. "7 Prevention of Adverse Effects." Depression in Parents, Parenting, and Children: Opportunities to Improve Identification, Treatment, and Prevention. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 2009.
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Depression in Parents, Parenting, and Children: Opportunities to Improve Identification, Treatment, and Prevention
Population and Demographics
Parenting and child coping skills
Cognitive-behavioral intervention; parenting skills training for parents and teaching children skills to cope with their parents’ depression
Compas, Forehand, and Keller (presented at the Society for Research on Child Development in 2009)
Depressed parents (current or history of during the lifetime of their child) and their children
Academic research setting
n = 111 families (155 children)
Age (parents): 42.8 (mean)
Age (children): 11.4 years (mean); 9–15 years (range)
79% European American
7.7% African American
3.2% Asian American
7.7% Mixed ethnicity
SES: Mixed with high levels of low-income families
Excluded: Parent with history of bipolar I, schizophrenia, or schizoaffective disorder; children with history of autism spectrum disorders, mental retardation, bipolar I disorder or schizophrenia or who met criteria for conduct disorder or substance/alcohol abuse or dependence
NOTES: The committee did not seek to systematically identify every study on existing interventions and program evaluations that target families with a depressed parent or that illustrate important conceptual principles for addressing these needs of these families; instead, whenever possible, the committee drew on existing meta-analyses and systematic reviews and whenever possible reviewed interventions that have been evaluated in at least one randomized trial. All outcomes reported in table are statistically significant.
AQS = Attachment Q Sort Version 3; BSQ = Behavioral Screening Questionnaire; BSID = Bailey Scale of Infant Development; BDI = Beck Depression Inventory; CBCL = Child Behavior Checklist; CBT = cognitive-behavioral therapy; CESD = Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale; DSM-IV = Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition; EAS = Emotional Availability Scale, Infancy to Early Childhood Version; EEG = electroencephalogram; EPDS = Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale; HMO = health maintenance organization; HRSD = Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression; ITSEA = Infant Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment; KSADS = Kiddie-Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia; KSADS-E = K-SADS, Epidemiological Version; MADRS = Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale; PDR = Parent Daily Report; PSI = Parenting Stress Index; SCI-D = Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV; SES = socioeconomic status.