Appendix

Biographical Sketches of Committee Members and Staff

MICHAEL HOUT (Chair) earned a B.A. in history and sociology from the University of Pittsburgh and M.A. and Ph.D. degrees in sociology from Indiana University. He taught at the University of Arizona for 8 years before moving to Berkeley in 1985. He teaches courses on inequality and data analysis. In his research, Dr. Hout uses demographic methods to study social change in inequality, religion, and politics. He and Claude Fischer recently published Century of Difference (Russell Sage Foundation, 2006), a book on social and cultural trends in the United States during the 20th century that exemplifies this approach. Another book, The Truth about Conservative Christians with Andrew Greeley (University of Chicago Press, 2006) also takes this approach. A couple of illustrative papers include “Tightening Up: Declining Class Mobility During Russia’s Market Transition” (American Sociological Review, October 2004), “The Demographic Imperative in Religious Change” (American Journal of Sociology, September 2001) and “How 4 Million Irish Immigrants Came to be 40 Million Irish Americans” (with Josh Goldstein, American Sociological Review, April 1994). Previous books are Following in Father’s Footsteps: Social Mobility in Ireland (Harvard University Press 1989) and, with five Berkeley colleagues, Inequality by Design (Princeton University Press, 1996). Dr. Hout’s honors include the Clogg Award from the Population Association of America in 1997, election to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1997, the National Academy of Sciences in 2003, and the American Philosophical Society in 2006. Mike is the Natalie Cohen chair of sociology and demography at the Berkeley Population Center. He



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Appendix Biographical Sketches of Committee Members and Staff MICHAEL HOUT (Chair) earned a B.A. in history and sociology from the University of Pittsburgh and M.A. and Ph.D. degrees in sociology from Indiana University. He taught at the University of Arizona for 8 years before moving to Berkeley in 1985. He teaches courses on inequality and data analysis. In his research, Dr. Hout uses demographic methods to study social change in inequality, religion, and politics. He and Claude Fischer recently published Century of Difference (Russell Sage Founda- tion, 2006), a book on social and cultural trends in the United States during the 20th century that exemplifies this approach. Another book, The Truth about Conservative Christians with Andrew Greeley (University of Chicago Press, 2006) also takes this approach. A couple of illustra - tive papers include “Tightening Up: Declining Class Mobility During Russia’s Market Transition” (American Sociological Review, October 2004), “The Demographic Imperative in Religious Change” (American Journal of Sociology, September 2001) and “How 4 Million Irish Immigrants Came to be 40 Million Irish Americans” (with Josh Goldstein, American Socio- logical Review, April 1994). Previous books are Following in Father’s Foot- steps: Social Mobility in Ireland (Harvard University Press 1989) and, with five Berkeley colleagues, Inequality by Design (Princeton University Press, 1996). Dr. Hout’s honors include the Clogg Award from the Population Association of America in 1997, election to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1997, the National Academy of Sciences in 2003, and the American Philosophical Society in 2006. Mike is the Natalie Cohen chair of sociology and demography at the Berkeley Population Center. He 109

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110 INCENTIVES AND TEST-BASED ACCOUNTABILITY IN EDUCATION previously served on the National Research Council Committee for the Redesign of the U.S. Naturalization Tests. DAN ARIELY is the James B. Duke professor of psychology and behav- ioral economics at Duke University. Previously, he was the Alfred P. Sloan professor of behavioral Economics at the Massachusetts Institute of Tech - nology. He holds a joint appointment among the Fuqua School of Busi - ness, the Center for Cognitive Neuroscience, the School of Medicine, and the Department of Economics—all at Duke University. Dr. Ariely is a social scientist who is interested in issues of rationality, irrationality, decision making, behavioral economics, and consumer welfare. Projects include examinations of online auction behaviors, personal health moni - toring, the effects of different pricing mechanisms, and the development of systems to overcome day-to-day irrationality. He has a Ph.D. in busi- ness administration from Duke University, as well as a Ph.D. in cognitive psychology from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. GEORGE P. BAKER is the Herman C. Krannert professor of business administration (on leave) at the Harvard Business School. He has pub- lished works on management incentives, leveraged buyouts, organi- zational economics, and the relationship between a firm’s ownership structure and its management. Dr. Baker’s work focuses on the problem of managerial performance measurement, and its role in the design of incentive systems and on the structure and performance of organizations. He is also the author of the book The New Financial Capitalists: Kohlberg, Kravis, Roberts and the Creation of Corporate Value (Cambridge University Press, 1998). For the past 2 years, Baker has been on leave from the Har- vard Business School, serving as the vice president of community wind at the Island Institute, a Rockland, Maine-based nonprofit. He has been the driving force behind the Fox Islands Wind Power project in Vinalhaven Maine, and serves as the chief executive officer of Fox Islands Wind, LLC. He has also worked with numerous other communities to explore and develop community wind on the Maine coast. He serves on the Maine Governor’s Task Force on Ocean Energy, and is a member of the advisory board of Neptune Wind, an offshore wind development company. At Harvard Business School, Baker teaches in the MBA program, as well as in the doctoral program. Prior to joining the faculty at Harvard, he worked both as a consultant with Temple, Barker and Sloane, and as a marketing manager with Teradyne, Inc. Baker holds a Ph.D. in business economics from Harvard University and an MBA from the Harvard Business School. HENRY BRAUN is Boisi professor of education and public policy at Boston College. Until 2007, he held the position of distinguished presi -

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111 APPENDIX: BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES dential appointee at the Educational Testing Service, where he served as vice president for research management from 1990 to 1999. Dr. Braun has published in the areas of mathematical statistics and stochastic modeling, the analysis of large-scale assessment data, test design, expert systems, and assessment technology. His current interests include the interplay of testing and education policy. He has investigated such issues as the structure of the black-white achievement gap, the relationship between state education policies and state education outputs, and the effective - ness of charter schools. Dr. Braun is a co-winner of the Palmer O. Johnson Award from the American Educational Research Association (1986), and a co-winner of the National Council for Measurement in Education award for Outstanding Technical Contributions to the Field of Educational Mea- surement (1999). He has a Ph.D. in mathematical statistics from Stanford University. ANTHONY S. BRYK is the ninth president of the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching. He held the Spencer Chair in Organi - zational Studies in the School of Education and the Graduate School of Business at Stanford University from 2004 until assuming Carnegie’s pres- idency in September 2008. Prior to Stanford, he held the Marshall Field IV Professor of Education post in the sociology department at the University of Chicago, where he founded the Center for Urban School Improvement which supports reform efforts in the Chicago Public Schools. Bryk also founded the Consortium on Chicago School Research, which has pro- duced a range of studies to advance and assess urban school reform. In addition, he has made contributions to the development of new statisti- cal methods in educational research. At Carnegie, he is leading work on strengthening the research and development infrastructure for improving teaching and learning. Dr. Bryk holds a B.S. from Boston College, an Ed.D. from Harvard University, and in 2010, was conferred an honorary doctor- ate by Boston College for his contributions to education reform. EDWARD L. DECI is professor of psychology, Gowen professor in the social sciences, and codirector of the Human Motivation Program at the University of Rochester. For 40 years, Dr. Deci has been engaged in a program of research on human motivation, much of it in collabo - ration with Richard M. Ryan, that has led to and been organized by Self-Determination Theory. He has published ten books, including Intrin- sic Motivation (1975); The Psychology of Self-Determination (1980); Intrinsic Motivation and Self-Determination in Human Behavior (coauthored with R.M. Ryan, 1985); and Why We Do What We Do (1995). His writings have been translated into seven languages, including Japanese, German, and Spanish. He is a grantee of the National Institute of Mental Health, the

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112 INCENTIVES AND TEST-BASED ACCOUNTABILITY IN EDUCATION National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, the National Science Foundation, the Institute of Education Sciences, and a fellow of the American Psychological Association and the American Psychologi - cal Society. Dr. Deci has lectured and consulted for corporations, public school systems, mental health agencies, universities, and governmental bureaus throughout twenty-four countries on six continents. He holds a Ph.D. in psychology from Carnegie Mellon University and was an interdisciplinary post doc at Stanford University. Dr. Deci has a private practice in psychotherapy and for 12 years was chairman of the board of the Institute for Research and Reform in Education. CHRISTOPHER F. EDLEY, Jr., is dean and professor of law at the Uni- versity of California at Berkeley School of Law and faculty codirector of the Chief Justice Earl Warren Institute on Race, Ethnicity and Diver- sity, a multidisciplinary think tank. Previously, he was a professor at Harvard Law School, where he was founding codirector of the Harvard Civil Rights Project. His areas of special interest are administrative law, education policy, and race. His public service includes a 6-year term as a member of the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights, an assistant director of the White House domestic policy staff during the Carter Administra - tion, and associate director of the Office of Management and Budget during the Clinton Administration. He served as a special counsel to President Clinton and as a senior adviser on the President’s race initia - tive. He has also served on a national nonpartisan commission created to conduct an independent review of the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act. He is a trustee of the Russell Sage Foundation and of the Century Foundation, and a fellow of the National Academy of Public Adminis - tration, the Council of Foreign Relations, the American Law Institute, and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. He received a B.A. in mathematics and economics from Swarthmore College and a J.D. and a master of public policy degree from Harvard’s Law School and JFK School of Government, respectively. STUART W. ELLIOTT (Study Director) has directed the Board on Test- ing and Assessment of the National Research Council (NRC) since 2003. His work at the NRC includes a variety of projects related to educa- tional assessment, accountability, standards, teacher qualifications, skill demands, and information technology. He is also a partner of a small firm specializing in postal and environmental analyses. Previously, Dr. Elliott was an economic consultant for several private-sector consulting firms, a research fellow in cognitive psychology and economics at Carnegie Mellon University, and a visiting scholar at the Russell Sage Founda-

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113 APPENDIX: BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES tion. He has a Ph.D. in economics from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. GENO FLORES is chief deputy superintendent of public instruction for the California Department of Education. He previously served as executive director of school improvement for the Los Angeles Unified School District, as chief academic officer for Prince George’s County Pub- lic Schools in Maryland, and as deputy superintendent of the San Diego City Schools. Prior to that, he served as the deputy superintendent of assessment and accountability for the California State Department of Education, and in a similar capacity for the Long Beach Unified School District, where he led the district’s High School Reform Program. A life - long teacher and learner, Mr. Flores has more than 29 years of experience in education, 20 of those years as a teacher and coach. He served as a project director for the Center for Research on Evaluations, Standards, and Student Testing (CRESST) at the University of California, Los Angeles, on the development of assessments for the National Board for Professional Teaching Standards. He has served on numerous advisory boards at both the state and national level and on the National Research Council’s Com- mittee on the Use of School Level Assessment Data. He has a masters in education, teaching and learning from Stanford University. CAROLYN J. HEINRICH is the director of the La Follette School of Public Affairs, professor of public affairs and affiliated professor of eco - nomics, and a Regina Loughlin Scholar at the University of Wisconsin– Madison. As of August 2011, she will be the Sid Richardson professor of public affairs, an affiliated professor of economics and the director of the Center for Health and Social Policy at the Lyndon B. Johnson School of Public Affairs at the University of Texas at Austin. Her research focuses on social welfare and education policy, public management and per- formance management, and social-program evaluation. She frequently works directly in her research with governments at all levels, including with the federal government on evaluations of workforce development programs, with states on their social welfare and child support pro - grams, school districts in the evaluation of supplemental educational services and other educational interventions, and governments such as Brazil and South Africa on their poverty reduction and human capital development programs. In 2004, Dr. Heinrich received the David N. Kershaw award for distinguished contributions to the field of public policy analysis and management by a person under age 40. Prior to her appointment at the University of Wisconsin–Madison in 2003, Dr. Heinrich was an assistant professor at the University of North Carolina

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114 INCENTIVES AND TEST-BASED ACCOUNTABILITY IN EDUCATION at Chapel Hill and held an academic research appointment at the Uni - versity of Chicago. She received her Ph.D. in public policy studies from the University of Chicago. PAUL HILL is a professor at the University of Washington Bothell and director of the Center on Reinventing Public Education. The Cen - ter, which is funded by foundations and businesses, studies alternative governance and financing systems for public elementary and secondary education. He is a nonresident senior fellow of the Brookings and Hoover Institutions. Before joining the University of Washington faculty, Paul Hill worked as a senior social scientist at RAND. For most of that time, his research focused on the reform of elementary and secondary education. He conducted studies of site-based management, governance of decen- tralized school systems, effective high schools, business-led education reforms, and immigrant education. Dr. Hill directed the National Insti - tute of Education’s Compensatory Education Study (a congressionally- mandated assessment of federal aid to elementary and secondary educa - tion) and conducted research on housing and education for the Office of Economic Opportunity. He also served 2 years as a congressional fellow and congressional staff member. He has a Ph.D. in political science from Ohio State University. THOMAS J. KANE is professor of education and economics at the Har- vard Graduate School of Education; faculty director of the Center for Edu- cation Policy Research, a program that partners with states and districts to evaluate innovative policies; and deputy director for research and data in the Education Program of the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. His work has investigated a range of education policies: test score volatility and the design of school accountability systems, teacher recruitment and retention, financial aid for college, race-conscious college admissions and the economic payoff of a community college education. Recently, he has directed the Measures of Effective Teaching project at the Gates Founda- tion. From 1995 to 1996, Kane served as the senior staff economist for labor, education, and welfare policy issues within President Clinton’s Council of Economic Advisers. From 1991 through 2000, he was a faculty member at the Kennedy School of Government. Kane has also been a professor of public policy at the University of California, Los Angeles, and has held visiting fellowships at the Brookings Institution and the Hoover Institution at Stanford University. DANIEL M. KORETZ is a professor of education at Harvard University. Previously, he was a professor of educational research, measurement,

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115 APPENDIX: BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES and evaluation at Boston College and a senior social scientist at RAND Education in Washington, DC. His research is primarily on educational assessment, particularly as a tool of education policy. A primary emphasis in his work has been the effects of high-stakes testing, including effects on schooling and the validity of score gains. His research has included studies of the effects of testing programs, the assessment of students with disabilities, international differences in the variability of student achieve - ment, the application of value-added models to educational achievement, and the development of methods for validating scores under high-stakes conditions. His current work focuses on the design and evaluation of test-focused educational accountability systems. Dr. Koretz founded and chairs the International Project for the Study of Educational Account - ability, an international network of scholars investigating improved approaches to educational accountability. Dr. Koretz is a member of the National Academy of Education. His doctorate is in developmental psy - chology from Cornell University. Before obtaining his degree, Dr. Koretz taught emotionally disturbed students in public elementary and junior high schools. KEVIN LANG is a professor of economics at Boston University. An elected fellow of the Society of Labor Economists, he is also a research associate of the National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER) and of the Center for Research and Analysis of Migration (University College, London), a research fellow of the Institute for the Study of Labor (Bonn), a fellow of the Center for the Study of Poverty and Inequality (Stanford University), and has for many years been a member of the advisory board of the Canadian Employment Research Forum. He is a coeditor of Labour Economics, the journal of the European Association of Labor Economists. Before joining Boston University, he spent a year at NBER as an Olin Foundation fellow and prior to that was an assistant professor at the University of California, Irvine. During his tenure at Boston University, he has twice held appointments at the Massachusetts Institute of Technol- ogy for a year, once as a visiting scholar and once as a visiting professor and has been a visiting scholar at the Collegio Carlo Alberto, the Univer- sity of New South Wales, and the Center for Research and Analysis of Migration. He spent 3 months at the New Zealand Institute of Economic Research on a Fullbright Fellowship, and he was the recipient of a Sloan Foundation Faculty Research Fellowship. He is the author of Poverty and Discrimination (Princeton University Press) and has published widely in leading academic journals. Dr. Lang is currently a member of the National Research Council’s Board on Testing and Assessment. He holds a Ph.D. in economics from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, an M.Sc.

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116 INCENTIVES AND TEST-BASED ACCOUNTABILITY IN EDUCATION in economics from the University of Montreal, and a BA in philosophy, politics and economics (PPE) from Oxford University. For 13 years, he was an elected member of the school board in Brookline, Massachusetts. SUSANNA LOEB is a professor of education at Stanford University, fac- ulty director of the Center for Education Policy Analysis and a codirector of Policy Analysis for California Education (PACE). She specializes in the economics of education and the relationship between schools and federal, state and local policies. Her research addresses teacher policy, looking specifically at how teachers’ preferences affect the distribution of teaching quality across schools, how pre-service coursework requirements affect the quality of teacher candidates, and how reforms affect teachers’ career deci- sions. She also studies school leadership and school finance, for example looking at how the structure of state finance systems affects the level and distribution of resources across schools. Dr. Loeb is a senior fellow at the Stanford Institute for Economic Policy Research, a faculty research fellow at the National Bureau of Economic Research, a member of the policy council of the Association for Policy Analysis and Management, coeditor of Educa- tional Evaluation and Policy Analysis, and past president of the Association of Education Finance and Policy. MICHAEL LOVAGLIA is professor and director of the Center for the Study of Group Processes in the Department of Sociology at the Uni - versity of Iowa. He is also a faculty affiliate of the university’s Institute for Inequality Studies. His interests include social psychology, especially power and status processes, the reciprocal effects of evolution and physi- ology on social behavior, social factors that affect academic performance, theory construction, and the sociology of science. Current research proj- ects involve power in exchange networks, group process effects on IQ scores, the effects of emotions on status processes, and explaining why more women than men now attend colleges and universities. A new project, Best Schools for Athletes, investigates how schools can promote athletic and academic excellence without compromising either goal. He has a Ph.D. in sociology from Stanford University. LORRIE A. SHEPARD is dean of the school of education and distin- guished rofessor at the University of Colorado at Boulder. Her research focuses on psychometrics and the use and misuse of tests in educational settings. Technical topics include validity theory, standard setting, and statistical models for detecting test bias. Her studies evaluating test use include identification of learning disabilities, readiness screening for kin - dergarten, grade retention, teacher testing, effects of high-stakes testing, and classroom assessment. She is a past president of the American Edu -

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117 APPENDIX: BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES cational Research Association and past president of the National Council on Measurement in Education. She was elected to the National Academy of Education (NAEd) in 1992 and is immediate past resident of NAEd. Dr. Shepard served on the National Research Council’s (NRC) Board on Testing and Assessment as well as several NRC committees, including the Committee on Assessment in Support of Instruction and Learning. She has been editor of the Journal of Educational Measurement and the American Educational Research Journal and interim editor of Educational Researcher. She has received career awards from the National Council on Measurement in Education and from the American Educational Research Association. BRIAN STECHER is a senior social scientist and the associate direc- tor of RAND Education. Stecher’s research focuses on measuring edu- cational quality and evaluating education reforms, with a particular emphasis on assessment and accountability systems. During his 20 years at RAND, he has directed prominent national and state evaluations of No Child Left Behind, Mathematics and Science Systemic Reforms, and Class Size Reduction. He produced two recent reports exploring the use of performance-based accountability, Organizational Improvement and Accountability: Lessons for Education from Other Sectors, and Toward a Culture of Consequences: Performance-Based Accountability Systems for Public Services. Dr. Stecher has served on expert panels relating to standards, assessments, and accountability for the National Academies, and is currently a mem- ber of the Board on Testing and Assessment. He has published widely in professional journals, and he is currently a member of the editorial board of Educational Assessment. He received his Ph.D. from the University of California, Los Angeles.

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