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APPENDIXES



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Contributors Charles L. Beames, a colonel in the U.S. Air Force, is currently director, Intel- ligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (ISR) Division, Office of the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics, where he is responsible for overseeing the acquisition of all space-based ISR programs for the U.S. Department of Defense and the intelligence community. As a design engineer and project manager, he has experience in the development, deployment, and oper- ation of airborne, ground-based, and space-based systems. Col. Beames has been sent to locations around the world in support of ongoing operations. Previously, he was chief, Operational Capabilities Division, U.S. Strategic Command Center for Combating Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD), which is responsible for identifying and advocating ways of combating WMD operational capabilities and translating strategic guidance into real-world solutions. Earlier in his career, he had a fellowship at the National War College, was the space and intelligence liaison to Congress for Air Force appropriations and held staff assignments at HQ, Air Force Materiel Command, U.S. House of Representatives and the Office of Secretary of the Air Force. He graduated from the U.S. Air Force Academy with a B.S. in engineering mechanics and materials science (1988) and received an M.S. 11

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12 FRONTIERS OF ENGINEERING in mechanical engineering from Johns Hopkins University and an M.S. in national security strategy from the National War College in Washington, D.C. Ann M. Bisantz is an associate professor in the Department of Industrial and Sys- tems Engineering, University at Buffalo, State University of New york (SUNy- Buffalo). Her research interests include the design of human-computer systems using visual and multimodal displays, methods in cognitive engineering, and modeling of dynamic decision making to communicate uncertainties, especially in complex environments, such as military systems and health care settings. Dr. Bisantz is the recipient of a CAREER Award from the National Science Founda- tion and a young Investigator Award from SUNy-Buffalo in 2002. She is a scien- tific editor of Applied Ergonomics; program chair for the Cognitive Engineering and Decision-Making Technical Group of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society; director of undergraduate studies for the Industrial and Systems Engi- neering Department; co-editor of Applications of Cognitive Work Analysis (Taylor and Francis, 2008); and serves on the editorial boards of Human Factors, Interna- tional Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, and Cognitive Engineering and Decision Making. Dr. Bisantz received an M.S. from SUNy-Buffalo and a Ph.D. from the Georgia Institute of Technology, both in industrial engineering. Ronald Laurids Boring, a senior member of the technical staff in the Risk and Reliability Analysis Department at Sandia National Laboratories, was previously a human-factors scientist working in the Human Factors, Instrumentation and Control Systems Department, Idaho National Laboratory, where he specialized in using human-reliability analysis and cognitive modeling to reduce human error in complex technological environments. His previous experience includes program manager for human reliability research projects funded by the U.S. Nuclear Regu- latory Commission and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and visiting human-factors scientist at the Halden Reactor Project in Halden, Norway. After completing a bachelor’s degree in psychology and German at the University of Montana, Dr. Boring was a Fulbright Scholar at the University of Heidelberg. He later completed his masters-level studies in experimental psychology at New Mexico State University and his Ph.D. at the Carleton University Institute of Cognitive Science, thus bringing together his interests in computer science and psychology. He is the author of more than 70 technical articles in the fields of human factors and human reliability. Xiaohu Gao, an assistant professor of bioengineering in the Center for Nano- technology and Department of Bioengineering, University of Washington (UW), conducts research in molecular bioengineering, nanotechnology, medical imaging, and image-guided therapy. He joined the faculty at UW in 2005 after completing postdoctoral fellowships in the Department of Biomedical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, and the Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University. He

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1 CONTRIBUTORS received a CAREER Award from the National Science Foundation in 2007 and the New Investigator Award from the Congressionally Directed Medical Research Programs and Wallace H. Coulter Translational Research Award, both in 2006. He is a member of the American Chemical Society, Biomedical Engineering Soci- ety, and American Society of Mechanical Engineering and a reviewer for several journals. Dr. Gao received his Ph.D. in bioanalytical chemistry from Indiana University, Bloomington, in 2004. Stephanie Guerlain is an associate professor in the Department of Systems and Information Engineering at the University of Virginia, where she specializes in the design of decision-support systems, cognitive-systems engineering, human- computer interaction, and data visualization. Her research results have been used in medical, military, process-control, and bioinformatics settings. She has pub- lished more than 40 technical papers on various aspects of cognitive-systems engi- neering, focused on decision-support systems, data visualization, and computer- based training. Prior to joining the faculty at Virginia in 1999, Dr. Guerlain was principal research scientist at Honeywell Technology Center, where she worked primarily on process-control applications. She is a member of the IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Society; Cognitive Science Society; and Human Factors and Ergonomics Society. She and her students have won five conference “best paper” awards and one journal “best paper” award. She received her M.S. and Ph.D. in industrial and systems engineering from Ohio State University. Jeff Hrkach, now vice president of pharmaceutical sciences at BIND Biosciences in Cambridge, Massachusetts, was previously senior director of drug delivery and strategic product development at Momenta Pharmaceuticals, where he was program leader for the drug delivery and generic Copaxone® programs and alli- ance manager for the Sandoz-Novartis collaboration. Prior to that, Dr. Hrkach was director of pulmonary formulations at Alkermes. Following his postdoctoral research with Professor Robert Langer at the Massachusetts Institute of Technol- ogy, he joined AIR, at its inception in 1998, and worked on large porous-particle technology-development programs. Dr. Hrkach is the author or coauthor of more than 25 scientific publications and 25 patents/applications in drug delivery and polymer chemistry. He received a B.S. in chemistry from the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy and Science and an M.S. and Ph.D. from Carnegie Mellon University in polymer science and chemistry, respectively. Ali Javey is an assistant professor of electrical engineering and computer sciences at the University of California (UC)-Berkeley and a principal investigator in the Materials Sciences Division at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. After receiving a Ph.D. in chemistry from Stanford University, Dr. Javey joined the fac- ulty at UC-Berkeley in 2005. On leave for the 2005–2006 academic year, he was a junior fellow of the Harvard Society of Fellows. His research interests encom-

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14 FRONTIERS OF ENGINEERING pass the fields of chemistry, materials science, and electrical engineering, with a focus on the integration of synthetic nanomaterials for technological applications, including high-performance nanoelectronics, flexible circuits and displays, and novel electronic sensors. He has published more than 30 papers in peer-reviewed journals, such as Nature, Nature Materials, Physical Review Letters, Journal of the American Chemical Society, and Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. His scientific awards include the Peter Verhofstadt Fellowship from the Semiconductor Research Corporation and the Graduate Student Gold Award from the Materials Research Society. John D. Lee is a professor in the Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering at the University of Iowa and director of human-factors research at the National Advanced Driving Simulator. He is also affiliated with the Depart- ment of Neurology, Public Policy Center, Injury Prevention Research Center, and Center for Computer-Aided Design. His areas of research include the safety and acceptance of complex human-machine systems, the mediation of attention by technology; the building of trust in technology; advanced driver-assistance sys- tems; and the causes and mitigation of driver distraction. Dr. Lee is coauthor of An Introduction to Human Factors Engineering (Prentice-Hall, 2003) and author or coauthor of more than 170 articles. He received the Ely Award for best paper in the journal Human Factors (2002) and the Best Paper Award in Ergonomics (2005); he is also a Donald E. Bently Faculty Fellow. Dr. Lee is a member of the National Research Council Committee on Human Factors and has served on several committees of the National Academy of Sciences. He is a member of the editorial boards of Cognitive Engineering and Decision Making; Cognition, Technology and Work; and International Journal of Human Factors Modeling and Simulation and associate editor of Human Factors and IEEE-Systems, Man, and Cybernetics. Joseph C. Martz has been at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) since he first arrived as a summer intern in 1983. From 1986 to 1990, he conducted research for his dissertation on the plasma processing of plutonium. After receiv- ing his Ph.D. from UC-Berkeley, he returned to LANL, where he headed several projects on plutonium storage, including one that led to the nationwide mandate to stabilize stored nuclear materials, known as 94-1. In 1994, one of the youngest group leaders in Los Alamos history, he took charge of pit operations at TA-55. In 1997, he was program manager for weapon materials and enhanced surveil- lance, a position he held for nearly seven years, during which he led a number of special projects, including the Octave test series. From 2003 to June 2005, Dr. Martz was deputy division leader for X-Division, the principle nuclear weapons- design division. Subsequently, he was asked to lead the Reliable Replacement Warhead Program as the project director. An internationally recognized expert in

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1 CONTRIBUTORS weapons materials and plutonium aging, Dr. Martz remains active in research and is a frequent consultant and contributor to intelligence programs. Samir Mitragotri has been a professor of chemical engineering and professor of biomolecular science and engineering at the University of California-Santa Barbara since 2000. His research is on novel drug-delivery methods based on an understanding of control transport processes. He has received numerous awards, including the American Institute of Chemical Engineers Allan P. Colburn Award (2005), Controlled Release Society young Investigator Award (2008), Ebert Prize from the American Pharmaceutical Association (1996), and the TR100 young Innovator Award (1999). He is on the editorial boards of Experimental Medicine and Biology and Journal of Controlled Release. Dr. Mitragotri received a B.S. in chemical engineering from the University of Bombay and a Ph.D. in chemical engineering from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Steven D. Nixon was, until recently, director of science and technology for the Office of the Director of National Intelligence (ODNI DS&T), one of eight leg- islated positions in ODNI, which oversees the science and technology activities of the 16 agencies in the U.S. intelligence community. Previous to that, he was deputy director of science and technology and first acting director of the newly established Intelligence Advanced Research Projects Activity. For the previous ten years, he was a member of the professional staff of the House Defense Appro- priations Subcommittee, where he was responsible for reviewing a wide variety of military and intelligence research, development, and acquisition programs. In 2008, the DNI awarded him the National Intelligence Career Achievement Medal, and in 2005 the National Journal named him to the “Hill 100.” Also in 2005, he was designated by Space News one of the top ten individuals “making a differ- ence” in space. Prior to working with Congress, Mr. Nixon was a senior civilian analyst for the Department of the Navy. He received B.S. degrees in electrical engineering and mathematics from the University of kansas and an M.A. in national security studies from Georgetown University. He is currently a consultant on national security matters in Washington, D.C. Mihrimah Ozkan, associate professor in the Department of Electrical Engineer- ing, University of California-Riverside (UCR), conducts interdisciplinary research on nanotechnology. She received a Ph.D. from UC-San Diego and an M.S. from Stanford University and has more than four years of experience in industry at Applied Materials, Analog Devices, and IBM Almaden Research Center. Her multidisciplinary research has focused on the developments of post-CMOS fab- rication and integration methods for future electronics, hybrid organic-inorganic solar platforms, and “smart” nanoparticles for cancer therapeutics. Dr. Ozkan is the recipient of the young Investigator Award from the U.S. Army (2006), Dis- tinguished Engineering Educator of the year Award from the National Engineers

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1 FRONTIERS OF ENGINEERING Council (2006), Regents Faculty Excellence Award (2006, 2004, 2002), Emerg- ing Scholar Award from the American Association of University Women (2005), invited participant to the National Academies keck Future Initiatives Conference (2005), Visionary Science Award from the BioMEMS and Biomedical Nanotech- nology Conference (2003), and Achievement in Technical Ingenuity Award from the Inland Empire Economic Partnership (2003). She is a member of the FCRP Center on Functional Engineered Nanoarchitectonics, National Science Founda- tion Center for Hierarchical Manufacturing, National Cancer Institute Nanotumor Center, U.S. Department of Defense Center of Nanoscience for Innovation in Defense, and the UCR Center for Nanoscale Science and Engineering. She is a member of the editorial boards of the Journal of Sensors and Actuators B and the Journal of Biomedical Microdevices and principal editor of Micro and Nano Technologies for Genomics and Proteomics (Springer, 2006). She has published approximately 150 journal papers, conference proceedings, and book chapters and holds more than 25 patent disclosures and 8 U.S. patents. Daniel W. Pack, an associate professor of chemical and biomolecular engineering at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC), is affiliated with the Department of Bioengineering, the Center for Nanoscale Science and Technol- ogy, the Beckman Institute, and the Institute for Genomic Biology at UIUC. He completed a postdoctoral fellowship at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and has received numerous awards, including the Multi-year Faculty Achievement Award (2007), Xerox Award for Faculty Research (2008), and a National Science Foundation CAREER Award (2002). He received a B.S. from UIUC and a Ph.D. from the California Institute of Technology, both in chemical engineering. A.D. Romig, Jr., executive vice president and deputy laboratories director for Integrated Technologies and Systems and interim chief operating officer at Sandia National Laboratories, began his career there in 1979. His current responsibilities include leadership and management of development and engineering activities in support of military technology; proliferation prevention; technology assessment; counterintelligence; energy science, resources, conservation, and infrastructure assurance; and homeland security. Dr. Romig is a member of the National Acad- emy of Engineering (NAE) and is active on a number of NAE/National Research Council committees and boards. He is a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science and the Metals, Minerals and Materials Society (TMS), a Fellow and former president of ASM International (formerly American Society for Metals), and a Senior Member of IEEE. Dr. Romig is also on the boards of Atomic Weapons Establishment Management Limited and Technology Ventures Corporation, a member of the Council on Foreign Relations and the Intelligence Science Board, and has served on study committees of the Defense Science Board. Dr. Romig also serves on the board of HydroGen, LLC, and the board of directors of MIND Institute, a not-for-profit neuroscience company. He is the

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1 CONTRIBUTORS recipient of the 2005 National Materials Advancement Award from the Federation of Materials Societies, the 2005 Acta Materialia Inc. J. Herbert Hollomon Award, and the 2003 ASM-TMS Distinguished Lecturer in Materials and Society. For his pioneering work in analytical electron microscopy and solid-state diffusion, Dr. Romig received the Burton Medal from the Microscopy Society of America (1988); the k.F.J. Heinrich Award from the Microbeam Analysis Society (1991); the ASM Silver Medal for Outstanding Materials Research (1992); and the Acta Metallurgica International Lectureship (1993–1994). He received his B.S., M.S., and Ph.D. in materials science and engineering from Lehigh University in 1975, 1977, and 1979, respectively. Jeffrey J. Welser, on assignment from IBM Corporation, is director of the Nano- electronics Research Initiative (NRI), a subsidiary of the Semiconductor Research Corporation. The goal of NRI, which supports university-based research on future nanoelectronics, is the development of logic devices capable of scaling beyond the limits of the CMOS transistor in the 2020 time frame. Dr. Welser joined IBM Research Division after receiving his Ph.D. in electrical engineering from Stanford University in 1995. At IBM, he worked on a variety of novel devices, including nanocrystal and quantum dot memories, vertical-FET DRAM, and silicon-based optical detectors; eventually he took over management of the Novel Silicon Device Group. At the time, he was also an adjunct professor at Columbia University. In 2000, he moved to IBM Technology group headquarters, and in 2001, he joined the Microelectronics Division as project manager for the high- performance CMOS device-design groups. In late 2003, he became director of Next-Generation Technology Components, and in 2006, he took on his current role at NRI. He is now based at the IBM Almaden Research Center in San Jose, California. Nikolai Zhitenev is a project leader at the National Institute of Standards and Technology Center for Nanoscale Science and Technology. He received an M.Sc. in physics from the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology and a Ph.D. in condensed-matter physics from the Russian Institute of Solid State Physics in 1991. He has worked at the Max Planck Institute for Solid State Physics, Mas- sachusetts Institute of Technology, and at Bell Labs. His research focus is on electronic properties of novel materials in nanoscale devices.

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