conflict of interest in the research is essential (Recommendation 4.1). To the extent that physicians embrace Recommendation 6.1 to reject gifts and similar ties, it would reduce dissonance when students, trainees, and faculty interact with others in the medical community at professional society meetings and in other contexts. Further steps by companies to reform their policies and practices on gifts and payments to physicians (Recommendation 6.2) would allow medical centers to focus more attention on other issues, for example, consulting and other contractual arrangements. Finally, academic institutions can play an important role in implementing a program of research on conflict of interest (Recommendation 9.2).

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