(IGS) network is used for tsunami warnings and tracking ground movement during an earthquake. Yield mapping by farmers is another example of a high-precision, time-sensitive application of GPS. Even NASA depends on the IGS to point the antennas in the Deep Space Network.

There also exist organizational challenges for the future; the privatization of systems introduces uncertainty. For example, La Porte noted that ENRON was able to game the power industry in ways the original designers never envisioned. Furthermore many systems are designed based on recent experience and not the potential for extreme events.

As discussed throughout the workshop, the U.S. economy is highly dependent on electricity and wireless technology (for banking, energy, transportation, food, water, emergency services, and other necessities). Future systems and procedures will continue to cope not only with evolving user needs and new technological advances, but also with a variable space weather environment.



1. Tsurutani, B.T., W.D. Gonzalez, G.S. Lakhina, and S. Alex, The extreme magnetic storm of 1-2 September 1859, J. Geophys. Res. 108(A7), 1268, 2003, doi:10.1029/2002JA009504.


2. Graham, W., et al. Report of the Commission to Assess the Threat to the United States from Electromagnetic Pulse Attack, Volume 1, Executive Report, 2004, available at http://www.house.gov/hasc/openingstatementsandpressreleases/108thcongress/04-07-22emp.pdf.


3. U.S.-Canada Power System Outage Task Force, Final Report on the August 14, 2003 Blackout in the United States and Canada: Causes and Recommendations, 2004.


4. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, The Deadliest, costliest, and most intense United States tropical cyclones from 1851 to 2006, NOAA Technical Memorandum NSW TPC-5, April 2007, available at http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/pdf/NWS-TPC-5.pdf.


5. USA Today, Katrina damage estimate hits $125B, September 9, 2005.


6. Estimates derived by Metatech Corporation, presented by J. Kappenman at the space weather workshop, May 22, 2008.


7. Klobuchar, J.A., Ionospheric effects on GPS, Chapter 12 in Global Positioning System: Theory and Applications, Vol. 1 (B.W. Parkinson and J.J. Spilker, Jr., eds.), American Institute of Astronautics and Aeronautics, Reston, Va., 1996.


8. Navstar GPS Joint Program Office, Navstar GPS Space Segment/Navigation User Interfaces, Interface Specification, IS-GPS-200, Revision D, El Segundo, Calif., 2006, pp. 123-125.


9. Fennell, J.F., H.C. Koons, M.W. Chen, and J.B. Blake, Internal charging: A preliminary environmental specification for satellites, IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 28(6), 2029-2036, 2000.


10. O’Brien, T.P., J.F. Fennell, J.L. Roeder, and G.D. Reeves, Extreme electron fluxes in the outer zone, Space Weather 5, S01001, 2007, doi:10.1029/2006SW000240.


11. Xapsos, M.A., C. Stauffer, T. Jordan, J.L. Barth, and R.A. Mewaldt, Model for cumulative solar heavy ion energy and linear energy transfer spectra, IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 54(6), 1985-1989, 2007.


12. Thomsen, M.F., M.H. Denton, B. Lavraud, and M. Bodeau, Statistics of plasma fluxes at geosynchronous orbit over more than a full solar cycle, Space Weather 5, S03004, 2007, doi:10.1029/2006SW000257.


13. Tsurutani, B.T., W.D. Gonzalez, G.S. Lakhina, and S. Alex, The extreme magnetic storm of 1-2 September 1859, J. Geophys. Res. 108(A7), 1268, 2003, doi:10.1029/2002JA009504.

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