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Observing Weather and Climate from the Ground Up: A Nationwide Network of Networks Appendix B Tables of Surface-Based Observing Systems This Appendix includes two tables of surface-based observing systems. One attempts to summarize all networks in the United States that are potentially useful for mesoscale weather applications. The second table focuses on air-quality measurements. The first table catalogues surface-based meteorological observations in the United States. It comes from a presentation that was given to the Committee by Scot Loehrer and is based on a database that he developed at the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research/National Center for Atmospheric Research (UCAR/NCAR) over the last decade, with Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX)/GEWEX Americas Prediction Project (GAPP) funding.1 Some of the entries were updated from the National Science Foundation-sponsored database,2 which is currently being developed to serve the dual purpose of providing users with information about available resources and identifying future observational needs in atmospheric research. The table is not completely up-to-date; the number of networks (500+ documented) is large, and they appear, disappear, and evolve continuously. Some of the entries have been updated based on reviewer comments or other websites. Other useful sources of information appear in the main text. The second table, which focuses on air quality instrumentation, comes from Scheffe (2007). 1 See http://www.eol.ucar.edu/projects/hydrometnet. 2 See http://www.eol.ucar.edu/fadb/.
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Observing Weather and Climate from the Ground Up: A Nationwide Network of Networks TABLE B.1 Inventory of U.S. surface-based observing networks Network Type Number of Sites Operating Agencies Collective or Archive Location Remarks Cooperative observing climate network 8000 NOAA NCDC Includes ~75 modernized sites in the northeast U.S. Climate reference network 80 Federal agencies NCDC Placed to be representative of climate change Aviation ~900 ASOS ~1000 AWOS ~15 AWSS Mostly federal, some state. Many at NCDC, some MADIS and MesoWest ASOS, AWOS, and follow-on AWSS Road transportation networks 2400 stations in 34 networks Mostly state departments of transportation, some cities MADIS MesoWest FHWA Clarus upcoming RWIS. More states have observations, but they are not on the database. Meteorological data plus pavement temperature, etc. (Only meteorological data typically available.) Railway networks 450 sites Union Pacific Railroad MADIS MesoWest Primarily air temperature; winds and water level also of interest Agriculture/evapotranspiration and mesonets 61 networks, ~1700 stations State, local, universities, private sector (many TV stations), Bureau of Reclamation Some MADIS, MesoWest General monitoring of weather and agricultural conditions. Meteorological plus ET, radiation data at some sites. Includes Oklahoma Mesonet, which has 120 stations, plus 35 stations in two rural micronets and 40 stations in the new OKC mesonet (revised August 08)
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Observing Weather and Climate from the Ground Up: A Nationwide Network of Networks Network Type Number of Sites Operating Agencies Collective or Archive Location Remarks Other weather networks 10,000 sites Public, private, hybrids Non-automatic METAR ~250 CWOP ~3000 sites WCforYou.com ~150 AnythingWx.com ~100 AWS ~6000 Military plus radiation monitoring 20 networks, 350 stations Military agencies and national labs Most MADIS, MesoWest Weather, sometimes radiation Coastal (meteorology plus water level, water quality tsunami, port transportation) Great Lakes/Atlantic Coast: 20 networks, ~300 sites Gulf of Mexico: 13 networks, ~200 sites Pacific Coast (incl. Alaska, Hawaii): 14 networks, ~200 sites NOAA, states, private NOAA/NDBC makes QC’s met data available real time Divided into 11 regions. Most observations on or close to coast Precipitation 12,000 NOAA COOP plus CoCoRaHS NCDC COOP 5,000 NCEP NCAR Precipitation, severe weather warnings 150 NWS, FAA, USAF NCDC Source: NOAA Precipitation, severe weather warnings 150 estimated TV stations Estimated Flood warning 350 meteorological stations 1250 stream gauges 3500 precipitation gauges Local Precipitation, streamflow, reservoir level, weather
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Observing Weather and Climate from the Ground Up: A Nationwide Network of Networks Network Type Number of Sites Operating Agencies Collective or Archive Location Remarks Snow 750 SNOTEL 175 avalanche/ski networks USDA/NRCS, avalanche forecast centers, ski areas, etc. MesoWest MADIS Monitor snowpack for water supply, stability, skiing. Air temperature, snow water equivalent. Some also have meteorology, soil conditions Real time (non real time) water resources Stream gage 8500 (25000) Groundwater 1100 (5100) Water quality 1400 (5700) USGS, USACE, USBR, other fed, state, local agencies. USGS Stream, reservoir, groundwater conditions Fire weather 1700 RAWS sites (now 2200) USFS, state forestry agencies WRCC, MADIS, MesoWest Meteorology plus fuel temperature and moisture Air quality >2000 from 50 networks EPA, NPS, state and local, some NPS, Tribal agencies, private sector Pollutants (CO2, NO2, SO2, C3. PM-2.5, PM-10, lead) and/or metals, organics, inorganics. Near sources or in populous regions. Highly variable. Few include all standard meteorological variables Radiation ~100 total sites Federal, universities Solar energy resource, surface radiation budgets, UVB. Meteorology, direct and diffuse solar; some more detail. Energy/CO2 flux ARM: 24 AmeriFlux: 80 OK Mesonet: 10 Federal, universities Surface meteorology, latent and sensible heat flux, CO2/water vapor flux, surface energy balance NOAA Tall Tower Network upcoming
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Observing Weather and Climate from the Ground Up: A Nationwide Network of Networks Network Type Number of Sites Operating Agencies Collective or Archive Location Remarks Soil temperature/ moisture ARM: 22 ISWS: 20 OK Mesonet: 115 SCAN: 122 AmeriFlux: 80 Federal, universities Soil temperature, moisture ~ meteorology Ecological networks LTERS: 22 Federal agencies, universities LTER NEON upcoming Radiosondes NOAA: 80 Other: 11 NOAA, state and local NOAA Vertical profiles of temperature, water vapor, wind speed and direction Profilers CAP: 76(50 RASS) NPN 35 (11 RASS) Public, Private, Hybrid NOAA Vertical profiles of wind speed and direction, some with virtual temperature (RASS) and spectrum width. Aerosol column values/aero-sol profiles AERONET: 48 MPLNet: 5 REALM(7) ARM (3), Shadowband Network Variety of agencies AERONET Backscatter, aerosol optical depth GPS-based networks NOAA/GSD ground-based GPS-Met ~150 (estimated from map) NOAA, USCG/USACE, DOT, SuomiNet (UCAR/COSMIC, universities, NSF funding) Integrated Precipitable Water; from NOAA GPS-Met web site. NOTE: Some entries were updated March 2008; additional entries noted under “remarks.” SOURCE: Scott Loehrer, April 4, 2007 presentation to the Committee. Work sponsored by GEWEX/GAPP and the National Science Foundation.
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Observing Weather and Climate from the Ground Up: A Nationwide Network of Networks TABLE B.2 Major routine operational air quality monitoring networks (Some networks listed separately may also serve as subcomponents of other larger listed networks. As a result, some double counting of the number of individual monitors is likely.) Network Lead Federal Agency Number of Sites Initiated Measurement Parameters Location of Information and/or Data NCore1 EPA 75 2008 O3, NO/NO2/NOy, SO2, CO, PM-2.5/PM-10-2.52, PM-2.5 speciation, NH3, HNO3, surface meteorology3 http://www.epa.gov/ttn/amtic/monstratdoc.html SLAMS1 EPA ~3000 1978 O3, NOx/NO2, SO2, PM-2.5/PM-10, CO, Pb http://www.epa.gov/ttn/airs/airsaqs/aqsweb/aqswebhome.htm STN PM-2.5 EPA 300 1999 PM-2.5, PM-2.5 speciation, major ions, metals http://www.epa.gov/ttn/airs/airsaqs/aqsweb/aqswebhome.htm PAMS EPA 75 1994 O3, NOx/NOy, CO, Speciated VOCs, carbonyls, surface meteorology & upper air http://www.epa.gov/ttn/airs/airsaqs/aqsweb/aqswebhome.htm IMPROVE NPS 110 plus 67 protocol sites 1988 PM-2.5/PM-10, major ions, metals, light extinction, scattering coefficient http://vista.cira.colostate.edu/improve/ CASTNet EPA 80plus 1987 O3, SO2, major ions, calculated dry deposition,wet deposition, total deposition for sulfur/nitrogen, surface meteorology http://www.epa.gov/castnet/
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Observing Weather and Climate from the Ground Up: A Nationwide Network of Networks Network Lead Federal Agency Number of Sites Initiated Measurement Parameters Location of Information and/or Data GPMP NPS 33 1987 O3, NOx/NO/NO2, SO2, CO, surface meteorology, (plus enhanced monitoring of CO, NO, NOx, NOy, and SO2plus canister samples for VOC at three sites) http://www2.nature.nps.gov/air/Monitoring/network.cfm#data POMS NPS 14 2002 O3, surface meteorology, with CASTNet protocol filter pack (optional) sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, nitric acid, sulfur dioxide http://www2.nature.nps.gov/air/studies/portO3.cfm Passive Ozone Sampler Monitoring Program NPS 43 1995 O3 dose (weekly) http://www2.nature.nps.gov/air/Studies/Passives.cfm NADP/NTN USGS 200plus 1978 Major ions from precipitation chemistry http://nadp.sws.uiuc.edu/ NADP/MDN None 90plus 1996 Mercury from precipitation chemistry http://nadp.sws.uiuc.edu/mdn/ AIRMoN NOAA 8 1984 Major ions from precipitation chemistry http://nadp.sws.uiuc.edu/AIRMoN/
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Observing Weather and Climate from the Ground Up: A Nationwide Network of Networks Network Lead Federal Agency Number of Sites Initiated Measurement Parameters Location of Information and/or Data IADN EPA 20 1990 PAHs, PCBs, and organochlorine compounds are measured in air and precipitation samples http://www.epa.gov/glnpo/monit oring/air/ NAPS Canada 152plus 1969 SO2, CO, O3, NO, NO2, NOx, VOCs, SVOCs, PM-10, PM-2.5, TSP, metals http://www.etcentre.org/NAPS/ CAPMoN Canada 29 2002 O3, NO, NO2, NOy, PAN, NH3, PM-2.5, PM-10 and coarse fraction mass, PM-2.5 speciation, major ions for particles and trace gases, precipitation chemistry for major ions http://www.msc.ec.gc.ca/capmon/index_e.cfm Mexican Metropolitan Air Quality Network Mexico 93 O3, NOx, CO, SO2, PM-10, TSP See CEC, 1997 NATTS EPA 23 2005 VOCs, Carbonyls, PM-10 metals4, Hg http://www.epa.gov/ttn/airs/airsaqs/aqsweb/aqswebhome.htm State/Local Air Toxics Monitoring EPA 250plus 1987 VOCs, Carbonyls, PM10 metals, Hg http://www.epa.gov/ttn/airs/airsaqs/aqsweb/aqswebhome.htm NDAMN EPA 34 1998 - 2005 CDDs, CDFs, dioxin-like PCBs http://cfpub2.epa.gov/ncea/cfm/recordisplay.cfm?deid=22423
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Observing Weather and Climate from the Ground Up: A Nationwide Network of Networks Network Lead Federal Agency Number of Sites Initiated Measurement Parameters Location of Information and/or Data Tribal5 Monitoring EPA 120plus 1995 O3, NOx/NO2, SO2, PM-2.5/PM-10, CO, Pb http://www.epa.gov/ttn/airs/airsaqs/aqsweb/aqswebhome.htm HRM Network None 9 1980 O3, NONOx, PM-2.5/PM-10, CO, SOSO2, Pb, VOCs, surface meteorology http://hrm.radian.com/houston/how/index.htm ARIES /SEARCH None 8 1992 O3, NO/NO2/NOy, SO2, CO, PM-2.5/PM-10, PM-2.5 speciation, major ions, NH3, HNO3, scattering coefficient, surface meteorology http://www.atmosphericresearch.com/studies/SEARCH/index.html RadNet—formerly ERAMS EPA 200plus 1973 Radionuclides and radiation http://www.epa.gov/enviro/html/erams/ SASP DHS 41 1963 89Sr, 90Sr, naturally occurring radionuclides, 7Be, 210Pb http://www.eml.doe.gov/databases/sasp/ NEWNET DOE 26 1993 Ionizing gamma radiation, surface meteorologyy http://newnet.lanl.gov/stations.asp CTBT DOE 80 1996 Radionuclides and noble gases http://www.clw.org/archive/coalition/briefv3n14.htm UV Index EPA Sunwise Program EPA ~50 U.S. cities 2002 Calculated UV radiation index http://www.epa.gov/sunwise/uvindex.html UV Net Ultraviolet Monitoring Program EPA 21 2002 UV solar radiation (UVB and UV-Abands) http://www.epa.gov/uvnet/access.html
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Observing Weather and Climate from the Ground Up: A Nationwide Network of Networks Network Lead Federal Agency Number of Sites Initiated Measurement Parameters Location of Information and/or Data UVB Monitoring and Research Program USDA 35 1992 UVB radiation http://uvb.nrel.colostate.edu/UVB/jsp/uvb_climate_network.jsp SURFRAD NOAA 7 1993 Solar and infrared radiation, direct and diffuse solar http://www.srrb.noaa.gov/surfrad/index.html PRIMENet NPS 14 1997 Ozone, wet and dry deposition, visibility, surface meteorology, and ultraviolet radiation http://www.forestry.umt.edu/research/MFCES/programs/primenet BioWatch DHS >30 2001 Pathogens into the air, providing warning to the government and public health community of a potential bioterror event http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/terror/RL32152.html NOTES: 1NCore is a network proposed to replace NAMS as a component of SLAMS; NAMS are currently designated as national trends sites. 2PM-10-2.5–proposed new NAAQS 3Surface meteorology includes wind direction and speed, temperature, precipitation, relative humidity, and solar ration (PAMS only). 4PM-10 metals may include arsenic, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, lead, manganese, nickel, and others. 5The number of sites indicated for tribal monitoring is actually the number of monitors rather than sites. The number of sites with multiple monitors is probably less than 80. SOURCE: Scheffe, 2007.