noncomplying companies and should also reduce any competitive disadvantage to those companies that do comply. The committee would, however, like to see the provisions on gifts extended, consistent with Recommendation 6.1. The adoption of Recommendation 3.4 (which proposes that the U.S. Congress establish a program that requires companies to report their payments to physicians, researchers, and institutions) should allow monitoring of some company practices.

If the levels of adherence to the policies and practices recommended here are low, governments may enact legislation to limit physician ties to companies, as the state of Massachusetts has. In general, committee members believed that voluntary limits should be given an opportunity to work and that legislation and regulation should be held as options if they do not. The reasoning was that this approach is more likely to reinforce professional values and allow more nuanced policies and standards that take into account the possibility of unintended consequences and that create fewer administrative burdens to be developed.

Other Recommendations in This Report

Other chapters of this report also offer some recommendations that could affect community physicians. To the extent they are involved in multiple activities that require the disclosure of financial interests (Recommendation 3.3), community physicians might face more specific disclosure requests but also more consistency in requests. If federal legislation requires pharmaceutical, device, and biotechnology companies to publicly report payments to physicians (Recommendation 3.4), some community physicians might choose to forgo certain relationships with industry that they find difficult to explain and justify. Community physicians who teach medical students or residents off-site would be affected by reforms in the policies of medical schools and teaching hospitals (Recommendation 5.1). A new system of funding continuing medical education (Recommendation 5.3) could lead to higher fees for attendees and reductions in the numbers, variety, and locations of course offerings. In addition, physicians who participate in professional society or other clinical practice guideline development activities might be limited in their involvement if they had conflicts of interest, especially conflicts involving promotional activities (Recommendation 7.1).



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