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used directly either to continue or expand joint U.S.-Russian cooperation. The primary focus, once again, was the nuclear security environment, but with recognition that the results of the discussion may apply to other aspects of the relationship. The workshop has pursued these goals by reflecting on U.S.-Russian experiences with the Cooperative Threat Reduction339 programs and considering how best to use the lessons learned, both positive and negative, to facilitate joint cooperation in the future. The workshop has not focused on the long-term future, but rather on the period to 2015, when major milestones will have been reached in nuclear non-proliferation cooperation—for example, the conclusion of the current U.S.-Russian cooperation on nuclear material protection, control, and accounting.340

This workshop was not designed or intended to produce consensus recommendations for future joint work involving U.S. and Russian specialists. However, workshop participants, Russians and Americans, have shown a significant amount of agreement on many issues discussed during the workshop, including specific approaches and activities that the United States and Russia could jointly undertake in the coming years. Several of these approaches and activities are mentioned here, although the co-chairs cannot do justice to the wealth of sound ideas that have been developed in the workshop presentations and discussions.

TRENDS

In our view, the major trend discussed was the transition begun by Russia and the United States from assistance, prevalent in the 1990s, to partnership. A partnership relationship implies that the two countries are willing to share in establishing priorities for cooperation, managing projects, and paying costs. However, the process of moving to such a partnership relationship has not been fully accomplished. One Russian participant commented that actual partnership activities have thus far been malovato (slight).

Threat analyses can differ in Moscow and Washington, which makes it difficult at times to agree on tactics and timing in pursuing joint policies. Such differences have been evident, for example, in the approaches that the two countries have taken regarding Iran and its nuclear program. Moreover, political tensions between Washington and Moscow have been high recently, and this trend is likely to continue in certain aspects of the relationship, complicating efforts to cooperate.

Nevertheless, many workshop participants appear to agree that U.S. and Russian interests do converge in key areas, particularly in tackling the threats of terrorism and nuclear proliferation. These two threats have provided a significant underpinning for U.S. and Russian

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Cooperative Threat Reduction (CTR) programs are frequently defined as those programs residing in the Department of Defense under the so-called Nunn-Lugar “Umbrella Agreement.” In this project, however, they were defined more widely to include the cooperative nonproliferation programs organized and implemented by the U.S. Department of Energy. For further information regarding the CTR Umbrella Agreement, see Richard Lugar, “Trust Needs Verification,” The Washington Times, July 18, 2008, found at http://www.washingtontimes.com/news/2008/jul/18/trust-still-needs-verification/.

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The Bob Stump National Defense Authorization Act of 2003 mandates that a sustainable materials protection, control, and accounting system be transferred to sole Russian Federation support no later than January 1, 2013. For further information regarding the Bob Stump Act, see http://www.army.mil/armybtkc/docs/PL%20107-314.pdf; accessed May 1, 2008.



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