. "4 Associations Between Depression in Parents and Parenting, Child Health, and Child Psychological Functioning." Depression in Parents, Parenting, and Children: Opportunities to Improve Identification, Treatment, and Prevention. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 2009.
ratio 3.17) and statistically significant (p < 0.0001) predictor of major depression in the past 12 months (Table 4-2), as was experience of trauma before the age of 18 (odds ratio of 3.41, p < 0.0001). Additional statistically significant factors in the model for females predictive of major depression in the past year were lower levels of closeness to the mother during childhood (p = 0.005), greater parental neglect during childhood (p = 0.047), a paradoxical effect of fewer social problems among the respondents’ fathers (p = 0.047), increased depression with older age at the time of the interview (p = 0.03) and having never been married compared to having been married or co-habiting (p = 0.02).
These findings underscore the importance of examining the effects of paternal risk factors as well as maternal risk factors for psychopathology in children and that comprehensive models are required to properly quantify the effects of these risk factors, many of which are intercorrelated and may show effect moderation. Further studies of this type are needed, especially those in which more detailed information on personal trauma and neglect