montane ecosystems, 134 energy, 335, 336 and naturalization of invasive species, evolutionary impacts as goal, 98 278-279 and ocean acidification, 18, 23, 24, 25-26, of human-modified landscapes, 337-338, 36, 332 341 Pleistocene, 29, 190, 198, 201, 202 identifying targets for, 172, 274 public attitude about, 297, 300, 303-304, IQ RESORTS, 290-291, 292 309, 310-311 local community involvement, 342 and QME, 168, 227, 228, 230, 234, 236 mammals, 11, 244, 264, 274, 276-279, and radiation and speciation, 75 326, 341 and spatial dynamics of diversity, 128, molecular genetics and, 281-282 190, 201, 202, 204, 205, 338 Orange County initiatives, 245, stratification effects, 17, 23, 24 318-327 synergistic effects, 22, 24, 29, 30, 39, 124, phylogeographic surveys, 291-292 205, 333 Pleistocene Parks, 244, 281-282, 292 warming trends, 39 pollution control, 335 Cloud forests. See Tropical montane species population stabilization, 335 Clovis hunters, 230, 233 ranking ecoregions for, 276-278 Cnidaria, 66, 181 restoration of local habitats, 340-341 Coastal cactus wrens (Campylorhynchus squabbles over strategy, 334 brunneicapillus), 319 valuation of ecosystem services, Coastal seas. See Estuaries and coastal seas 339-340 Cocos (Keeling) Island, 94, 104, 106 Conservation International, 290 Cod, 7, 8, 9, 12, 13, 24 Continental shelves Colombia, 32, 38, 112 dead zones, 15-16, 23 Colorado, 129 eutrophication, 15, 23 Comores Islands, 52 exploitation, 12-14, 23 Competition fishery biomass, 9 and extinctions, 89, 91, 101, 186 habitat destruction, 14-15, 23 origination/extinction dynamics, 208, status, 23 211, 218, 222 Convergent evolution, 134, 253 and phylogenetic niche conservation, Coral reefs. See Indo-West Pacific coral 252, 253, 258 reefs; Reef ecosystems; Reef and phylogenetic overdispersion, 130, stomatopods 134 Costa Rica, 37, 38, 39, 336-337, 341 Competitive exclusion, 130, 134, 253 Cownose ray (Rhinoptera bonasus), 13 Condit, Richard, 107-125 Cretaceous, 212. See Mass extinctions Congo, Democratic Republic of, 32 Crinoids, 176, 179, 184, 192 Conodonts, 175, 183 Cronquist, Arthur, 248, 249 Conservation. See also Public engagement Crown of thorns starfish, 50 in biodiversity Crustaceans, 2, 8, 9, 45, 47, 319. See amphibians, 35, 36 Stomatopods of biogeographic centers of endemism, Cryptic species, 67, 69, 101 51, 172-173, 278, 290 Ctenophora, 66

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400 / Index D distance–decay relationships, 131, 134, 145-146 Darwin, Charles, 248, 282 environmental drivers, 134-138, 142, 146 Davies, T. Jonathan, 244, 263-279 intertaxonomic comparisons, 141 Deccan Traps, 29 island communities, 93, 101, 102, 106 Deforestation, 11, 84, 88, 107-108, 118-123, nomenclatural approach, 128-129 298, 323, 330 parsimonious hypothesis, 129, 133, 134 Developmental diversity, 171, 181-182, 183, phylogenetic approach, 84, 129-146, 247, 184, 185 257, 259 Diadema antillarum, 10, 21 and productivity, 54 Dicynodonts, 180 sampling issues, 139, 141, 142, 144 Dilley, James, 319 scaling issues, 132, 133, 138, 139, 140, Dinosaurs, xv, 29, 175, 180, 201 141 Dioum, Baba, 295 taxon richness, 84, 128-129, 130, 131, Dipsacaceae, 250 132, 135, 136, 138, 139-140, 144 Diseases. See Infectious diseases Elkhorn coral (Acropora palmate), 18, 19, 21 Diversification debt, 189, 198, 199 Enantiornithes, 197 Dobson, Andy, 2-3, 63-82 Encyclopedia of Life, 312, 343 Dobzhansky, Theodosius, xiii, xiv, 108 Endangered and threatened species Donoghue, Michael J., 243-244, 247-261 amphibians, 27, 30-33, 34, 41-43, 72 mammals, 236-237 Red List, 30, 72, 87-91, 100-101, 269, 272, E 277 Endangered Species Habitat Restoration East Africa, coral reefs, 20, 45 Day, 327 Easter Island, 104, 106 Endemism Echinoderms, 66, 181, 184 Amazonian trees, 121, 124 Echinoids, 176-177, 184, 197 body size and, 2, 45, 53, 54, 55-56, 59, Echiurida, 66 60-61 Ecospace, 177-179, 184 conservation of biogeographic centers, Ecosystem process models 51, 172-173, 278, 290 black box, 150, 151-154 extinction/speciation dynanics and, 51, incorporating microbes, 149, 159-164 58, 60-61, 83, 91, 124 Ecosystem services, 64, 77-82, 123, 150, 151, hotspots, 2, 172, 266, 274, 290 177, 307, 315, 339-340 life history patterns and, 55 Ecotourism, 336, 338-339, 343 local, 51-52 Ecuador, iv, 39-40, 112, 113 montane amphibians, 40 Ehrlich, Paul R., 245, 329-344 plant diversity on islands, 83, 91 El Avila National Park, 331 productivity and, 60-61 Elevational diversity gradients reef stomatopods, 2, 45, 46, 47, 49, 51-55, alpha-diversity, 130, 136, 146 57, 58, 59, 60-61 analytical method, 144-146 regional, 52-53, 54 bacteria vs. plants, 127-147 restricted regional, 52 beta-diversity and, 130-131 species diversity and, 45, 51-55 biotic forces, 130, 134 Energy policies, 25, 237, 238, 335, 336 body size, 49-50, 54, 55, 60, 61, 272 Energy/productivity dynamics, 169, 227, causes, 128 228-229, 235-236, 237, 332. See also characterization of communities, Productivity 142-144 Energy/water dynamics, 265 climate change and, 128 Enquist, Brian J., 127-147 community composition, 144-145 Entoprocta, 66

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Index / 40 Eocene, 256, 257, 287 taxic diversity, 171-172, 173-174, 175, Ericaceae, 250 183, 184, 185-186, 187 Erwin, Douglas, 65, 82, 167, 171-187 trophic structures, 177-178 Espeletia, 259 Exotic species. See Invasive or introduced Estuaries and coastal seas species aquaculture, 25 Extinction. See also Evolutionary impacts Bay of Fundy, 7-8 of extinctions; Mass extinctions; climate change and, 23 Origination/extinction dynamics; exploitation patterns globally, 8-11, 16, Spatial dynamics of extinctions; 23 specific correlates pollution, 11-12, 15, 21, 23, 25 background rates, 42, 58, 71, 120, 167, status, 23 173, 190, 195, 197, 202, 207, 209, 301- synergistic effects in, 12, 21 302, 331 Euphorbiaceae, 250 bulletproof species, 272, 273, 274, 275 Eurasia cascades, 209, 215 global warming trends, 39 debt, 83, 85, 97-98, 100, 198, 338 Quaternary Megafauna Extinction, 229, drivers, 87-91, 205, 269-271, 274-275 230, 231-232, 233, 234, 236, 239 episodic, 173, 174, 177 Europe field-of-bullets model, 270, 272 extinctions, 200 firing-line model, 270-271, 272-273 global warming trends, 39 forecasting, 86, 91, 98-99, 100, 270-272, species diversity, 259 274-276 Eutrophication, 11, 12, 15, 23, 24, 25, 309 habitat specialization and, 192, 273 Evolutionary fauna hypothesis, 212 hotspots, 2, 41 Evolutionary impacts of extinctions islands vs mainlands, 89, 101, 270, 274 analysis of mass extinctions, 167-168, IUCN analysis, 87-91, 100-101 171, 182-185 land-use changes and, 75-76, 269 architectural components, 171, 179-180, latent risk, 273-274, 277 182, 183, 184, 186-187 phylogenetic risk assessment, 272-273 behavioral and social complexity, 171, public understanding of, 301-302 180, 182-183, 184 rates, xvi, 42, 150, 167, 172, 208, 330-331 biogeographic structure and, 173 research gaps, 99-100 carrying capacities, 185-186, 236-237 resilience of ecosystems, 177 as conservation goal, 278-279 threat categories, 31, 33 developmental diversity, 171, 181-182, 183, 184, 185 F ecospace, 177-179, 184 food web structure, 178, 184 Facilitation, ecological, 130, 134, 253 functional diversity, 177-179, 183, 184 Feature diversity, 130 macroecological guild approach, Fish 177-178 armored, 182 metrics for loss of evolutionary history, freshwater, 91, 203 167, 171, 172-182 jawless, 28 morphologic disparity, 167, 171, 176- parasites, 69-70, 75 177, 181, 183-184, 185, 186, 333 Fisheries. See also individual species phylogenetic diversity, 171, 173, 174- biomass and catch data and modeling, 176, 183, 184, 186 8-10, 14, 16-17 productivity losses, 184, 185 changes in commercial species, 8 recovery from mass extinctions, 168, coral reefs, 10, 19, 20-21, 22, 23 171-172, 178, 185-186, 187 diseases, 21 scaling theory applied to, 178-179 endangered species, 21 sea level changes, 184-185

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40 / Index fishing down the food web, 6, 13 megafauna, 239 habitat losses, 23 parasites, 75, 77 human population size and, 20 and origination/extinction dynamics, longline fishing, 12 58-60, 75, 76 mass extinctions, 28 and survivorship, 168, 189, 190-191, 192, overexploitation, 1, 5, 6, 7, 8-11, 12-14, 193, 194, 214 16-17, 18, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 299, 307 “trailing edge” opportunities, 256-258 predatory fish stocks, 1, 6, 9, 12, 13, 16- Gittleman, John L., 263-279 17, 20-21, 23, 333 Global Amphibian Assessment, 31, 33, 34, predictions, 24, 264 41, 44 recovery, 305-306 Global Coral Reef Monitoring Network, 46 shellfish, 13, 23, 191, 194 Global Invasive Species Database, 324 sustainable management, 25 Globalization, 340 trawling and dredging, 11, 12, 13, 14-15, Golden toad (Bufo periglenes), 37 23 Goliath grouper, 10, 19 Florida Gondwana, 256 coral reefs, 10, 20, 21 Gonodactylaceus spp., 48 distribution of species, 324 Gonodactylellus incipiens, 48 fisheries, 21 Gonodactylidae, 49, 56, 57 oak phylodiversity patterns, 253 Gore, Al, 303, 310, 336 sponge harvests, 21 Gould, Stephen J., 295-296 Florida Keys, 10, 19, 21 Graptolites, 183, 197 Food and Agriculture Organization, 13 Grasslands, 177, 250, 330 Food web structure, 3, 64, 70-71, 78-80, 82, Gray whale (Eschrichtius robustus), 7, 324, 178, 184, 215 325 Foraminifera, 18, 184, 185 Great Barrier Reef, 18-19, 102 Fossil Record 2 database, 208, 214 Great Rift Valley, 265 Friends of the Sea Lion, 326 Green, Jessica L., 84, 127-147 Fritz, Susanne A., 263-279 Green consumerism, 299 Frogs, 2, 27-28, 30-31, 33-39, 42-43 Green economies, 307 Functional diversity, 177-179, 183, 184, 197 Green turtle, 10, 21, 294 Functional redundancy in ecosystems, 149, Greengenes database, 143 152, 153, 154, 157-158, 165, 177 Grenyer, Richard, 263-279 Guianan Shield, 112 Gulf of Maine, 14 G Gulf of Mexico asteroid impact, 29 Gaines, Steven D., 83, 85-106 hypoxic zone, 15, 16 Gastropods, 59-60, 183, 184 species composition and abundance, 9, Genome, community metaphor, 294 12, 17 Gentianella, 259 toxic blooms of dinoflagellates, 16 Geographic range trawling and dredging, 15 Amazonian trees, 107, 108, 111, 114-118, Gyrodactyloidea, 69 119, 120, 121 body size and, 57-60, 61, 272, 273 clade-level distribution, 168, 189, 192, H 194, 196, 203, 204 determinants, 196, 197, 237, 266, 323-324 Habitat fragmentation and loss. See also and extinction risk, 58, 77, 194-195, 272, Deforestation 273 amphibians, 2, 27, 28, 30, 31, 33, 37, 40, hitchhiking effects, 189 41, 42, 43, 44 mammals, 266, 331 and avian diversity, 75-76, 77

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Index / 40 continental shelves, 14-15, 23 and extinction risk, xv-xvi, 43-44, 75-76, coral reefs, 23, 57 123, 205, 227, 231, 233, 234, 236, 237, estuaries and coastal seas, 7, 9, 10, 11, 23 238, 269, 270-271, 274-275, 276 exotic-dominated, 100 and island biodiversity, 93, 101, 102, 106 and extinction risk, 88, 101, 108, 269, stabilization, 335 271-272, 278 Hunting and future of biodiversity, 260-261 body size correlation, 271 human population expansion, 43-44, extinctions, 7, 8, 30, 90, 93, 101, 168, 227, 168, 205, 228, 233, 236, 237 228, 233, 239, 236, 237, 273, 300 and parasite diversity, 63-64, 69-70 overharvesting, 7, 13, 333 and QME, 168, 228, 233, 236, 237 and trophic cascades, 13 rate and extent, 330 Hutchinson, G. Evelyn, 252 synergistic effects, 1, 5, 6, 12, 30, 44, 88, Hydromantes playcephalus, 33 124, 205, 260-261, 309, 333-334 from trawling and dredging, 11 I Habitat saturation, 55, 57, 87, 94, 97-99 Haddock, 8, 12 Incumbency effects, 174, 189, 196, 201, 203, Haeckel, Ernst, 283 205, 217, 218 Halenia, 259 India, 29, 42, 50, 200, 322, 332 Harlequin frog (Atelopus varius), 37 Indian Ocean, 2, 20, 45, 47, 48, 49, 52-53, 54, Harte, John, 115 60, 61, 104 Hawaiian Islands, 20, 52, 91, 92, 93-94, 98, Indo-Australian Archipelago (IAA), 2, 45, 104, 106 47, 48, 49, 51, 52-53, 54, 60 Hawksbill turtle, 10, 21 Indo-West Pacific coral reefs. See also Reef He, Fangliang, 107-125 stomatopods Hechinger, Ryan F., 63-82 diversity patterns, 45, 47 Helminths, 2-3, 63, 64, 66-69, 72, 73-74, 77, endemism and hotspots, 2, 45, 46, 47, 78, 81-82 49, 51-55, 57, 58, 59, 60-61 Hemberger, Ron, 320-321, 324 explanations of diversity gradients, Hemichordata, 66 47-51 Heron Island, 94, 95, 102, 104, 106 live coral cover, 10, 18 Herrera, Carlos, 254 risk of collapse, 46 Heteromeles, 254 speciation/extinction dynamics, 58-60 Hippuritoida, 193, 196, 197 Indonesia, 47, 50, 52, 335 Holasteroids, 197 Industrial Revolution, xvi, 227, 235, 236, Holocene 237 climate change, 29-30, 230, 234, 235 Infectious diseases coral reefs, 19 chytridiomycosis in amphibians, 2, 35- extinctions, 30, 230, 234 37, 38, 39, 42, 44 Homo sapiens, 330 human, 23, 30, 44 Homoplasy, 248, 249, 250, 284, 285 and mammalian extinctions, 30 Horizontal gene transfer, 153, 156, 284 marine fauna, 21, 22, 23, 24, 46 Horsetails, 182 synergistic effects, 2, 39, 88, 101 Hubbell, Stephen P., 83-84, 107-125 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Human population Change, 39, 40, 75 biomass, 227, 231, 233, 234, 236, 237, 238 International Union for Conservation of density near coral reefs, 20, 46 Nature Red List IUCN, 30, 72, 87-91, displacement of biodiversity, 331 100-101, 269, 272, 277 energy/productivity dynamics, 169, Internet, conservation options, 311-312, 227, 228-229, 235-236, 237, 332 320-321, 324, 343-344

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404 / Index Invasive or introduced species colonization-based saturation, 86-87, and abundance patterns of native 93-97, 99 species, 99-100 elevation and, 93, 101, 102, 106 and amphibian declines 28, 35, 42, 43 extinction-based saturation, 86, 87, 93, colonization-based saturation, 86-87, 97-98, 99 93-97, 99 freshwater fish, 91 competitiveness, 201, 333 future of, 98-99 coral reefs, 23 human population size and, 93, 101, and ecosystem services, 81 102, 106, 230-231 extinction-based saturation, 86, 87, 93, invasion/extinction dynamics, 85-86, 97-98, 99 87, 89-97, 98, 99-103 and extinction debt, 83, 85, 97-98, 100 IUCN extinction analysis, 87-91, 100-101 and habitat loss, 100 land-bridge islands, 92 island extinction dynamics, 83, 85-86, latitude and, 101, 102, 106 87, 89-97, 98, 99-103 mammals, 91, 101, 266, 259, 270 latitudinal diversity gradient, 201-202 methods for analyzing, 100-103, 111 and mammalian diversity, 30, 269, 274, native species, 83, 85-87, 91-94, 96-99, 276 100, 101, 103, 106 marine ecosystem effects, 1, 5, 11, 12, 23 naturalized species, 85, 91-97, 99, 101, and mass extinctions, 220-221 102-103, 104-106 monitoring, 324 occupation history and, 101, 102, 106 and native species abundance, 100 oceanic islands, 92-93, 94, 95, 96, 97 naturalized, 85, 91-97, 99, 101, 102-103, plants, 85-87, 89, 91-100, 101, 104-106 104-106 settlement date and, 93, 101, 102, 106 pathogens, 88 Island biogeography theory, 86, 87 plants, 85, 86, 87, 91-100, 101 Isolation, and convergent ecological post-extinction spatial dynamics, 93, adaptation, 255-256 189-190, 191, 199-200, 201, 202-203, 204, 205 J predation versus competition, 83, 86, 89-91, 101, 333 Jablonski, David, 168, 189-206 predicting intensities of, 273 Jackson, Jeremy B. C., 1, 5-26, 30, 44, 204, 315 propagule pressure, 60, 86, 97, 98, 99 Jamaica, coral reefs, 20, 330 rates of introduction, 99-100 Jellyfish, 5, 15 regulation, 98, 298 Jetz, Walter, 63-82 research gaps, 86, 99-100 Jones, Kate E., 263-279 resistance to, 202-203 saturation point, 83, 85, 87, 93-99 species–area relationships, 100 K synergistic effects, 1, 5, 30, 88, 276 Iowa State University, 320-321 Kangaroos, 295 IQ RESORTS, 290-291, 292 Karenia brevis, 16 Irish elk, 229 Kellner, James, 107-125 Island biodiversity Kelp forests, 5, 13 adaptations, 255 Kerkhoff, Andrew J., 127-147 area size and, 93, 102, 106 King crabs, 295 birds, 91, 93-94, 101, 266 Kings Canyon National Park, 35, 36 characteristics, by island, 101, 104-106 Kudla, Alexei U., 45-61 climate change and, 98 Kuris, Armand M., 63-82

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Index / 40 L islands, 91, 101, 269 marine, 7, 11, 101, 326 Lafferty, Kevin D., 63-82 modeling future declines, 245, 244, Laguna Coast Wilderness Park, 319 274-276 Lamanna, Christine, 127-147 parasites, 68, 69 Land-use changes and policies, xv-xvi, recoveries, 7, 279 75-76, 118-119, 120, 274, 275, 276, Mammoths, 229 331, 340 Mangareva Island, 105, 106 Late Glacial Maximum (LGM), 230, 234 Mangroves, 250 Latitudinal diversity gradients. See also Marine ecosystems. See also Continental Phylogenetic niche conservatism shelves; Coral reefs; Estuaries and extinction dynamics, 58, 191, 201-203 coastal seas; Fisheries; Open ocean invasive species, 201-202 carbon cycling, 18 island biodiversity, 101, 102, 106 controlling threats to, 24-26 mammalian distribution, 265-266 extinctions, 173 Lauraceae, 116, 258 guilds, 177-178 Laurasian corridor, 256 high-seas ballast water exchange, 335 Leopold, Aldo, 282 hypoxic/dead zones, 12, 15-16, 23, 24 Life history patterns invasive species, 199 body size and, 51, 55-58 inventory programs, 323a and endemism, 55, 61 invertebrate origination/extinction and extinction resistance, 192 dynamics, 207-225 parasites, 73, 77, 80 mass extinctions, 28, 29, 182-185, 186 productivity and, 53-54 models, 150, 151 species interactions and, 51, 73 predictions, 22-24 stomatopod patterns, 55-58 protected areas, 20, 21 Linnaeus, Carolus, 63, 64, 65, 66, 128, 282 spatial dynamics of diversity, 190-206 Lord Howe Island, 95, 97, 104, 106 trophic cascades, 1, 6, 12, 13, 16-17, 21, Lupinus, 259 23 synergistic effects on, 1-2, 5, 6, 12, 21-22, 26 M Marsupials, 203, 265 Martiny, Jennifer B. H., 84, 149-166 Mace, Georgina M., 263-279 Mascarene Islands, 52 Macroecological guilds, 177-178 Mass extinctions. See also Spatial dynamics Macroevolutionary equation, 190, 198-199 of extinctions Madagascar, 32, 42, 45, 47, 50, 52, 256 biases in fossil record, 174, 191, 198, 209, Magnuson–Stevens Act, 25 210-211, 219, 223 Malaysia, 47, 50, 52, 335 causes, xv-xvi, 1, 28-29, 30, 43-44 Malpighiaceae, 256, 258 Cretaceous–Tertiary (K-T) boundary, 29, Mammalian biodiversity. See also 167, 175, 183, 185, 186, 187, 189, 190- Quaternary Megafauna Extinction 191, 192, 193, 194, 195, 197, 198, 199, anthropogenic threats, 7, 11, 30, 36, 269- 200, 205, 214, 215, 218, 221 271, 273, 279 current spasm, xv-xvi, xvii, 1, 28, 29-30, body-size correlates, 263, 271-272, 273 43-44, 71-72, 168, 172, 209, 212, 214, conservation, 11, 244, 264, 274, 276-279, 219-220, 222 326, 341 end-Permian, 29, 167, 171, 173, 174, 175, endangered and threatened, 236-237 176-177, 179, 182, 183, 184, 186, 199, extinction rates, 7, 11, 30, 264, 331 205, 208, 212, 213, 214, 216, 217, 218, extinction risk analysis, 263-265, 271-274 220, 221 geographic and phylogenetic patterns, end-Triassic, 29, 167, 175, 183, 186, 187, 201, 244, 263, 265-269, 270, 278 212, 213, 214

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40 / Index and extinction selectivity, 189 horizontal gene transfer and, 153, 156, Guadalupian, 184 284 impacts, see Evolutionary impacts of incorporating microbes into ecosystem extinctions process models, 149, 159-164 Late Devonian, 28-29, 167, 180, 183-184, metagenomic or metatranscriptomic 186, 187, 212, 213, 214, 215 approaches, 164 losses, 192-194 mineral fertilization and, 154, 155, 157, metabolic activity and, 178 165 number of events, 28 phospholipids fatty acid analysis, 155, Ordovician–Silurian boundary, 28, 167, 159 173, 183, 184, 197, 199, 213, 214, 215, phylogenetic relationships, 84, 161-164, 221 165 origination/extinction dynamics, 168, physiological response of taxa, 159-164, 208, 212-214, 215, 216, 217, 218, 219- 165 220, 221 portfolio effect, 164 overkill hypothesis, 30, 168, 233, 300 potential impacts of disturbance on, Pleistocene, 30, 198, 201, 202, 221, 271; 153-154 see also Quaternary Megafauna resilience to change, 84, 149, 152-153, Extinction 154, 156-157, 165 recovery, 171-172, 178, 185-186, 221, 279 resistance to disturbance, 84, 149, 152, regional pulses, 198, 199, 204 153, 154-156, 165 selectivity during, 189, 190, 191-197, temperatures and, 154, 155, 157, 165 203, 205 transplant experiments, 158 survivorship, 2, 28-29, 30, 42-43, 175, Microbial pollution, 12, 15 189, 190-191, 192, 193, 194, 196, 199- Microorganisms. See also Bacterial; 200, 203-204, 214 Microbial Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 303 diversity, 150 Mastigophora, 66 climate change and, 128, 150 May, Robert, 64-65, 79, 82 ecosystem services, 150, 151 Mediterranean basin, 250, 254 reef ecosystems, 179-180 MEL (multiple element limitation) model, Middle America, amphibian extinctions, 151 39, 41 Melastomataceae, 258 Middle Eastern coral reefs, 46 Mendel, Gregor, 282 Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, 75, 76, Mesozoa, 66 107, 264, 274, 334 Mesozoic, 40, 212 Minute salamanders (Thorius spp.), 40-41 Metabolic scaling theory, 178 Miocene, 48, 201, 256, 257, 287 Methane, 158 Mississippi–Missouri river system, 15 Mexico, 32, 40, 41, 70, 321, 325 Molecular genetics. See also Biodiversity Microbial community composition genetics bioreactor models, 158 evolution-development field, 283 black box ecosystem models, 84, 150, marker applications, 294 151-154 Mollusca, 66, 192, 194, 198, 199, 200. See also C amendment and, 154, 155, 157, 165 Bivalve mollusks CO2 enrichment and, 154, 155, 157, 165 Monk seal, 21 defined, 152 Montane ecosystems. See Elevational direct manipulation, 159 diversity gradients; Tropical and ecosystem processes, 157, 158, montane species 159-164 beta-diversity, 130-131 functional redundancy, 84, 149, 152, 153, climate change and, 134 154, 157-158, 165 Monteverde Cloud Forest Preserve, 37, 38, 39

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Index / 40 O Morlon, Hélène, 127-147 Morphologic diversity, 171, 176-177, 181, Oaks (Quercus), 182, 253 183-184, 185, 186, 197, 251, 267 Ocean. See also Marine ecosystems; specific Mussels, 9, 191, 194, 305 bodies and locations sea level changes, 184-185 Odontodactylidae, 49 N Old World species, 32, 256, 270 Nassau grouper (Epinephalus striatus), 21 Oligocene, 256, 287 National Center for Biotechology Onycophorans, 174 Information, 143 Opalinata, 66 National Moth Night, 322 Open ocean pelagic realm National Research Council, 6, 17 climate change and, 17-18, 23 National Science Foundation, 345 exploitation, 9, 10, 11, 16-17, 23 Natural Capital Project, 340 status, 23 Nature Conservancy, 290, 340 vertical mixing, 17, 23, 24 Nauru Island, 105, 106 Operation Migration, 324-325 Nematodes, 3, 64, 68, 69, 72 Ordovician, 210, 212, 220. See also Mass Neogene, 210, 223 extinctions Neutral biodiversity theory, 83, 107, Origination/extinction dynamics. See also 110-112 Extinction; Spatial dynamics of New Guinea, 42, 47, 50 extinctions; Speciation New World species, 31, 256, 270 Big Five mass extinctions, 168, 208, 212- New York University, vii 214, 215 New Zealand, 33, 86, 91, 98, 102, 105, 106, bloom taxa, 200 174, 322 body size and, 45, 46, 49-50, 51, 54, 56, Niche construction, 179, 186, 219 59, 60-61, 168, 192, 194, 195, 196, 265, Niche incumbency models, 217-218 271, 272, 273 Niger, 341 causal model, 217-218 Nitrogen, 11, 15, 16, 25, 135, 136, 137, 142, competition, 211, 218, 222 146, 150, 332 continuous time rates, 210 Norfolk Island, 95, 105, 106 density dependence, 208, 215-217, 221, North Africa, 200 222 North America and endemism, 51, 58, 60-61, 83, 91, 124 amphibian diversity, 32 equilibrial models, 208-209, 215-221, 222 bloom taxa, 200 geographic range size and, 58-60, 75, 76, clade disjunctions, 258 77, 192, 333 extinctions, 30, 198, 200, 230, 233, 234, invasive species and, 85-86, 87, 88, 89, 236, 239 90, 91-93, 94, 97, 98, 99-100, 101, 103 national parks and preserves, 336 latitudinal distribution and, 58, 201-203 species diversity, 259 life history speciation/extinction Western Interior Seaway, 198 hypothesis, 51 North American Butterfly Association, marine invertebrates, 207-225 321 methods, 223-224 North Atlantic, 9, 12, 234, 257 niche incumbency models, 217-218 North Sea, 9, 14 niche reconstruction hypothesis, 219 North Temperate Zone, 31, 273 percolation models, 217 Northern Hemisphere, dispersion of plant periodicity hypothesis, 207, 208, 214, lineages, 247, 254, 257, 258-259 215 Northern Line Islands, 105, 106 Phanerozoic decline in rates, 207, 208, Northern right whale, 7-8 210-212 Novacek, Michael, 244-245, 297-315 previous models, 218-219

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40 / Index pulsed turnover rates, 168, 209-210 number of hosts, 3, 67-69 recovery predictions, 168, 207, 208, 209, pollutant regulation, 64, 80, 81-82 219-221, 222 range size, 75, 77 Red Queen hypothesis, 209 regulation of host populations, 64, 78-80 reef ecosystems, 2, 10, 18-21, 23, 49-51, Paz Con la Naturaleza, 336-337 56, 58-60, 61 Peking University, viii saturation, 208 Pentastomida, 66 self-organized criticality model, 207, Phanerozoic extinctions. See Mass 215, 218 extinctions spatial aspects of, 199, 200, 204 Philippines, 47, 52 species–area relationships, xvi, 88, 100, Phillips, John, 173 192 Phosphorus, 150 and species diversity, 51, 58-60 Phylogenetic diversity Orme, C. David L., 263-279 analytical method, 144-146 Osteichthys, 68, 72 clustering, 41, 59, 84, 127, 130, 132, 133, Oysters, 8, 9, 11, 12, 15, 21 138, 175, 253 community composition, 144-145, 248 distance–decay relationships, 131, 134, P 145-146 ecological correlations, 248-251 Pacific Marine Mammal Center, 326 elevational gradients in bacteria vs. Pacific Ocean. See Central Pacific plants, 127-147 Pakistan, 200 environmental drivers, 146 Paleobiology Database, 168, 208, 223 and feature diversity, 130 Paleocene, 48, 287 homoplasy and, 248, 249, 250, 284, 285 PALEOMAP Project, 257 mass extinctions and, 171, 173, 174-176, Paleozoic, 182, 186, 192, 212, 214, 217 183, 184, 186, 197 Pamlico Sound, 7 molecular clocks, 283 Panama, 38, 42, 115, 117, 124, 198 nearest taxon index, 130, 133, 134, 136, Panda clownfish, 60 140, 144 PANGEA WORLD, 290-291, 292 net relatedness index, 130, 133, 134, 136, Papua New Guinea, 32 140, 144 Paradoxa, 64 overdispersion, 127, 130, 133, 134, 138, Parasite biodiversity 253, 279 aquaculture and, 25 phylogenetic similarity of communities, avian hosts, 63, 73-77 145-146 biomass, 81 physiological response of microbial taxa climate change and, 63, 75-76 and, 159-164, 165 cryptic species, 67, 69 sampling issues, 139, 141, 142 discovery rates, 67 scaling issues, 132, 133, 138, 139, 140, diversity gradients, 69-70 141 ecosystem services, 64, 77-82 and species diversity, 253 extinction rates, 2-3, 64, 69, 71-73, 77, 80, taxon richness and, 175 81-82 Tree of Life project, 264, 283-289 food web structure, 3, 64, 70-71, 78-80, Phylogenetic niche conservatism 82 abiotic habitat filtering and, 253 geographic distribution of diversity, 73- alpine plant radiations in Andes, 247, 75, 77 257, 259 habitat loss, 63-64, 75-76 analytical tools, 260 host specificity, 3, 63, 67-68, 69-70, 71-73, climate change and, 247, 249, 250-251, 77, 81 252, 254-255, 258, 260-261 number of helminthes, 2-3, 63, 64, 66-69 and community composition, 252-254

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Index / 40 competition and, 252, 253, 258 mainland vs. island, 92, 93 defined, 251 morphologic, 182 elevational diversity, 129, 130, 131, 133, naturalized species on islands, 94, 96, 134, 259 97, 103, 104-106 environmental connectivity and, 255, Northern Hemisphere dispersion of 256-259, 260 lineages, 247, 254, 257, 258-259 examples, 247, 256-259 phylogenetic niche conservatism, and future of biodiversity, 243-244, 247-261 260-261 taxon richness, 131, 132, 175 intercontinental disjunctions of tropical Platyhelminthes, 66 plants, 247, 256-258 Pleistocene migration corridors and, 243, 254-256, climate change, 29, 190, 198, 201, 202 259, 260-261 coral reefs, 19 Northern Hemisphere dispersion of extinctions, 30, 198, 201, 202, 221, 271 plant lineages, 247, 254, 257, 258-259 parks, 281, 289-292 pathogen sharing and, 253 phylogeographic differentiation, 291 and plant diversity distribution, 243, temporal banding of species, 287 244, 247, 250, 251-252, 254, 255 Plethodontidae, 31, 42 and regional species pools, 252, 254 Pliocene, 201, 287 research potential, 260 Poaceae, 250 tropical niche conservatism hypothesis, Polar regions, 63, 76, 100, 202, 203 252, 258 Pollock, 8, 12 Phylogeographic surveys, 291-292 Pollution Phytoplankton, 13, 49-50, 150 air, 35 Pinnipeds, 7, 8 amphibian sensitivity, 31 Pipefish, 295 carbon, 332, 335 Pitcairn Island, 105, 106 control, 335 Plankton, 17, 22, 23, 51, 55, 71, 151, 185, and extinctions, 88, 101, 205 197, 323. See also Phytoplankton; heavy metals, 81 Zooplankton and mammalian biodiversity, 269 Plant biodiversity. See also Amazonian tree nutrient, from agriculture, 11-12, 15, 23, diversity; Angiosperms 24, 43, 332 Amazonian Basin, 113 parasites as buffers, 78, 81-82 characterization of communities, 143-144 prevention, 25 community composition, 132-134, 150- public attitudes, 303, 315 151, 254 synergistic effects, 6, 22, 26, 28, 88, 309 competitive exclusion vs. facilitation, water, 11-12, 18, 22, 23, 24, 25, 31, 46, 134 297, 303, 315 convergent evolution, 134 Polychaete worms, 14 developmental, 182 Pomfrets, 17 distance–decay relationships, 134 Pogonophora, 66 ecological correlations, 248-251 Population. See Human population and ecosystem processes, 150-151 diversity and extinctions, see elevational gradients, 127-147 Amphibians; Mammalian environmental drivers, 134-138 biodiversity; other populations fynbos of South Africa, 175, 253, 309 Porifera, 66 hotspots, 290 Portfolio effect, 164 intercontinental disjunctions of tropical Predator species and predation. See also plants, 247, 256-258 Infectious diseases; specific predators invasion/extinction dynamics on competition, 47 islands, 85-87, 89, 91-100, 101, and extinctions, 89-91, 93, 101, 205, 208 104-106

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40 / Index fish stocks, 1, 6, 9, 12, 13, 16-17, 20-21, and behavior, 299-300 23, 333 “biodiversity” term, 301, 305 human activities, see Hunting evidence of positive response, 302-303 invasive species, 85 misperceptions in, 301-302 parasitism, 69, 71, 89, 101 priority ranking of biodiversity, 297, and speciation, 208 304 Priapulida, 66 “recovery” of populations, 305-306 Primates, 73, 265, 270, 286 science illiteracy, 300, 343 Pringle, Robert M., 245, 329-344 surveys of, 302-303, 305 Productivity. See also Energy/productivity Pull of the Recent, 209, 210, 211, 223 dynamics Purple nonsulfur bacteria, 156 and biodiversity, 173, 178, 265, 266 Purvis, Andy, 244, 263-279 and body size, 49, 53-54, 60-61, 229 Puya, 259 and life history, 53-54 mass extinctions and, 184, 185 Q terrain elevation and, 54 Protosquillidae, 49 Quaternary Megafauna Extinction (QME) Pseudacris regilla, 36 biomass crash, 227, 231-234 Pseudoeurycea spp., 40 biomass tradeoffs, 168-169, 229, 233 Pseudomonads, 157 carrying capacity for megafauna Pseudosquillidae, 49 biomass, 236-237 Public engagement in biodiversity causes, 168, 228, 229, 236 BioBlitz biodiversity surveys, 314, 317 chronology, 229-230, 238 citizen science, 313-314, 318-327 climate change and, 168, 227, 228, 230, crafting the message, 305-309 234, 236 delivering the message, 309-314 comet explosion and, 228, 230, 234, ecological argument, 308 236 economic argument, 307-308 domesticate biomass, 232, 239-240 ecotourism, 336, 338-339, 343 ecosystem dynamics, 234 education outreach, 293-296, 311, 342 energy/productivity dynamics, 169, ethical, moral, and aesthetic argument, 227, 228-229, 235-236, 237 302-303, 306-307 estimating biomass, 238-240 identifying species, 314, 317, 319-321 geographic distribution of losses, 230, Internet options, 311-312, 320-321, 324, 238 343-344 habitat alterations and, 168, 228, 233, limits to, 325-326 236, 237 media participation, 310-312, 335-336 human-associated biomass, 227, 231, monitoring distributions of species, 317, 233, 234, 236, 237, 238 320, 323-324 hunting and, 227, 228, 233, 239, 236, monitoring migrations, 317, 320, 237 324-325 Industrial Revolution and, 227, 235, 236, monitoring populations, 317, 321-323 237 movies and TV series, 296, 306-307, 311 nonhuman megafauna biomass, 227, organizations for, 327 239 public science venues, 312-313 overkill hypothesis, 30, 168, 233, 300 relating biodiversity to other issues, 309 recovery of biomass, 227, 234-236 rescue and restoration, 317, 326-327 sensitivity tests, 240 strategies for, 299-301, 338 species losses, 168, 227, 228, 231, understanding audiences, 301-305 236-237 Public understanding of biodiversity crisis threshold event, 233, 236 attitude about climate change and, 297, Quillworts, 186 300, 303-304, 309, 310-311

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Index / 4 R divergence across biogeographic barriers, 59 Radiolarians, 184 diversity, 2, 45, 47, 48, 49-55, 60 Rana spp., 33, 36-37, 42 endemism, 51-55, 59, 60 Rare species, 11, 41, 57, 66, 77, 84, 100, 107, extinction/speciation dynamics, 2, 49- 108, 110, 117, 121, 123, 124, 290, 319, 51, 56, 59-60, 61 321 life history patterns, 53-54, 55-58 Ray, John, 65, 66 Reptilies, 11, 67, 68, 72, 80, 101, 128, 182 Reaka, Marjorie L., 2, 45-61 Resilience to ecosystem disturbances, 149, Recovery from extinctions 152-153, 154, 156-157, 165, 177, 337 biomass following QME, 227, 234-236 Rheobatrachus spp., 37 diversification debt, 198 Ricklefs, Robert, 260 evolutionary impacts, 171-172, 178, 185- Rio Santo Domingo, 40 186, 187, 204 Robinson, Frank and Fran, 319 marine organisms, 168, 199, 200, 201-203 Rocky Mountain Biological Laboratory, predictions, 168, 207, 208, 209, 219-221, 142, 143 222, 279 Rocky Mountains, 129 public understanding of, 305-306 Rodgers, Paula J., 45-61 rates, 218 Rolypoly pillbugs, 294-295 saturation point, 208 ROOTS, 326 spatial dynamics, 168, 189, 190, 199-200, Rosen, W. J., 298 201-203, 204 Rubiaceae, 116 terrestrial animals, 203 Red Sea, 52 Reef ecosystems S architectural diversity losses, 179-180, Sackler, Arthur M., vii-viii. See Arthur M. 182-183, 186-187 Sackler Colloquium atoll elevation correlates, 49-50, 54, 55, Sackler, Jillian, vii, viii 60, 61, 272 Salamanders, 2, 27, 31, 39, 40, 41, 42-43 biodiversity, 2, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49-51, 52, Salmon, 8, 11, 25 58-60, 61, 111, 179 Salt-marsh communities, 70-71, 81 bleaching, 22, 23 San Francisco Bay, 15 climate change and, 21, 22, 23, 26, 46, Santa Fe Institute, 178 332 Sarcodina, 66 CO2 levels and, 220, 332 Sax, Dov F., 83, 85-106 diseases, 21, 22, 23, 46 Scaling theory, 178-179 fauna losses, 10, 18-21, 23, 299, 330 Scallops, 13, 191, 194 macroalgal cover, 18, 21-22, 180 Schumpeter, Joseph, 185 mass extinctions and, 179-180, 182-183, Scotese, C. R., 257 184, 186-187, 197 Scotian shelf, 9 microbial, 179-180 Sea mink (Mustela macrodon), 7 mud mounds, 18 Sea otters, 13 origination/extinction dynamics, 59-60 Sea turtles, 9 overexploitation, 21-22, 23, 46 Sea urchins, 10, 13, 21, 22 restoration, 341 Seagrasses, 9, 10, 11, 23, 250 status, 2, 23, 46 Seahorses, 295 threats to, 1-2, 46 Seal Beach National Wildlife Refuge, 327 value of, 46 Seaweeds, 8, 23 Reef stomatopods Second Sundays program, 326 body size correlates, 45, 46, 48, 49-50, Sedimentation, 11, 15, 18, 46 51, 54, 55-58, 59, 60-61 Sediments, biogenic, 18 diurnal vertical migrations, 60

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4 / Index Self-organized criticality model, 207, 215, recoveries, 168, 189, 190, 198, 199-200, 218 201-203, 204 Sequoia National Park, 35 regional events, 198, 199, 204 Shapiro, Arthur, 322 selectivity during mass extinctions, 168, Sharks, 9-10, 11, 12-13, 16, 17, 19, 20, 23 189, 190, 191-197, 203, 205 Shellfish, 8, 23, 326. See also Bivalve Speciation. See also Origination/extinction mollusks; Crustaceans dynamics Shrimp, 13, 15, 25, 45, 47. See also Reef allopatric, 259 stomatopods body size and, 45, 46, 49-50, 59, 60-61 Siberia, 229 geographic range and, 59, 75 Siberian Traps, 29 and life history characteristics, 59 Sierra de Mazateca, 40 mass extinctions and, 199, 200, 204 Sierra Madre Oriental, 40, 41 phylogenetic niche conservatism and, Sierra Nevada of California, 27-28, 33, 35, 251 37, 38, 30, 40, 41 species diversity and, 51, 58, 60 Sierra Nevada yellow-legged frog (Rana stomatopod, 49-50, 51 sierrae), 33, 35, 36-37 temperature and, 49 Signor–Lipps effect, 223 time-for-speciation factor, 252 Silurian, 212. See also Mass extinctions Species–area relationships, xvi, 88, 100, 113, Sipunculida, 66 138, 330 Sirenia, 9 Species diversity. See also Biodiversity; Snails, 47, 73, 80, 81, 197, 295 Speciation Snow crabs, 13 and endemism, 45, 46, 60, 61 Society Islands, 52 extinction/speciation dynamics and, 51, South Africa, 175, 180, 253, 309 58-60 South America faunal carryover hypothesis, 48 amphibians, 37, 39 hypothesis, 51 bird diversity, 252 life history speciation/extinction clade disjunctions, 256 hypothesis, 51 deforestation, 298 niche-based models, 86-87, 259 megafauna extinctions, 230, 232, 233, phylogenetic diversity and, 253 234, 239 reef stomatopods, 2, 45, 47, 48, 49-55, 60 Southeast Asia, 46, 298 saturation point, 86-87 Southern yellow-legged frog (Rana and survival of mass extinctions, 194, muscosa), 33, 35, 36-37 195, 196 Spatial dynamics of extinctions. See also Species–energy relationships, 179 Elevational diversity gradients; Sponges, 10, 21, 175, 179, 180, 184 Geographic range Squamata, 174 bivalve model, 191 Sri Lanka, 33 climate and, 190, 201, 202, 204, 205, 337 St. John’s worts (Hypericaceae), 258 complexity, 198-199 Staghorn coral (Acropora cervicornis), 18, diversification debt, 189, 198, 199 19, 21 hitchhiking effects, 189, 193, 196-197, Stanford University, 340 203-204, 205 Starfish, 50 incumbency effects, 174, 189, 196, 201, State University of New York at Stony 203, 205 Brook, viii integrated paleontological-neontological Stebbins, Ledyard, 249 approach, 189, 203-206 Stingray (Dasyatis violacea), 17 invasions, 93, 189-190, 191, 199-200, 201, Stomatopods. See Reef stomatopods 202-203, 204, 205 Stromatoporoids, 180, 184 latitudinal gradients, 58, 191, 201-203 Stripe-eyed hoverfly (Eristalinus taeniops), out-of-the-tropics model, 201-202, 204 324

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Index / 4 Swan Island Conservation Area, 14 Trophic structures Synergistic effects of anthropogenic cascades in marine ecosystems, 1, 6, 12, activities 13, 16-17, 21, 23 climate change, 22, 24, 29, 30, 39, 124, mass extinctions and, 177-178, 196 205, 333 Tropical Pacific fisheries, 9, 17 habitat fragmentation and loss, 1, 5, 6, Tropical forest. See also Amazonian tree 12, 30, 44, 88, 124, 205, 260-261, 309, diversity; Deforestation 333-334 fragmentation, 124 infectious disease, 2, 39, 88, 101 Tropical montane species, 31, 33, 37, 38, 39, invasive species, 1, 5, 30, 88, 276 40, 42 in marine diversity losses, 1-2, 5, 6, 12, Tropical rain forests, 6, 249, 308 21-22, 26 Tuatara, 174 pollution, 6, 22, 26, 28, 88, 309 Tufts University, vii Systematics Tuna, 11, 16, 17 network of life model, 284-285, 288-289 temporal banding strategy, 286-288 U tree of life model, 244, 284, 285, 286-288, 292 U.S. Geological Survey, 323, 324 U.S. National Marine Fisheries Service, 25 United States T amphibian diversity, 32 Tabebuia guayacan, 115, 117 Endangered Species Act, 172, 302 Tabuaeran (Fanning) Island, 95, 105, 106 global warming trends, 39 Takuidae, 49 University of Arizona, 143 Tax policies, 25 Upper Newport Bay Taxic diversity Back Bay Science Center, 323 mass extinctions and, 171-172, 173-174, State Ecological Reserve, 319 175, 183, 184, 185-186, 187 Taxonomists, 65 V Tel Aviv University, vii Temperature Valerianaceae, 250, 259 and microbial community composition, Venezuela, 331 154, 155, 157, 165 Verdu, Miguel, 254 and speciation, 49 Violets (Violaceae), 258 Tentaculata, 66 Volcanism, 29 ter Steege, Hans, 107-125 Vredenburg, Vance T., 2, 27-44 Terbough, John, 289, 293 Terrestrial ecosystem models, 150, 151 Tethys Seaway, 60 W Tidepool Education Interpretive Program, 325 Wake, David B., 2, 27-44 Trace fossils, 180, 183, 184 Wadden Sea, 7 Trawling and dredging, 11, 12, 13, 14-15, Webb, Campbell, 249 23, 323 Wetlands, 9, 11, 15, 326, 341 Tree of Life, xvi, 244, 284, 285, 286-288, Whales, 7-8, 323, 324, 325 292 Whitmore, T. C., 123 Trematodes, 2, 64, 67, 68, 69, 72, 73, 50 Wiens, John, 252 Trigonioids, 197 Wikispecies, 343 Trilobites, 175, 181, 184, 186 Wilderness Areas, 33, 35 Tristan da Cunha, 95, 105, 106 Willows (Salicaceae), 258

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44 / Index Wilson, E. O., xvi, 295, 298, 306 Yellowstone National Park, 289, 341 Wisch, Hartmut, 320-321 Yosemite National Park, 33, 36 Wolves, 341 Younger Dryas, 228, 230, 234, 235, 236, 237 World Wildlife Fund, 270, 271, 340 Wrangel and St. Paul Island, 229-230 Z Zooplankton, 13 Y Zosteraceae, 250 Yangtze River, 15 Yasuni National Park, 113