A few medical school policies reviewed by the committee mention speakers bureaus by name. For example, the University of Massachusetts views speakers bureaus as an “extension of the marketing process” and forbids faculty participation in them. The Mayo Clinic has long prohibited faculty from speaking on behalf of industry, and its current policy prohibits participation in the speakers bureaus of commercial firms because the linkage would imply endorsement by the Mayo Clinic (personal communication, Marianne Hockema, Administrator, Office of Conflict of Interest Review, Mayo Clinic, September 19, 2008). Faculty at the University of Louisville (2008) are “strongly discouraged” from serving as speakers hired by vendors (p. 4). A policy recently adopted by the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine (2009) states that faculty may not participate on-site or off-site in “activities with any of the following characteristics … a company has the contractual right to dictate what the faculty member says; a company (not the faculty member) creates the slide set (or other presentation materials) and has the final approval of all content and edits; the faculty member receives compensation from the company and acts as the company’s employee or spokesperson for the purposes of dissemination of company-generated presentation materials or promotion of company products; and/or a company controls the publicity related to the event” (p. 7). The policy notes that some of these activities occur in the context of speakers bureaus but it is the conditions of an activity that determine whether it is permissible.

In addition, a few medical schools (e.g., the University of California at San Francisco, the University of Louisville, and the University of Colorado) forbid ghostwriting (using that term). A few other medical schools (e.g., Stanford University, the University of Missouri, Emory University, and the University of Rochester) cover the practice of ghostwriting by forbidding medical school personnel from publishing, under their own name, articles that are written entirely or in significant part by an industry employee.

The ACCME standards for commercial support require that presenters disclose relevant financial relationships. They provide no explicit guidance or reference to the appropriateness of commercial assistance in the preparation of talks.

The 2008 PhRMA Code on Interactions with Healthcare Professionals notes that companies and speakers should understand the difference between (accredited) continuing medical education and company-sponsored speaker programs (PhRMA, 2008). For the latter, “[s]peaker training is an essential activity because the FDA holds companies accountable for the presentations of their speakers” (p. 9). This is a reference to FDA’s ban on company promotion of the use of a medication for the treatment of conditions that have not been approved by the agency (FDA, 1997). The



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