graphic categories is noteworthy. For example, women are about twice as likely to be diagnosed with depression as men in nearly all cultures (Andrade et al., 2003; Kessler, 2003; Riolo et al., 2005). Among adults overall, rates of depression are higher among single or divorced people than among their married counterparts (e.g., The ESEMeD/MHEDEA 2000 Investigators, 2004; Kessler et al., 2003). Stratified by age, depression is more common among teenagers and younger adults than among older adults, with apparently increasing rates in more recently born cohorts (e.g., Cross-National Collaborative Group, 1992; The ESEMeD/MHEDEA 2000 Investigators, 2004; Kessler et al., 2005). Similarly, a subsample of the NCS-R reports significant differences in lifetime and past year major depression prevalence rates among parents by gender, marital status, if English was their primary language while they were growing up, if they were born in the United States, and by race/ethnicity (see Tables 1-2 and 1-3). Mothers have almost double the prevalence of lifetime major depression than fathers. Parents overall and especially mothers who were divorced, widowed, or separated reported higher lifetime prevalence of major depression than those who were married or never married. Also, parents and mothers born in the United States and raised with English as their primary language report lifetime major depression significantly more than those who were not born in the United States or if English was not their primary language. Unlike the general population of parents and mothers, fathers reported significant differences in lifetime depression rates by current work status. Fathers not in the workforce at all have almost double the prevalence of lifetime depression than fathers who are employed or currently unemployed. Among the general population of parents, poverty status, and educational attainment did not significantly affect the prevalence of lifetime major depression. Although differences in rates by gender and marital status were similar as for prevalence of lifetime major depression, reports of major depression in the past year also found additional differences by current work status. Parents, and in particular fathers, who were employed had approximately half of the prevalence of major depression in the past year compared with parents who were unemployed or not in the workforce (see Table 1-3). Finally, similar to the general adult population and specific to the parent population, the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey in 2004 found gender disparities in the prevalence of poor mental health. A total of 4.5 percent of households reported that the mother was the only adult with fair or poor mental health, compared with 2.6 percent of households who reported that the father was the only adult affected. Around 1 percent of households report that both adults (mother and father) had fair or poor mental health (personal communication, Stephen Petterson, Robert Graham Center, February 13, 2008).

It is not clear whether certain subgroups of the population are disproportionately affected by depression. For example, differences in (particu-



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