Index

A

Accreditation

ABA recommendation, 194

and admissibility of evidence, 194

ASCLD/LAB, 69, 74, 77, 169, 171, 197-200, 205, 206, 207-208, 214

of certification organizations, 74-75

CLIA legislation, 195, 196

continuing education programs, 197

cycle, 198

data reporting standards, 21, 189

of death investigation systems, 49-50, 294, 246, 252, 258-259, 261-262, 265

education or training requirements for, 197, 231-232

of education programs, 75, 197, 225, 228-229, 237

inspector training, 199

key elements, 195

of laboratories, 6, 21, 41, 47, 48, 53, 68, 69, 77, 132, 136, 190, 195-200, 205, 207

mandatory programs, 48, 194, 199-200, 214

meaning of, 195

noncompliance reporting, 198-199

organizations, 16, 196, 197-200

proficiency testing for, 208

recommendations, 25, 215

research requirement, 261-262

sanctions, 196

status, 199-200

Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education, 256, 261

ACE-V process, 105-106, 137, 138-139, 140, 141, 142-143

Admissibility of forensic evidence.

See also Expert testimony;

Litigation;

individual disciplines

accreditation and, 194

appellate review standard, 10, 11, 85, 92, 97, 102

autopsy, 9

Daubert decision, 8, 9-10, 11-12, 90-93, 95-98, 99 n.37, 101-109, 110, 127 n.1, 142, 194, 204, 234, 238, 289

discretion of trial judges, 10, 11, 92, 96-97, 108

education of judicial community and, 234

Federal Rule of Evidence 401, 108 n.82

Federal Rule of Evidence 702, 9-10, 89, 90-92, 95, 101

fingerprint analyses, 9, 12 n.24, 43, 102-106, 142, 143

Frye standard, 88-89, 90-91, 95, 99 n.57

handwriting, 107



The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement



Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.

OCR for page 315
Index A recommendations, 25, 215 research requirement, 261-262 Accreditation sanctions, 196 ABA recommendation, 194 status, 199-200 and admissibility of evidence, 194 Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical ASCLD/LAB, 69, 74, 77, 169, 171, 197- Education, 256, 261 200, 205, 206, 207-208, 214 ACE-V process, 105-106, 137, 138-139, of certification organizations, 74-75 140, 141, 142-143 CLIA legislation, 195, 196 Admissibility of forensic evidence. See continuing education programs, 197 also Expert testimony; Litigation; cycle, 198 indiidual disciplines data reporting standards, 21, 189 accreditation and, 194 of death investigation systems, 49-50, appellate review standard, 10, 11, 85, 294, 246, 252, 258-259, 261-262, 92, 97, 102 265 autopsy, 9 education or training requirements for, Daubert decision, 8, 9-10, 11-12, 90-93, 197, 231-232 95-98, 99 n.37, 101-109, 110, 127 of education programs, 75, 197, 225, n.1, 142, 194, 204, 234, 238, 289 228-229, 237 discretion of trial judges, 10, 11, 92, 96- inspector training, 199 97, 108 key elements, 195 education of judicial community and, of laboratories, 6, 21, 41, 47, 48, 53, 234 68, 69, 77, 132, 136, 190, 195-200, Federal Rule of Evidence 401, 108 205, 207 n.82 mandatory programs, 48, 194, 199-200, Federal Rule of Evidence 702, 9-10, 89, 214 90-92, 95, 101 meaning of, 195 fingerprint analyses, 9, 12 n.24, 43, 102- noncompliance reporting, 198-199 106, 142, 143 organizations, 16, 196, 197-200 Frye standard, 88-89, 90-91, 95, 99 n.57 proficiency testing for, 208 handwriting, 107 

OCR for page 315
 INDEX Automated Fingerprint Identification System judicial certification of methodologies, (AFIS) 12, 86 administrative, legal, and policy issues, judicial dispositions, 95-109 276 pressures on system, 4-5, 52-53 ideal system, 274-275 pretrial hearings, 92, 99 n.57 identification of prints, 52, 139, 269 reliability standard, 9, 10, 12, 86, 88-89, interoperability challenges, 31, 51-52, 90, 91, 109, 111, 194 253, 270-271, 272-276 science and law, 12, 86-88 recommendations, 31-32, 277-278 state standards, 95 search categories, 269-270 toolmark and firearm identification, 97, support from policymakers, 275-276 107-108 technical challenges, 273-275 American Academy of Forensic Sciences vendor cooperation, 31, 276 (AAFS), 26, 74-75, 76, 173, 209, Autopsies, 9, 30, 49, 50, 56, 86, 242, 214, 223, 225, 228, 259 243, 247, 248, 249-250, 251, 252, American Bar Association (ABA), 194, 253, 254, 256, 257, 259, 261-264, 208-209 267-268 American Board of Criminalistics (ABC), 76, 209, 210, 227 American Board of Forensic Odontology B (ABFO), 76, 173, 174, 175, 176, 210 American Board of Forensic Toxicology, Backlog of cases 76, 210 defined, 39 American Board of Medicolegal Death impacts on criminal justice system, 37, Investigators, 30, 210, 259, 267 77 American Board of Pathology (ABP), 28, management and prevention, 14, 15, 61- 210, 256, 257, 259, 265 63, 64, 77, 187 American Law Institute, 29, 266 reliability of data on, 62 American National Standards Institute resource deficiencies and, 14-15, 39-40, (ANSI), 205, 272 62, 68-69 American Society of Clinical Pathologists, volume, 39, 58, 66 259-260 Ballistic evidence, 44, 151, 152 American Society of Crime Laboratory Bioforensics, 70, 281-282 Directors (ASCLD), 64, 68, 74, 76, Biological evidence. See also Blood; DNA; 209, 214, 221, 231, 232, 233, 235 Saliva; Semen Laboratory Accreditation Board, 69, 74, analyses, 60, 130-132 77, 169, 171, 197-200, 205, 206, characteristics, 128 207-208, 214 laboratories, 68, 70 Anthrax bioterroism attacks, 254, 281 reporting of results, 132 Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, 69, sample data and collection, 129-130 280 summary assessment, 133 Army Criminal Investigation Laboratory, Biotoxins and biological agents, 70 65, 67, 69, 280, 281 Bite mark analysis. See also Forensic Arson investigations, 172-173. See also odontology Explosives evidence and fire debris admissibility of evidence, 107-108, 175 Association of American Medical Colleges analytical approaches, 64, 174-175 (AAMC), 28, 257-258, 266 distortion of skin, 174, 176 Association of Firearm and Tool Marks errors and bias, 47, 174-175, 176 Examiners (AFTE), 76, 153, 155, guidelines, 173-174, 175 210 reporting of results, 175-176 ASTM International, 76, 135, 169, 201 research needs, 175, 176

OCR for page 315
 INDEX sample data and collection, 173-174, Charge to committee, 1-2, 5 188 Clinical Laboratory Improvement scientific validity, 7-8, 42, 87, 173, 174, Amendments of 1988 (CLIA), 195, 175-176, 188 196 summary assessment, 176 Codes of ethics, 212-214 uniqueness theory, 174, 176 Cognitive biases, 122-124, 149 virtopsy and, 254 Combined DNA Index System (CODIS), 40, Bloodstain pattern analysis 61, 66, 67, 100, 131-132, 197 analyses, 177-178 Computer crime investigations, 60. See also bias in,178 Digital and multimedia analysis certification, 178, 210 Controlled substance evidence crime scene/event reconstruction, 177 admissibility, 9, 101-102 guidelines, 202 analyses, 60, 117, 134-135 investigators, 64 backlog of cases, 39 reporting of results, 132 certification, 210 sample data and collection, 177 characteristics, 133 scientific basis, 158-179 error sources and rates, 116-117, 135 summary assessment, 178-179 personnel and equipment shortages, Botanical evidence, 128, 134, 161. See also 59 Trace evidence reliability, 101, 136 Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and reporting of results, 135 Explosives (ATF) research, 73 CEASEFIRE database, 151 sample data and collection, 86, 134 forensic laboratories, 65, 68-69 summary assessment, 135-136 Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS), 14, 36, 39, SWGDRUG standards, 134, 135-136, 55, 58, 59, 60, 61, 64, 65, 66, 71, 203-204 208, 243 n.18 training and expertise of examiners, Bureau of Labor Statistics, 219 136 Coroners. See Medical examiners and coroners; Medicolegal death C investigation system Coverdell. See Paul Coverdell California Association of Criminalists, 76, Crime scene investigation 214 certification, 210 Case. See also Backlog of cases “CSI effect,” 48, 222 defined, 36 n.3 DNA evidence, 41 CEASEFIRE database, 151 guidelines, 57 Census of Publicly Funded Crime liability issues, 57 Laboratories, 14, 36, 39, 58, 59, 64, practices, 7, 35, 48, 56-57, 129 66, 71, 199, 200, 208, 219 professional associations, 76-77, 210 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention research funding, 72, 73, 75 (CDC), 29, 196, 260, 263, 266 standards and oversight, 57 Public Health Information Network, technologies, 72, 73, 75, 129, 130 260, 273 training and experience of investigators, Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services 32, 33, 35, 36, 57, 60-61, 64, (CMS), 195, 196 129 n.4, 185, 218, 220-221, 227, Certification of examiners, 6, 16, 47, 53, 285-286 70, 74-75, 77, 78, 137, 147-148, “CSI effect,” 48, 108, 222 171, 173, 178, 181, 190, 193, 194, Cyber Crime Center, 69, 280 196, 208-210, 214, 231-232 Chain of custody, 36, 182, 233

OCR for page 315
 INDEX D Department of Homeland Security (DHS), 13, 80. See also Homeland security; Databases and reference libraries National Bioforensic Analysis and Armed Forces Repository of Specimen Countermeasures Center; U.S. Secret Samples for the Identification of Service Remains, 69 Department of Justice. See also Bureau automotive carpet fiber, 73 of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and CEASEFIRE, 151 Explosives CODIS, 40, 61, 66, 67, 100, 131-132, Computer Crime and Intellectual 197 Property Section, 181 DRUGFIRE database, 151 definition of backlogged cases, 39 Electronic Crime Portfolio, 71, 72-73 grant programs, 13, 28, 62-63, 66, 80, EXPeRT, 67 210-211, 213, 266 Explosives Reference File, 67 judicial training program, 235 FBI, 40, 65-66, 67, 73, 131-132, 151, leadership potential in forensic science, 197 17, 80 fingerprints, see Automated Fingerprint missions, 17, 80 Identification System; Integrated Office of Inspector General, 45-46, 68, Automated Fingerprint Identification 105, 211, 212, 213, 274 System proficiency test design, 207 funding, 73 Digital and multimedia analysis, 64 Joint Federal Agencies Intelligence DNA certification, 181 Database, 281 computer examination, 180-182 MECISP, 263 crimes and devices associated with, 179, NamUs, 245 180 National Automotive Paint File, 67, education and training, 181, 220 118 sample data and collection, 180 National Violent Death Review System, search and seizure, 181-182 263 DNA evidence NCIC UP/MP, 244-245 accreditation of laboratories, 41, 68, NIBIN, 151, 152, 153 132, 197-198, 200, 207 Paint Data Query database, 67, 168 admissibility, 9, 41, 99-101, 103, 104, Standard Ammunition File, 67 107, 133 toolmarks and firearms, 67, 151, 152, amplification, 131 153 analytical methods, 13, 130-132, 133 Western Identification Network, ascendancy of, 4, 40-41 270-271 backlog of cases, 14, 39, 40, 72, 187, Death investigation systems. See 219 Medicolegal death investigation California Proposition 69, 40 system databases and registries, 13, 40, 61, 66, Department of Commerce, 13, 65 67, 69, 100, 131-132, 280-281 Department of Defense (DOD) errors or fraud, 9, 47, 57, 86-87, 100, forensic science capabilities, 13, 69-70, 121, 130, 132, 133, 184 187, 280-281, 280-281 exonerations, 37, 42, 100, 107, 109 Joint Task Force Civil Support, 260 n.87, 160 research support, 69 FBI guidelines, 40, 47, 114-115, 131- Department of Health and Human Services, 132, 202 28, 196, 261, 265 funding, 41, 71-72, 73, 101, 187 growth in use of, 4, 41, 219

OCR for page 315
 INDEX hair analysis, 131, 160 “CSI effect,” 222 interpreting evidence, 41, 100, 139 curriculum, 27, 227-228, 233-234, 238 judicial education programs, 235 deficiencies in, 44-45, 78 jury comprehension of evidence, demand for forensic practitioners and, 236-237 218-221 laboratories, 36, 40, 41, 58, 65, 68, 131, by discipline, 220 132 doctoral programs, 223, 230 mitochondrial (mtDNA) testing, 7, 38, funding, 62, 66, 71, 223, 230-231, 237 47, 130-131, 132, 160-161, 182, in-service programs, 27, 227, 232 188, 227 institutions offering programs, 229 nuclear testing, 7, 38, 47, 87, 100, 115, of judicial community, 27, 178, 128, 130-131, 139, 155, 161, 182, 234-238 188 medical examiners and coroners, 6, 49, President’s DNA Initiative, 41, 71, 235 50, 242-243, 247-249, 255, 256, proficiency testing, 40, 41, 132, 200, 259-260, 264-265 207 proliferation of programs, 222-223 reporting of results, 132 purposes, 217-218 research, 13, 71-72, 73, 74-75, 101, 109 quality of programs, 224-225 semen profiling, 73, 74 recommendations, 27-28, 239 SNP testing, 74, 131, 227 and reliability of evidence, 16, 129 n.4 standards and quality control, 40, 41, requirement for accreditation or 65, 114-115, 131-132, 197, 200, 207 certification, 197, 231-232 training and expertise, 13, 71, 132 research component, 230-231 validity and reliability, 7, 40, 41, 42, 47, sources, 16, 66, 69, 70, 73, 197, 229 87, 99-100, 103, 104, 114-115, 121, standardization of materials, 189 128, 130, 133, 139, 155 standards for, 201, 224, 225-226, 237 workload, 39, 40, 41, 72 status, 218-223, 231-234 Y STR testing, 131 training needs, 15-16, 218, 232-233 DNA Identification Act, 197, 200, 207 undergraduate and graduate programs, Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA), 27, 217, 220, 223, 224, 225-229, 65, 203 238 Drug identification. See Controlled variability within and across disciplines, substance 7, 15 DRUGFIRE database, 151 European Network of Forensic Science Drylabbing, 45, 193 Institutes, 135, 202, 207 Evidence processing backlogs and, 37 E chain of custody, 36, 182, 233 computer-generated files, 182 Ear prints, 145, 149, 150 errors in, 4-5, 9, 45, 47, 57, 100 Education and training impacts of, 37, 45 accreditation of, 75, 197, 225, 228-229, Exclusionary evidence, 36, 51, 82, 127 n.1, 237 131, 138, 140, 141, 142, 143, 149, advanced courses, 227 156, 157, 160, 167, 204-205 apprenticeship model, 15, 26-27, 140, Exculpatory evidence, suppression, 45, 107 187, 217, 224, 232, 233, 238 n.81 associate degree, 148, 220-221, 225 Expert testimony. See also Admissibility challenges and improvement of forensic evidence; Interpretation opportunities, 14, 224-229 of forensic evidence; Reporting of continuing education, 197, 218, 231, results 233-234, 236, 259-260 access to, 11, 98

OCR for page 315
0 INDEX error or bias in, 4, 8 n.8, 9-10, 37, 87, Research and Development Program, 42, 100, 107, 109 n.87 73 junk science, 89 Research Partnership Program, 73 reliability standard, 9-10, 93-94 SWG guidelines, 16, 40, 46, 47, 73, rhetorical dimension, 106 n.79 114-115, 131-132, 202 technical or specialized knowledge, workload, 66 94-95 Federal Rule of Evidence 401, 108 n.82 Explosives evidence and fire debris Federal Rule of Evidence 702 analyses, 170-172 amendment in 2000, 92-95 certification, 171, 210 Daubert decision, 9-10, 90-92 databases and reference files, 67 Frye standard and, 88-89 education and training of examiners, 171 Fiber evidence guidelines, 171, 172, 201 automotive carpet fiber database, 73 laboratories, 65 characteristics, 161, 163 personnel and equipment shortages, 59 guidelines, 162-163, 201 proficiency testing, 171 proficiency testing, 159, 163 reporting of results, 172 sample collection and analysis, 161, research funding, 72, 73 162 scientific foundation, 172-173 scientific validity, 122 standard setting, 65 summary assessment, 162-163 summary assessment, 172-173 Fingerprint analyses. See Automated Explosives Reference File, 67 Fingerprint Identification System; Explosives Reference Tools database Friction ridge analysis (EXPeRT), 67 Fire debris. See Explosives evidence and fire debris Firearms identification. See Ballistics F evidence; Toolmark and firearm identification Falsification of evidence, 44, 45, 193 Footwear and tire impressions Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) analyses, 36, 64, 146-148 biased cases, 45-46 biases, 149 case backlogs, 66 certification in, 78, 147-148, 210 case types, 65 characteristics, 146-147, 149 Counterterrorism and Forensic Science proficiency testing, 147-148 Research Unit, 73 reporting of results, 148-149, 150 databases and reference libraries, 40, sample data and collection, 146 65-66, 67, 73, 131-132, 151, 197 scientific interpretation, 43, 148-149 forensic laboratories and services, 16, scientific validity and reliability, 149 65-66, 67, 70, 73, 79, 131, 132, SWGTREAD standards, 148-149, 150, 140-141, 202-203 203 friction ridge analysis apprenticeship, summary assessment, 149-150 140-141 training and expertise of examiners, 145, funding for research, 15, 66, 73, 78 147, 148 Joint Terrorism Task Force, 283 Forensic anthropology, 73, 220 Latent Fingerprint Unit, 46 Forensic art, 64, 77, 210 leadership potential in forensic science, Forensic laboratories. See Laboratories 16, 17, 79, 80 Forensic odontology. See also Bite mark missions, 17, 80 analyis Quality Assurance Standards for board certification, 173, 210 Forensic DNA Testing Laboratories, defined, 173 114-115, 131-132 education and training, 220

OCR for page 315
 INDEX Forensic pathology. See also Medical laboratory based, 3, 7, 38, 87, 128-136, examiners and coroners 167-170, 182, 188 certification, 210, 256-257, 265 pattern/impression evidence, 136-150, classification systems, 264 155-167, 170-179, 182, 184 defined, 256 skills and expertise, 7, 38 education and training, 29, 220, 256, variability, 6-7, 15, 182, 188 257, 259-260 Forensic Science Education Program practices, 257 Accreditation Commission (FEPAC), research, 261-263 75, 225-226, 228, 229, 230 n.36 shortages of pathologists, 60, 256-258 Forensic science system. See also Pressures Forensic photography, 64, 77, 210 on forensic science system Forensic Quality Services (FQS), 74, 77, capacity and quality, 37 197-198, 199 homeland security and, 5, 32-33, 52, Forensic Resource Network, 71, 72 279-286 Forensic science, defined, 38-39 Forensic Specialties Accreditation Board, Forensic science community. See also 74-75, 209-210 Friction ridge analysis. See also Automated indiidual components case backlogs, 61-62 Fingerprint Identification System; challenges, 4-5 Integrated Automated Fingerprint components, 55-77 Identification System disparities in, 5-6, 55 ACE-V process, 105-106, 137, 138-139, federal activities, 64-70 140, 141, 142-143 fragmentation, 14-33, 6, 77, 78 admissibility of evidence, 9, 12 n.24, 43, governance, 16-20, 78-83; see also 102-106, 142, 143 Oversight of forensic practice automated pattern recognition, 139, nonlaboratory units, 63-64 140 professional associations, 16, 74-77 backlogs, 64, 66 recommendations, 19-20, 78, 81-82 bias, 105, 123 research funding, 71-75 certification, 78, 137, 210 Forensic science disciplines. See also characteristics of prints, 136 Biological evidence; Bloodstain comparison to known prints, 138, 139 pattern analysis; Controlled data collection and analysis, 137-140 substance evidence; Digital and error rates, 103-104, 105, 142, 143 multimedia analysis; Explosives funding for research, 73, 205 evidence and fire debris; Fiber guidelines, 136-137, 141, 203, 205 evidence; Footware and tire identification units, 200 impressions; Forensic odontology; interpretation methods, 43-44, 139, 140- Friction ridge analysis; Hair evidence; 141, 269 Paint and coatings evidence; laboratories, 65, 66, 68, 136 Questioned document examination; methods, 7-8, 51, 103, 105-106, 137, Toolmark and firearm identification 138-139, 140, 141, 142-143 biases in, 184-185 quality and distortion issues, 7-8, 9, 86, categories, 37, 38-39 87, 137-138, 140, 141, 145, 270 disparities between and within, 8 reporting of results, 141-142, 143 educational pathways by, 220 research needs, 73, 105, 141, 144-145 guidelines, 66; see also Scientific scientific reliability and validity, 43, 86, Working Groups 87, 88 n.5, 102-104, 105-106, 140, interpretation-based, 3, 7, 87, 136-145, 142-143 184-185, 188 scores and thresholds, 141 knowledge base, 15, 77-78; see also shortages of personnel and equipment, Scientific method 59

OCR for page 315
 INDEX source determination or exclusion, 138, National Biodefense Forensic Analysis 139, 141 Center, 281 statistical models, 139-140, 141, 145 National Counterproliferation Center, subjectivity in, 139-140 70, 282 summary assessment, 142-145 National Response Plan, 260 training and expertise of examiners, 36, recommendations, 33, 285-286 58, 60, 64, 136-137, 140-141 WMD threat, 282 uniqueness and persistence of prints, Houston Police Department Crime 143-144 Laboratory, 44-45, 193 verification, 138-139 Hurricane Katrina, 253, 260, 261 Frye . United States, 88-89, 90-91, 95, 99 n.57 I Identification units, 46, 55, 57, 63-64, 136, g 200 Gunshot residue analysis, 35, 65, 201, 254 Illinois State Police, 57-58 Immunological tests, 129, 130 Individualization (matching) of evidence, 7, H 43-44, 87, 101, 117-118, 136, 184 Innocence Project, 42, 45, 46-47, 100 n.58, Hair evidence 109 n.87 accuracy in identification, 47, 121, Integrated Automated Fingerprint 157-159 Identification System (IAFIS), 46, 51, admissibility, 107, 161 65-66, 270, 271, 274, 275 automated analysis and comparison, International Association for Identification 158-159 (IAI), 64, 74, 76-77, 136, 137, 148, characteristics, 155-156, 157 149, 150, 178, 199, 209, 210, 272 DNA analysis, 131, 160 International Organization for proficiency testing, 159 Standardization (ISO), 21, 25, 113- reporting of results, 159-160, 161 114, 198, 199, 200, 215 sample data and collection, 156-157 Interpretation of forensic evidence scientific interpretation, 159-160 fingerprints, 43-44, 139, 140-141, 269 scientific reliability and validity, 8, 117- hair, 159-160 118, 160 impression evidence, 43, 148-149 summary assessment, 160-161 improving, 184-185, 188 training and expertise of examiners, 156 individualization principle, 7, 43-44, 87, validation study (hypothetical), 118-120, 101, 117-118, 136, 184 121 problems, 7-8, 9, 86, 100 Handwriting analysis. See Questioned research needs, 8, 188 document examination scores and thresholds, 141 Homeland security bioforensics, 281-282 Disaster Mortuary Operational Response J Teams, 260 DOD forensic science capabilities, Jurors 280-281 comprehension of evidence, 236-237 forensic science role, 5, 32-33, 52, expectations about evidence, 48-49, 86, 279-286 88, 219 ME/C and, 50-51, 260-261, 265, model instructions for, 238 283-284 Justice for All Act, 62, 210-211, 213

OCR for page 315
 INDEX L General Electric Co. . Joiner, 10, 91, 92, 93, 97 Laboratories. See also Nonlaboratory Kumho Tire Co., Ltd. . Carmichael, 10, service providers 12, 91, 92, 93, 94, 96, 108 accreditation, 6, 21, 41, 47, 48, 53, 68, Maryland . Rose, 105-106 69, 77, 136, 190, 195-200, 205 People . Castro, 99, 133 ATF, 65, 68-69 United States . Brown, 96, 97, 102 backlog of cases, 14, 15, 37, 39, 58, 61- United States . Crisp, 102, 103, 104, 62, 66, 68-69, 77, 219 206 configurations, 57-58 United States  Haard, 103-104 Coverdell grant program, 62-63 Latent prints. See Friction ridge defined, 36-37 Law Enforcement Assistance DNA, 36, 40, 41, 58, 65, 68, 131, 132 Administration, 223, 231, 251, 252 DOD, 69-70 Lie detector tests, 64, 68, 88 error sources and rates, 44, 45, 116-117 Lip prints, 145, 149, 150 FBI, 16, 65-66, 67, 70, 73, 79, 131, 132, Litigation. See also Admissibility of 140-141, 202-203 forensic evidence; Expert testimony; functions, 60-61 Landmark decisions funding, 15, 58-59, 65, 68, 77 appellate review standard, 85, 92, 97, guidelines, 202-203 102 independence in administration, 23-24, bias in judges and juries, 123 183-184 civil cases, 11, 89, 97-98, 107, 250 mobile, 68, 69-70 criminal cases, 9, 11, 12, 36, 45, 53, number in U.S., 58 87, 88, 95-96, 97, 98, 106-110, 237, outsourcing, 61 250, 254 personnel and equipment shortages, 6, education of judicial community for, 27, 14-15, 36, 59-60, 62, 65, 66, 68, 77- 178, 234-238 78, 219 juror comprehension of and expectations private, 36, 41, 58, 61 about evidence, 48-49, 86, 88, 218, proficiency testing, 208 236-237 publicly funded, 36, 39, 41, 52, 55, 58- limitations of adversary process, 10, 12, 61, 65-70, 183-184, 208 53, 85, 86, 91, 103, 110 quality assurance standards, 44-45, 193, scientific expertise of judges and lawyers, 194 85, 87-88, 110 recommendations, 23-24, 190-191 reporting data, 21-22, 189-190 research resources, 15, 71 M state-operated, 200 Madrid train bombing, 45-46, 104-105, training and expertise of staff, 36, 47, 123 58, 59-60, 132, 136, 221 Mayfield, Brandon, 45-46, 104-105, 123 U.S. Secret Service, 66, 68 Medical Examiner and Coroner Information validation of methods, 21, 22, 114, 115, Sharing Program (MECISP), 263 189, 197-198, 202, 206 Medical examiners and coroners (ME/C), workloads, 36, 58, 60, 61, 65-66, 68 243. See also Medicolegal death Landmark decisions investigation system Daubert . Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals best practices, 252 Inc., 8, 9-10, 11-12, 90-93, 95-98, caseload, 49, 244 99 n.37, 101-109, 110, 127 n.1, 142, historical origins, 241-242 194, 204, 234, 238, 289 jurisdiction, 49, 50, 244, 260 Frye . United States, 88-89, 90-91, 95, missions, 56, 243, 244-245 99 n.57

OCR for page 315
 INDEX proficiency testing, 209 National Bioforensic Analysis and recommendations, 267-268 Countermeasures Center (NBFAC), sample and data collection methods, 70 263-264 National Bioforensic Analysis Center, 281 shortages of MEs and forensic National Conference of Commissioners on pathologists, 6, 50, 60, 256-258 Uniform State Laws, 29, 242-243, 266 training and skills, 6, 49, 50, 242- National Crime Information Center 243, 247-249, 255, 256, 259-260, Unidentified and Missing Persons 264-265 (NCIC UP/MP), 244-245 virtopsy, 253-254 National Forensic Science Technology Medicolegal death investigation system. See Center (NFSTC), 70, 76, 197-198 also Forensic pathology; Medical National Forensic Sciences Improvement examiners and coroners Act, 265, 266 administration and oversight, 249 National Institute of Forensic Science biosafety capability, 254 (proposed) conversion of coroner systems to ME benefits, 20 systems, 49-50, 241-243, 251-252 challenges, 20 fragmentation, 49-51, 246 cost, 20, 82 funding for improvements, 28, 265-266 criteria for, 18-19, 80-81 and homeland security, 50-51, 260-261, recommended focus, 19-20, 81-82 265, 283-284 National Institute of Justice, 219 quality control and quality assurance, categories of forensic science disciplines, 209, 259 38 recommendations, 29-30, 267-268 Coverdell grant program, 15, 28, 62-63, staffing and funding, 50, 247-248, 249- 77, 210-211, 213, 266 251, 252 leadership potential, 16, 79 standards and accreditation, 49-50, 294, Office of Justice Programs, 211-212, 246, 252, 258-259, 261-262, 265 213, 245 technologies, 28, 253-255, 265 Office of Research and Evaluation, 71 variations in, 50, 56, 245-246 Office of Science and Technology, 71 Methodological issues. See Scientific method research funding, 15, 71-73, 74-75, 78, Michigan State Police, 44, 221 187, 230 Microbial forensics, 70, 73 Technical Working Group on Crime Missing persons, 244-245 Scene Investigation (TWGCSI), 57 Mitochondrial (mtDNA) testing, 7, 38, 47, National Institute of Standards and 130-131, 132, 160-161, 182, 188, Technology (NIST), 4, 17, 24, 25, 227 31, 65, 73, 79-80, 115, 151, 201, Model Post-Mortem Examinations Act, 29, 205, 214-215, 272, 277 242-243, 265, 266 National Institutes of Health (NIH), 28, 30, 72, 101, 187, 228, 265-266, 267 National Integrated Ballistic Information N Network (NIBIN), 151, 152, 153 National Science Foundation (NSF), 17, 72, National Association of Medical Examiners 79-80, 187, 228, 230 (NAME), 26, 28, 29, 30, 50, 60, 74, Nonlaboratory service providers, 56, 58 76, 77, 200 n.22, 209, 242, 250, backlogs, 64 252, 253, 257, 258, 259, 263, 264, functions, 63-64 265, 266, 267 funding, 64 National Automotive Paint File, 67 identification units, 55, 64, 136, 200 National Biodefense Forensic Analysis skills and expertise of examiners, 64 Center, 281 workforce, 64

OCR for page 315
 INDEX O research funding, 72, 75 scientific reliability, 42 Occupational Health and Safety subjective nature of, 139-140, 153 Administration, 263-264 types, 145, 146 Odontology. See Forensic odontology Paul Coverdell Forensic Science Office of the Director of National Improvement Grants Program, 28, Intelligence, 70, 282 62-63, 210-211, 213, 266 Oversight of forensic practice. See also Paul Coverdell National Forensic Science Accreditation; Quality assurance Improvement Act, 28, 62 and quality control; Standards and Polygraph tests. See Lie detector tests guidelines President’s DNA Initiative, 41, 71, 235 audits of laboratories, 44 Pressures on forensic science system. See breadth, 17 also Backlog of cases Coverdell grant program requirements, admissibility of evidence, 52-53 210-212, 213 AFIS compatibility issues, 51-52 governance organization, 78-83 CSI effect, 48-49 of ME/C, 249 DNA analysis, 40-41 organizations, 70 errors and fraud, 4-5, 42-43, 44-48, 57 recommendations, 81-82, 214-215 homeland security, 52 medicolegal death investigation, 49-51 questionable or questioned science, 4-5, P 42-44 Professional associations, 16, 74-77, 78 Paint and coatings evidence Proficiency testing, 40, 41, 47, 132, 147- analyses, 117-118, 168-169, 170 148, 159, 163, 166 n.98, 169, 171, databases and reference libraries, 67, 188, 194, 200, 206-208 118, 168 PROTECT Act of 2003, 66, 68 education and training of examiners, 168-169 guidelines, 169, 201 Q proficiency testing, 169 reporting of results, 169 Quality assurance and quality control. See research, 73 also Accreditation; Oversight of sample data and collection, 167 forensic practice scientific interpretation, 169 certification of examiners, 6, 16, 47, 53, summary assessment, 170 70, 74-75, 77, 78, 137, 147-148, validation study (hypothetical), 120 171, 173, 178, 181, 190, 193, 194, Paint Data Query database, 67, 168 196, 208-210, 214, 231-232 Pan Am Flight 103, 279 codes of ethics, 5, 212-214 Pathology. See Forensic Pathology; Medical DNA testing, 40, 41, 65, 114-115, 131- examiners and coroners 132, 197, 200, 207 Pattern/impression evidence. See also federal funding tied to, 194 Footwear and tire impressions; Fiber mandatory, 194 evidence; Friction ridge analysis; ME/C, 209, 259 Handwriting analysis; Toolmark and problems with laboratories, 44-45, 193, firearm identification 194 automated pattern recognition, 139, proficiency testing, 40, 41, 47, 132, 147- 140, 158-159 148, 159, 163, 166 n.98, 169, 171, certification, 76-77 188, 194, 200, 206-208 individualization principle, 43-44, 136 recommendations, 26, 215 professional associations, 76-77 standards and guidelines, 5, 6, 44, 193, proficiency testing, 47 194, 201-206

OCR for page 315
 INDEX Questioned document examination, biometric technologies, 74 163-164 DOD, 69 analyses, 60, 64, 164-165 on error and bias sources, 24, 191 certification in, 78, 210 FBI, 15, 66, 73, 78 guidelines, 201, 202 in forensic pathology, 261-263 handwriting analysis, 107, 136, 163, funding, 15, 18, 22, 66, 71-75, 78, 80, 164, 165, 166, 167 101, 105, 141, 144-145, 187, 189, ink and paper examination, 164-165, 190, 205, 230-231, 262 167, 201 laboratory resources, 15, 71 laboratories, 65, 68 microbial forensics, 70 personnel and equipment shortages, 59 needs, 8, 22-23, 24, 53, 72, 109, 110, proficiency testing, 166 n.98 186, 187-188, 189, 190, 191 reporting of results, 166 NIJ, 15, 71-73, 74-75, 78, 187, 230 scientific interpretation, 166, 167 NIST, 79 scientific reliability, 166-167 recommendations, 22-24, 190 summary assessment, 166-167 student exposure to, 230-231 training, 201 validation of new methods, 22-23, 52, types of analyses, 163-164 77-78, 113-116, 118-119, 121, 187- 188, 189, 190 R S Recommendations accreditation and certification, 25, 215 Sample and data collection methods. See AFIS interoperability, 31-32, 277-278 also indiidual disciplines code of ethics, 26, 215 ME/C, 263-264 education and training, 27-28, 239 Science, State, Justice, Commerce, and governance of forensic science Related Agencies Appropriations Act community, 19-20, 78 of 2006, 1 homeland security-related, 33, 285-286 Scientific method laboratory autonomy, 23-24, 190-191 between-individual variability, 118, 184 medical examiner/coroner systems, 29- bias source, 24, 45-46, 57, 86, 112, 116, 30, 267-268 122-124, 184-185, 191 protocol development, 24-25, 214-215 classification conclusions, 117, 118, 120, quality assurance and quality control, 121, 184-185 26, 215 DNA analysis, 114-115, 184 research, 22-24, 190 elements of good practice, 113 standardized reporting of results, 22, error rates, 24, 86, 117-122, 184, 191 189-190 in forensic science, 113, 116-122, 188 Reference Firearms Collection, 67 fundamental principles, 45, 112-125 Reporting of results. See also indiidual improving, 112, 114, 184-185 individualization (matching) conclusions, disciplines ASTM standards, 201 43-44, 87, 101, 117-118, 121 content and language, 186 ISO/IEC 17025 standard, 21, 22, 114, methodological issues, 21, 22, 112, 114, 115-116, 189, 197-198, 202, 206 115-116, 124, 125, 186, 189, 197- measurement error, 116-117, 121 198, 202, 206 predictive values, 120 standardization, 21-22, 185-186, recommendations, 24-25, 214-215 189-190 reporting results, 21, 22, 112, 114, 115- Research 116, 124, 125, 186, 189, 197-198, accreditation requirement, 261-262 202, 206

OCR for page 315
 INDEX self-correcting nature of science, 125 for education and training, 201, 224, sensitivity, 119, 120 225-226, 237 specificity, 119-120 FBI, 114-115, 131-132 uncertainty and error, 9, 21-22, 47, 116- funding for development, 73 122, 184-185 harmonization of, 16, 78 validation of new methods, 22, 52, 77- ISO/IEC 17025, 21, 22, 114, 115-116, 78, 113-116, 118-119, 121, 187-188, 189, 197-198, 202, 206 190 lack of, 6, 14 within-individual variability, 118, 184 NIST, 201-202 Scientific Working Group for policy and procedure development, for Analysis of Seized Drugs, 134, 135- 201-202 136, 203-204 purpose, 201 on Bloodstain Pattern Analysis sanctions for noncompliance, 205 (SWGBPA), 178, 202 working groups, 79; see also Scientific on Crime Scene Investigation, 57 Working Group of DNA Analysis (SWGDAM), 202 Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine, for Firearms and Toolmarks 264 (SWGGUN), 202, 204 on Forensic Analysis of Chemical T Terrorism (SWGFACT), 202 on Forensic Analysis of Radiological Technical Working Group Materials (SWGFARM), 203 for Analysis of Seized Drugs for Forensic Document Exmination (TWGDRUG), 203 (SWGDOC), 202 on Crime Scene Investigation (TWGCSI), on Friction Ridge Analysis, Study and 57 Technology (SWGFAST), 136-137, for Education and Training in Forensic 141, 203, 205 Science (TWGED), 209, 225 on Materials Analysis (SWGMAT), 157, for Fire and Explosives (TWGFEX), 162-163, 169, 202, 24-205 171, 172 on Microbial Genetics and Forensics on Friction Ridge Analysis (TWGFAST), (SWGMGF), 203 205 scoring system for reporting results, 21, Technology transfer, 70, 76 186 Toolmark and firearm identification, 3, 38, on Shoeprint and Tire Tread Evidence 136, 188. See also Ballistic evidence, (SWGTREAD), 148-149, 150, 203 44 Semen, 73, 74, 128, 129, 130, 131 accreditation in, 68 Sexual assaults, 9, 61, 86, 131, 173 admissibility of evidence, 97, 107-108 Shoeprint. See Footwear and tire analyses, 37, 38, 42, 145, 152 impressions certification programs, 210 Standard Ammunition File, 67 class characteristics, 152 Standardization databases and reference libraries, 67, of educational materials, 189 151, 152, 153 reporting of results, 22, 189-190 error rates, 154 Standards and guidelines. See also generation of marks, 150-151 indiidual disciplines guidelines, 153, 155, 202, 204 for admissibility of evidence, 9-10, 12, individual characteristics, 150, 152 86, 88-89, 90, 91, 93-94, 95, 109, laboratories for, 60, 65, 68 111, 194 personnel and equipment shortages, 59 ASTM, 201 research needs, 154 data reporting, 21, 189 sample data and collection, 151-152

OCR for page 315
 INDEX scientific interpretation, 7, 42, 43, 153- u 154, 155 U.S. Army. See Army scientific validity and reliability, 107- U.S. Secret Service 108, 154 forensic laboratory, 66, 68 subclass characteristics, 152 USS Cole bombing, 280 summary assessment, 154-155 training and skills, 153, 232 uncertainty and bias, 184 V units, 64 Toxicology services, 59, 72, 73, 254-255 Voice identification, 47 Trace evidence. See also Fiber evidence; Hair evidence; Paint and coatings evidence, 60, 65 W certification, 210 guidelines, 201 West Virginia State Police laboratory, 44 laboratories, 65, 68 Western Identification Network, 270-271 organic chemical analysis, 73 World Trade Center attacks, 131, 260, 279 personnel and equipment shortages, 59 research, 73 Trans World Airlines Flight 800, 279-280