However, general principles and approaches used during SMP development are of a universal nature and can be adopted to solve other similar problems.
The Cold War has left some nuclear facilities located in the Russian northwest in the grip of numerous environmental problems. The extent of the threat caused by these problems has created the necessity for international collaboration and multilateral financing. The European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) responded by establishing a fund to support the Northern Dimension Environmental Partnership (NDEP). One of the priorities of the ‘nuclear window’ of NDEP is to develop a controllable set of measures to efficiently reduce nuclear and radiation hazards presented by decommissioned nuclear-powered submarines, surface ships with nuclear propulsion, and their support infrastructure facilities located in the Russian northwest.
In partnership with Rosatom, the EBRD and its donor nations decided to develop a Strategic Master Plan in order to implement a comprehensive strategy to resolving the following problems:
complex decommissioning of nuclear submarines and other floating sources of nuclear and radiation hazards
rehabilitation, in a manner safe for people and the environment, of on-shore hazardous nuclear and radiological facilities
strengthening physical protection of nuclear materials
Unlike previously developed plans, the SMP viewed all facilities as a single interconnected entity or system. This ensured a coordinated approach to common problems and made it possible to avoid any unnecessary duplication. The SMP offers both a comprehensive strategy and individual, facility-specific strategies that will be conducive to achieving certain end-states in decommissioning and rehabilitation activities in the Russian northwest. The SMP, and the Complex Decommissioning Program (CDP) it contains, will serve as the basic guiding document for project implementation in order to reach these end states. The SMP should not, however, be viewed as a program for direct action. Rather, it is a framework program, doctrinal in nature and set up to facilitate and guide Rosatom in its development of short- and medium-term action plans. With this in mind, it is assumed that the SMP (CDP) will be a ‘living and breathing’ document that will evolve as additional research takes place and more detailed information becomes available. This will make future avenues of strategic development more informed.
Development of the SMP was split into two stages. The first stage (preparation) [SMP-1] was completed in December 2004. Three leading research organizations participated in the development effort: the Nuclear Safety Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IBRAE), the Russian Research Center Kurchatov Institute, and the N.A. Dollezhal Research and Development Institute for Power Engineering. This effort provided the necessary inputs and