Appendix E
Bibliography

Acs, Z., and D. Audretsch. 1988. “Innovation in Large and Small Firms: An Empirical Analysis.” The American Economic Review 78(4):678-690.

Acs, Z., and D. Audretsch. 1990. Innovation and Small Firms. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Advanced Technology Program. 2001. Performance of 50 Completed ATP Projects, Status Report 2. National Institute of Standards and Technology Special Publication 950-2. Washington, DC: Advanced Technology Program/National Institute of Standards and Technology/U.S. Department of Commerce.

Alic, John A., Lewis Branscomb, Harvey Brooks, Ashton B. Carter, and Gerald L. Epstein. 1992. Beyond Spinoff: Military and Commercial Technologies in a Changing World. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press. American Association for the Advancement of Science. “R&D Funding Update on NSF in the FY2007.” Available online at <http://www.aaas.org/spp/rd/nsf07hf1.pdf>.

American Psychological Association. 2002. “Criteria for Evaluating Treatment Guidelines.” American Psychologist 57(12):1052-1059.

Archibald, R., and D. Finifter. 2000. “Evaluation of the Department of Defense Small Business Innovation Research Program and the Fast Track Initiative: A Balanced Approach.” In National Research Council. The Small Business Innovation Research Program: An Assessment of the Department of Defense Fast Track Initiative. Charles W. Wessner, ed. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

Archibald, Robert, and David Finifter. 2003. “Evaluating the NASA Small Business Innovation Research Program: Preliminary Evidence of a Tradeoff Between Commercialization and Basic Research.” Research Policy 32:605-619.



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Appendix E Bibliography Acs, Z., and D. Audretsch. 1988. “Innovation in Large and Small Firms: An Empirical Analysis.” The American Economic Review 78(4):678-690. Acs, Z., and D. Audretsch. 1990. Innovation and Small Firms. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Advanced Technology Program. 2001. Performance of 50 Completed ATP Pro- jects, Status Report 2. National Institute of Standards and Technology Spe- cial Publication 950-2. Washington, DC: Advanced Technology Pro- gram/National Institute of Standards and Technology/U.S. Department of Commerce. Alic, John A., Lewis Branscomb, Harvey Brooks, Ashton B. Carter, and Gerald L. Epstein. 1992. Beyond Spinoff: Military and Commercial Technologies in a Changing World. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press. American Association for the Advancement of Science. “R&D Funding Update on NSF in the FY2007.” Available online at . American Psychological Association. 2002. “Criteria for Evaluating Treatment Guidelines.” American Psychologist 57(12):1052-1059. Archibald, R., and D. Finifter. 2000. “Evaluation of the Department of Defense Small Business Innovation Research Program and the Fast Track Initiative: A Balanced Approach.” In National Research Council. The Small Business Innovation Research Program: An Assessment of the Department of De- fense Fast Track Initiative. Charles W. Wessner, ed. Washington, DC: Na- tional Academy Press. Archibald, Robert, and David Finifter. 2003. “Evaluating the NASA Small Busi- ness Innovation Research Program: Preliminary Evidence of a Tradeoff Be- tween Commercialization and Basic Research.” Research Policy 32:605- 619. 177

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APPENDIX E 178 Arrow, Kenneth. 1962. “Economic welfare and the allocation of resources for invention.” Pp. 609-625 in The Rate and Direction of Inventive Activity: Economic and Social Factors. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. Arrow, Kenneth. 1973. “The theory of discrimination.” Pp. 3-31 in Discrimina- tion in Labor Market. Orley Ashenfelter and Albert Rees, eds. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. Audretsch, David B. 1995. Innovation and Industry Evolution. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Audretsch, David B., and Maryann P. Feldman. 1996. “R&D spillovers and the geography of innovation and production.” American Economic Review 86(3):630-640. Audretsch, David B., and Paula E. Stephan. 1996. “Company-scientist locational links: The case of biotechnology.” American Economic Review 86(3):641- 642. Audretsch, D., J. Weigand, and C. Weigand. 2000. “Does the Small Business Innovation Research Program Foster Entrepreneurial Behavior.” In National Research Council. The Small Business Innovation Research Program: An Assessment of the Department of Defense Fast Track Initiative. Charles W. Wessner, ed. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. Audretsch, D., and R. Thurik. 1999. Innovation, Industry Evolution, and Em- ployment. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Baker, Alan. No date. “Commercialization Support at NSF.” Draft. Barfield, C., and W. Schambra, eds. 1986. The Politics of Industrial Policy. Washington, DC: American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research. Baron, Jonathan. 1998. “DoD SBIR/STTR Program Manager.” Comments at the Methodology Workshop on the Assessment of Current SBIR Program Ini- tiatives, Washington, DC, October. Barry, C. B. 1994. “New directions in research on venture capital finance.” Fi- nancial Management 23 (Autumn):3-15. Bator, Francis. 1958. “The anatomy of market failure.” Quarterly Journal of Economics 72: 351-379. Biemer, P. P., and L. E. Lyberg. 2003. Introduction to Survey Quality. New York: John Wiley & Sons. Bingham, R. 1998. Industrial Policy American Style: From Hamilton to HDTV. New York: M.E. Sharpe. Birch, D. 1981. “Who Creates Jobs.” The Public Interest 65 (Fall):3-14. Branscomb, Lewis M., Kennth P. Morse, Michael J. Roberts, and Darin Boville. 2000. Managing Technical Risk: Understanding Private Sector Decision - Making on Early Stage Technology Based Projects. Washington, DC: De- partment of Commerce/National Institute of Standards and Technology. Branscomb, Lewis M., and Philip E. Auerswald. 2001. Taking Technical Risks: How Innovators, -Managers, and Investors Manage Risk in High-Tech In- novations, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

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APPENDIX E 179 Branscomb, L. M., and P. E. Auerswald. 2002. Between Invention and Innova- tion: An Analysis of Funding for Early-Stage Technology Development. Gaithersburg, MD: National Institute of Standards and Technology. Branscomb, L. M., and P. E. Auerswald. 2003. “Valleys of Death and Darwinian Seas: Financing the Invention to Innovation Transition in the United States.” The Journal of Technology Transfer 28(3-4). Branscomb, Lewis M., and J. Keller. 1998. Investing in Innovation: Creating a Research and Innovation Policy. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Brav, A., and P. A. Gompers. 1997. “Myth or reality?: Long-run underperfor- mance of initial public offerings; Evidence from venture capital and non- venture capital-backed IPOs.” Journal of Finance 52:1791-1821. Brodd, R. J. 2005. Factors Affecting U.S. Production Decisions: Why Are There No Volume Lithium-Ion Battery Manufacturers in the United States? ATP Working Paper No. 05-01, June 2005. Brown, G., and Turner J. 1999. “Reworking the Federal Role in Small Business Research.” Issues in Science and Technology XV, no. 4 (Summer). Bush, Vannevar. 1946. Science—the Endless Frontier. Republished in 1960 by U.S. National Science Foundation, Washington, DC. Cahill, Peter. 2000. “Fast Track: Is it Speeding Commercialization of Depart- ment of Defense Small Business Innovation Research Projects?” In Na- tional Research Council, The Small Business Innovation Research Pro- gram: An Assessment of the Department of Defense Fast Track Initiative. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. Carden, S. D., and O. Darragh. 2004. “A Halo for Angel Investors.” The McKinsey Quarterly 1. Cassell, G. 2004. “Setting Realistic Expectations for Success.” In National Re- search Council. SBIR: Program Diversity and Assessment Challenges. Charles W. Wessner, ed. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. Caves, Richard E. 1998. “Industrial organization and new findings on the turn- over and mobility of firms.” Journal of Economic Literature 36(4):1947- 1982. Christensen, C. 1997. The Innovator’s Dilemma. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press. Christensen, C. and M. Raynor. 2003. Innovator’s Solution, Boston, MA: Har- vard Business School. Clinton, William Jefferson. 1994. Economic Report of the President. Washing- ton, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. Clinton, William Jefferson. 1994. The State of Small Business. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. Coburn, C., and D. Bergland. 1995. Partnerships: A Compendium of State and Federal Cooperative Technology Programs. Columbus, OH: Battelle. Cochrane, J. H. 2005. “The Risk and Return of Venture Capital.” Journal of Financial Economics 75(1):3-52. Cohen, L. R., and R. G. Noll. 1991. The Technology Pork Barrel. Washington, DC: The Brookings Institution.

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APPENDIX E 180 Congressional Commission on the Advancement of Women and Minorities in Science, Engineering, and Technology Development. 2000. Land of Plenty: Diversity as America’s Competitive Edge in Science, Engineering and Technology. Washington, DC: National Science Foundation/U.S. Govern- ment Printing Office. Cooper, R. G. 2001. Winning at New Products: Accelerating the process from idea to launch. In Dawnbreaker, Inc. 2005. “The Phase III Challenge: Commercialization Assistance Programs 1990-2005.” White paper. July 15. Council of Economic Advisers. 1995. Supporting Research and Development to Promote Economic Growth: The Federal Government’s Role. Washington, DC. Council on Competitiveness. 2005. Innovate America: Thriving in a World of Challenge and Change. Washington, DC: Council on Competitiveness. Cramer, Reid. 2000. “Patterns of Firm Participation in the Small Business Inno- vation Research Program in Southwestern and Mountain States.” In Na- tional Research Council. 2000. The Small Business Innovation Research Program: An Assessment of the Department of Defense Fast Track Initia- tive. Charles W. Wessner, ed. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. Crane, G., and J. Sohl. 2004. “Imperatives for Venture Success: Entrepreneurs Speak.” The International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Innovation May. Pp. 99-106. Cutler, D. 2005. Your Money or Your Life. New York: Oxford University Press. Cycyota, Cynthia S., and David A. Harrison. 2006. “What (Not) to Expect When Surveying Executives: A Meta-Analysis of Top Manager Response.” Or- ganizational Research Methods 9:133-160. David, P. A., B. H. Hall, and A. A. Tool. 1999. “Is Public R&D a Complement or Substitute for Private R&D? A Review of the Econometric Evidence.” NBER Working Paper 7373. October. Davidsson, P. 1996. “Methodological Concerns in the Estimation of Job Crea- tion in Different Firm Size Classes.” Working Paper. Jönköping Interna- tional Business School. Davis, S. J., J. Haltiwanger, and S. Schuh. 1994. “Small Business and Job Crea- tion: Dissecting the Myth and Reassessing the Facts,” Business Economics 29(3):113-122. Dawnbreaker, Inc. 2005. “The Phase III Challenge: Commercialization Assis- tance Programs 1990-2005.” White paper. July 15. Dertouzos, M. L. 1989. Made in America: The MIT Commission on Industrial Productivity. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Dess, G. G., and D. W. Beard. 1984. “Dimensions of Organizational Task Envi- ronments.” Administrative Science Quarterly 29:52-73. Devenow, A., and I. Welch. 1996. “Rational Herding in Financial Economics. European Economic Review 40(April):603-615. Dillman, D. 2000. Mail and Internet Surveys: The Tailored Design Method. 2nd Edition. Toronto, Ontario: John Wiley and Sons, Inc.

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APPENDIX E 181 DoE Opportunity Forum. 2005. “Partnering and Investment Opportunities for the Future.” Tysons Corner, VA. October 24-25. Ernst and Young. 2007. “U.S. Venture Capital Investment Increases to 8 percent to $6.96 Billion in First Quarter of 2007.” April 23. Eckstein, Otto. 1984. DRI Report on U.S. Manufacturing Industries. New York: McGraw Hill. Eisinger, P. K. 1988. The Rise of the Entrepreneurial State: State and Local Economic Development Policy in the United State. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press. Evenson, R., P. Waggoner, and P. Ruttan. 1979. “Economic Benefits from Re- search: An Example from Agriculture,” Science, 205(14 September):1101- 1107. Feldman, Maryann P. 1994. The Geography of Knowledge. Boston, MA: Klu- wer Academic. Feldman, Maryann P. 1994. “Knowledge complementarity and innovation.” Small Business Economics 6(5):363-372. Feldman, M. P. 2000. “Role of the Department of Defense in Building Biotech Expertise.” In National Research Council. The Small Business Innovation Research Program: An Assessment of the Department of Defense Fast Track Initiative. Charles W. Wessner, ed. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. Feldman, M. P. 2001. “Assessing the ATP: Halo Effects and Added Value.” In National Research Council, The Advanced Technology Program: Assessing Outcomes. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. Feldman, M. P., and M. R. Kelley. 2001. “Leveraging Research and Develop- ment: The Impact of the Advanced Technology Program.” In National Re- search Council. The Advanced Technology Program. Charles W. Wessner, ed. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. Feldman, M. P., and M. R. Kelley. 2001. Winning an Award from the Advanced Technology Program: Pursuing R&D Strategies in the Public Interest and Benefiting from a Halo Effect. NISTIR 6577. Washington, DC: Advanced Technology Program/National Institute of Standards and Technology/U.S. Department of Commerce. Fenn, G. W., N. Liang, and S. Prowse. 1995. The Economics of the Private Eq- uity Market. Washington, DC: Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. Financial Times. 2004. “Qinetiq set to make its first US acquisition,” September 8. Flamm, K. 1988. Creating the Computer. Washington, DC: The Brookings In- stitution. Flender, J. O., and R. S. Morse. 1975. The Role of New Technical Enterprise in the U.S. Economy. Cambridge, MA: MIT Development Foundation. Freear, J., and W. E. Wetzel Jr. 1990. “Who bankrolls high-tech entrepreneurs?” Journal of Business Venturing 5:77-89.

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APPENDIX E 182 Freeman, Chris, and Luc Soete. 1997. The Economics of Industrial Innovation. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Galbraith, J. K. 1957. The New Industrial State. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. Geroski, Paul A. 1995. “What do we know about entry?” International Journal of Industrial Organization 13(4):421-440. Geshwiler, J., J. May, and M. Hudson. 2006. “State of Angel Groups.” Kansas City, MO: Kauffman Foundation. Gompers, P. A., and J. Lerner. 1977. “Risk and Reward in Private Equity In- vestments: The Challenge of Performance Assessment.” Journal of Private Equity 1:5-12. Gompers, P. A. 1995. “Optimal investment, monitoring, and the staging of ven- ture capital.” Journal of Finance 50:1461-1489. Gompers, P. A., and J. Lerner. 1996. “The use of covenants: An empirical analysis of venture partnership agreements.” Journal of Law and Economics 39:463-498. Gompers, P. A., and J. Lerner. 1998. “Capital formation and investment in ven- ture markets: A report to the NBER and the Advanced Technology Pro- gram.” Unpublished working paper. Harvard University. Gompers, P. A., and J. Lerner. 1998. “What drives venture capital fund- raising?” Unpublished working paper. Harvard University. Gompers, P. A., and J. Lerner. 1999. “An analysis of compensation in the U.S. venture capital partnership.” Journal of Financial Economics 51(1):3-7. Gompers, P. A., and J. Lerner. 1999. The Venture Cycle. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Good, M. L. 1995. Prepared testimony before the Senate Commerce, Science, and Transportation Committee, Subcommittee on Science, Technology, and Space (photocopy, U.S. Department of Commerce). Goodnight, J. 2003. Presentation at National Research Council Symposium. “The Small Business Innovation Research Program: Identifying Best Prac- tice.” Washington, DC May 28. Graham, O. L. 1992. Losing Time: The Industrial Policy Debate. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Greenwald, B. C., J. E. Stiglitz, and A. Weiss. 1984. “Information imperfections in the capital market and macroeconomic fluctuations.” American Economic Review Papers and Proceedings 74:194-199. Griliches, Z. 1990. The Search for R&D Spillovers. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Groves, R. M., D. A. Dillman, J. L. Eltinge, and R. J. A. Little, eds. 2002. Sur- vey Nonresponse. New York: Wiley. 2002. Groves, R. M., F. J. Fowler, Jr., M. P. Couper, J. M. Lepkowski, E. Singer, and R. Tourangeau. 2004. Survey Methodology. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Hall, Bronwyn H. 1992. “Investment and research and development: Does the source of financing matter?” Working Paper No. 92-194, Department of Economics/University of California at Berkeley.

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APPENDIX E 183 Hall, Bronwyn H. 1993. “Industrial research during the 1980s: Did the rate of return fall?” Brookings Papers: Microeconomics 2:289-343. Haltiwanger, J., and C. J. Krizan. 1999. “Small Businesses and Job Creation in the United States: The Role of New and Young Businesses” in Are Small Firms Important? Their Role and Impact, Zoltan J. Acs, ed., Dordrecht: Kluwer. Hamberg, Dan. 1963. “Invention in the industrial research laboratory.” Journal of Political Economy (April):95-115. Hao, K. Y., and A. B. Jaffe. 1993. “Effect of liquidity on firms’ R&D spend- ing.” Economics of Innovation and New Technology 2:275-282. Hebert, Robert F., and Albert N. Link. 1989. “In search of the meaning of entre- preneurship.” Small Business Economics 1(1):39-49. Heilman, C. 2005. “Partnering for Vaccines: The NIAID Perspective” in Charles W. Wessner, ed. Partnering Against Terrorism: Summary of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. Held, B., T. Edison, S. L. Pfleeger, P. Anton, and J. Clancy. 2006. Evaluation and Recommendations for Improvement of the Department of Defense Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program. Arlington, VA: RAND Na- tional Defense Research Institute. Holland, C. 2007. “Meeting Mission Needs.” In National Research Council. SBIR and the Phase III Challenge of Commercialization. Charles W. Wess- ner, ed. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. Himmelberg, C. P., and B. C. Petersen. 1994. “R&D and internal finance: A panel study of small firms in high-tech industries.” Review of Economics and Statistics 76:38-51. Hubbard, R. G. 1998. “Capital-market imperfections and investment.” Journal of Economic Literature 36:193-225. Huntsman, B., and J. P. Hoban Jr. 1980. “Investment in new enterprise: Some empirical observations on risk, return, and market structure.” Financial Management 9 (Summer):44-51. Institute of Medicine. 1998. “The Urgent Need to Improve Health Care Qual- ity.” National Roundtable on Health Care Quality. Journal of the American Medical Association 280(11):1003, September 16. Jacobs, T. 2002. “Biotech Follows Dot.com Boom and Bust.” Nature 20(10):973. Jaffe, A. B. 1996. “Economic Analysis of Research Spillovers: Implications for the Advanced Technology Program.” Washington, DC: Advanced Technol- ogy Program/National Institute of Standards and Technology/U.S. Depart- ment of Commerce). Jaffe, A. B. 1998. “Economic Analysis of Research Spillovers: Implications for the Advanced Technology Program.” Washington, DC: Advanced Technol- ogy Program/National Institute of Standards and Technology/U.S. Depart- ment of Commerce.

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APPENDIX E 184 Jaffe, A. B. 1998. “The importance of ‘spillovers’ in the policy mission of the Advanced Technology Program.” Journal of Technology Transfer (Sum- mer). Jewkes, J., D. Sawers, and R. Stillerman. 1958. The Sources of Invention. New York: St. Martin’s Press. Jarboe, K. P., and R. D. Atkinson. 1998. “The Case for Technology in the Knowledge Economy: R&D, Economic Growth and the Role of Govern- ment.” Washington, DC: Progressive Policy Institute. Available online at . Johnson, M. 2004. “SBIR at the Department of Energy: Achievements, Oppor- tunities, and Challenges.” In National Research Council. SBIR: Program Diversity and Assessment Challenges. Charles W. Wessner, ed. Washing- ton, DC: The National Academies Press. Johnson, T., and L. Owens. 2003. “Survey Response Rate Reporting in the Pro- fessional Literature.” Paper presented at the 58th Annual Meeting of the American Association for Public Opinion Research. Nashville, TN. May. Kaplowitz, Michael D., Timothy D. Hadlock, and Ralph Levine. 2004. “A Comparison of Web and Mail Survey Response Rates.” Public Opinion Quarterly 68(1):94-101. Kauffman Foundation. About the Foundation. Available online at . Kleinman, D. L. 1995. Politics on the Endless Frontier: Postwar Research Pol- icy in the United States. Durham, NC: Duke University Press. Kortum, Samuel, and Josh Lerner. 1998. “Does Venture Capital Spur Innova- tion?” NBER Working Paper No. 6846, National Bureau of Economic Re- search. Krugman, P. 1990. Rethinking International Trade. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Krugman, P. 1991. Geography and Trade. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Langlois, Richard N., and Paul L. Robertson. 1996. “Stop Crying over Spilt Knowledge: A Critical Look at the Theory of Spillovers and Technical Change.” Paper prepared for the MERIT Conference on Innovation, Evolu- tion, and Technology. Maastricht, Netherlands, August 25-27. Langlois, R. N. 2001. “Knowledge, Consumption, and Endogenous Growth.” Journal of Evolutionary Economics 11:77-93. Lebow, I. 1995. Information Highways and Byways: From the Telegraph to the 21st Century. New York: Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineering. Lerner, J. 1994. “The syndication of venture capital investments.” Financial Management 23 -(Autumn):16-27. Lerner, J. 1995. “Venture capital and the oversight of private firms.” Journal of Finance 50: 301-318. Lerner, J. 1996. “The government as venture capitalist: The long-run effects of the SBIR program.” Working Paper No. 5753, National Bureau of Eco- nomic Research.

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APPENDIX E 185 Lerner, J. 1998. “Angel financing and public policy: An overview.” Journal of Banking and Finance 22(6-8):773-784. Lerner, J. 1999. “The government as venture capitalist: The long-run effects of the SBIR program.” Journal of Business 72(3):285-297. Lerner, J. 1999. “Public venture capital: Rationales and evaluation.” In The SBIR Program: Challenges and Opportunities. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. Levy, D. M., and N. Terleckyk. 1983. “Effects of government R&D on private R&D investment and productivity: A macroeconomic analysis.” Bell Jour- nal of Economics 14:551-561. Liles, P. 1977. Sustaining the Venture Capital Firm. Cambridge, MA: Management Analysis Center. Link, Albert N. 1998. “Public/Private Partnerships as a Tool to Support Indus- trial R&D: Experiences in the United States.” Paper prepared for the work- ing group on Innovation and Technology Policy of the OECD Committee for Science and Technology Policy, Paris. Link, Albert N., and John Rees. 1990. “Firm size, university based research and the returns to R&D.” Small Business Economics 2(1):25-32. Link, Albert N., and John T. Scott. 1998. “Assessing the infrastructural needs of a technology-based service sector: A new approach to technology policy planning.” STI Review 22:171-207. Link, Albert N., and John T. Scott. 1998. Overcoming Market Failure: A Case Study of the ATP Focused Program on Technologies for the Integration of Manufacturing Applications (TIMA). Draft final report submitted to the Ad- vanced Technology Program. Gaithersburg, MD: National Institute of Technology. October. Link, Albert N., and John T. Scott. 1998. Public Accountability: Evaluating Technology-Based Institutions. Norwell, MA: Kluwer Academic. Link, Albert N., and John T. Scott. 2005. Evaluating Public Research Institu- tions: The U.S. Advanced Technology Program’s Intramural Research Ini- tiative. London: Routledge. Longini, P. 2003. “Hot buttons for NSF SBIR Research Funds,” Pittsburgh Technology Council, TechyVent. November 27. Malone, T. 1995. The Microprocessor: A Biography. Hamburg, Germany: Springer Verlag/Telos. Mankins, John C. 1995. Technology Readiness Levels: A White Paper. Wash- ington, DC: NASA Office of Space Access and Technology, Advanced Concepts Office. Mansfield, E. 1985. “How Fast Does New Industrial Technology Leak Out?” Journal of Industrial Economics 34(2). Mansfield, E. 1996. Estimating Social and Private Returns from Innovations Based on the Advanced Technology Program: Problems and Opportunities. Unpublished report.

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APPENDIX E 186 Mansfield, E., J. Rapoport, A. Romeo, S. Wagner, and G. Beardsley. 1977. “So- cial and private rates of return from industrial innovations.” Quarterly Journal of Economics 91:221-240. Martin, Justin. 2002. “David Birch.” Fortune Small Business (December 1). McCraw, T. 1986. “Mercantilism and the Market: Antecedents of American Industrial Policy.” In C. Barfield and W. Schambra, eds. The Politics of In- dustrial Policy. Washington, DC: American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research. Mervis, Jeffrey D. 1996. “A $1 Billion ‘Tax’ on R&D Funds.” Science 272:942−944. Moore, D. 2004. “Turning Failure into Success.” In National Research Council. The Small Business Innovation Research Program: Program Diversity and Assessment Challenges. Charles W. Wessner, ed. Washington, DC: The Na- tional Academies Press. Morgenthaler, D. 2000. “Assessing Technical Risk,” in L. M. Branscomb, K. P. Morse, and M. J. Roberts, eds. Managing Technical Risk: Understanding Private Sector Decision Making on Early Stage Technology-Based Project. Gaithersburg, MD: National Institute of Standards and Technology. Mowery, D. 1998. “Collaborative R&D: how effective is it?” Issues in Science and Technology (Fall):37-44. Mowery, D., ed. 1999. U.S. Industry in 2000: Studies in Competitive Perform- ance. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. Mowery, D., and N. Rosenberg. 1989. Technology and the Pursuit of Economic Growth. New York: Cambridge University Press. Mowery, D., and N. Rosenberg. 1998. Paths of Innovation: Technological Change in 20th Century America. New York: Cambridge University Press. Murphy, L. M., and P. L. Edwards. 2003. Bridging the Valley of Death— Transitioning from Public to Private Sector Financing. Golden, CO: Na- tional Renewable Energy Laboratory. May. Myers, S., R. L. Stern, and M. L. Rorke. 1983. A Study of the Small Business Innovation Research Program. Lake Forest, IL: Mohawk Research Corpo- ration. Myers, S. C., and N. Majluf. 1984. “Corporate financing and investment deci- sions when firms have information that investors do not have.” Journal of Financial Economics 13:187-221. National Aeronautics and Space Administration. 2002. “Small Business/SBIR: NICMOS Cryocooler—Reactivating a Hubble Instrument.” Aerospace Technology Innovation 10(4):19-21. National Aeronautics and Space Administration. 2005. “The NASA SBIR and STTR Programs Participation Guide.” Available online at National Institutes of Health. 2003. Road Map for Medical Research. Available online at . National Institutes of Health. 2005. Report on the Second of the 2005 Measures Updates: NIH SBIR Performance Outcomes Data System (PODS).

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APPENDIX E 187 National Research Council. 1986. The Positive Sum Strategy: Harnessing Tech- nology for Economic Growth. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. National Research Council. 1987. Semiconductor Industry and the National Laboratories: Part of a National Strategy. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. National Research Council. 1991. Mathematical Sciences, Technology, and Economic Competitiveness. James G. Glimm, ed. Washington, DC: Na- tional Academy Press. National Research Council. 1992. The Government Role in Civilian Technology: Building a New Alliance. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. National Research Council. 1995. Allocating Federal Funds for R&D. Washing- ton, DC: National Academy Press. National Research Council. 1996. Conflict and Cooperation in National Compe- tition for High-Technology Industry. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. National Research Council. 1997. Review of the Research Program of the Part- nership for a New Generation of Vehicles: Third Report. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. National Research Council. 1999. The Advanced Technology Program: Chal- lenges and Opportunities. Charles W. Wessner, ed. Washington, DC: Na- tional Academy Press. National Research Council. 1999. Funding a Revolution: Government Support for Computing Research. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. National Research Council. 1999. Industry-Laboratory Partnerships: A Review of the Sandia Science and Technology Park Initiative. Charles W. Wessner, ed. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. National Research Council. 1999. New Vistas in Transatlantic Science and Technology Cooperation. Charles W. Wessner, ed. Washington, DC: Na- tional Academy Press. National Research Council. 1999. The Small Business Innovation Research Pro- gram: Challenges and Opportunities. Charles W. Wessner, ed. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. National Research Council. 2000. The Small Business Innovation Research Pro- gram: An Assessment of the Department of Defense Fast Track Initiative. Charles W. Wessner, ed. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. National Research Council. 2000. U.S. Industry in 2000: Studies in Competitive Performance. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. National Research Council. 2001. The Advanced Technology Program: Assess- ing Outcomes. Charles W. Wessner, ed. Washington, DC: National Acad- emy Press. National Research Council. 2001. Attracting Science and Mathematics Ph.Ds to Secondary School Education. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. National Research Council. 2001. Building a Workforce for the Information Economy. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

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APPENDIX E 188 National Research Council. 2001. Capitalizing on New Needs and New Oppor- tunities: Government-Industry Partnerships in Biotechnology and Informa- tion Technologies. Charles W. Wessner, ed. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. National Research Council. 2001. A Review of the New Initiatives at the NASA Ames Research Center. Charles W. Wessner, ed. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. National Research Council. 2001. Trends in Federal Support of Research and Graduate Education. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. National Research Council. 2002. Government-Industry Partnerships for the Development of New Technologies: Summary Report. Charles W. Wessner, ed. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. National Research Council. 2002. Making the Nation Safer: The Role of Science and Technology in Countering Terrorism. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. National Research Council. 2002. Measuring and Sustaining the New Economy. Dale W. Jorgenson and Charles W. Wessner, eds. Washington, DC: Na- tional Academy Press. National Research Council. 2002. Partnerships for Solid-State Lighting. Charles W. Wessner, ed. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. National Research Council. 2004. An Assessment of the Small Business Innova- tion Research Program: Project Methodology. Washington, DC: The Na- tional Academies Press. National Research Council. 2004. Capitalizing on Science, Technology, and Innovation: An Assessment of the Small Business Innovation Research Program/Program Manager Survey. Completed by Dr. Joseph Hennessey. National Research Council. 2004. Productivity and Cyclicality in Semiconduc- tors: Trends, Implications, and Questions. Dale W. Jorgenson and Charles W. Wessner, eds. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. National Research Council. 2004. The Small Business Innovation Research Pro- gram: Program Diversity and Assessment Challenges. Charles W. Wessner, ed. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. National Research Council. 2006. Beyond Bias and Barriers: Fulfilling the Po- tential of Women in Academic Science and Engineering. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. National Research Council. 2006. Deconstructing the Computer. Dale W. Jorgenson and Charles W. Wessner, eds. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. National Research Council. 2006. Software, Growth, and the Future of the U.S. Economy. Dale W. Jorgenson and Charles W. Wessner, eds. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. National Research Council. 2006. The Telecommunications Challenge: Chang- ing Technologies and Evolving Policies. Dale W. Jorgenson and Charles W. Wessner, eds. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

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APPENDIX E 189 National Research Council. 2007. Enhancing Productivity Growth in the Infor- mation Age: Measuring and Sustaining the New Economy. Dale W. Jorgenson and Charles W. Wessner, eds. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. National Research Council. 2007. India’s Changing Innovation System: Achievements, Challenges, and Opportunities for Cooperation. Charles W. Wessner and Sujai J. Shivakumar, eds. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. National Research Council. 2007. Innovation Policies for the 21st Century. Charles W. Wessner, ed. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. National Research Council. 2007. SBIR and the Phase III Challenge of Com- mercialization. Charles W. Wessner, ed. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. National Research Council. 2008. An Assessment of the SBIR Program at the Department of Defense. Charles W. Wessner, ed. Washington, DC: The Na- tional Academies Press. National Research Council. 2008. An Assessment of the SBIR Program at the Department of Energy. Charles W. Wessner, ed. Washington, DC: The Na- tional Academies Press. National Research Council. 2008. An Assessment of the SBIR Program at the National Science Foundation. Charles W. Wessner, ed. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. National Research Council. 2009. An Assessment of the SBIR Program at the Department of Defense. Charles W. Wessner, ed. Washington, DC: The Na- tional Academies Press. National Research Council. 2009. An Assessment of the SBIR Program at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Charles W. Wessner, ed. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. National Research Council. 2009. An Assessment of the SBIR Program at the National Institutes of Health. Charles W. Wessner, ed. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. National Research Council. 2009. Venture Capital and the NIH SBIR Program. Charles W. Wessner, ed. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. National Science Board. 2005. Science and Engineering Indicators 2005. Ar- lington, VA: National Science Foundation. National Science Board. 2006. Science and Engineering Indicators 2006. Ar- lington, VA: National Science Foundation. National Science Foundation. 2004. Federal R&D Funding by Budget Function: Fiscal Years 2003-2005 (historical tables). NSF 05-303. Arlington, VA: National Science Foundation. National Science Foundation. 2006. “SBIR/STTR Phase II Grantee Conference, Book of Abstracts.” Office of Industrial Innovation. May 18-20, 2006, Lou- isville, Kentucky. National Science Foundation. Committee of Visitors Reports and Annual Up- dates. Available online at .

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APPENDIX E 190 National Science Foundation. Emerging Technologies. Available online at . National Science Foundation. Guidance for Reviewers. Available online at . National Science Foundation. National Science Foundation at a Glance. Avail- able online at . National Science Foundation. National Science Foundation Manual 14, NSF Conflicts of Interest and Standards of Ethical Conduct. Available online at . National Science Foundation. The Phase IIB Option. Available online at . National Science Foundation. Proposal and Grant Manual. Available online at . National Science Foundation. 2005. Synopsis of SBIR/STTR Program. Avail- able online at . National Science Foundation. 2006. “SBIR/STTR Phase II Grantee Conference, Book of Abstracts.” Office of Industrial Innovation. May 18-20, 2006, Lou- isville, Kentucky. National Science Foundation. 2006. “News items from the past year.” Press Re- lease. April 10. National Science Foundation, Office of Industrial Innovation. Draft Strategic Plan, June 2, 2005. National Science Foundation, Office of Legislative and Public Affairs. 2003. SBIR Success Story from News Tip. Web’s “Best Meta-Search Engine,” March 20. Nelson, R. R. 1982. Government and Technological Progress. New York: Per- gamon. Nelson, R. R. 1986. “Institutions supporting technical advances in industry.” American Economic Review, Papers and Proceedings 76(2):188. Nelson, R. R., ed. 1993. National Innovation System: A Comparative Study. New York: Oxford University Press. Office of Management and Budget. 1996. “Economic analysis of federal regula- tions under Executive Order 12866.” Office of Management and Budget. 2004. “What Constitutes Strong Evidence of Program Effectiveness.” Available online at . Office of the President. 1990. U.S. Technology Policy. Washington, DC: Execu- tive Office of the President. Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. 1982. Innovation in Small and Medium Firms. Paris: Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development.

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APPENDIX E 191 Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. 1995. Venture Capi- tal in OECD Countries. Paris: Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. 1997. Small Busi- ness Job Creation and Growth: Facts, Obstacles, and Best Practices. Paris: Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. 1998. Technology, Productivity and Job Creation: Toward Best Policy Practice. Paris: Organi- zation for Economic Cooperation and Development. Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. 2006. “Evaluation of SME Policies and Programs: Draft OECD Handbook.” OECD Handbook. CFE/SME 17. Paris: Organization for Economic Cooperation and Devel- opment. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. SBIR Alerting Service. Available online at . Perko, J. S., and F. Narin. 1997. “The Transfer of Public Science to Patented Technology: A Case Study in Agricultural Science.” Journal of Technology Transfer 22(3):65-72. Perret, G. 1989. A Country Made by War: From the Revolution to Vietnam—The Story of America’s Rise to Power. New York: Random House. Porter, Michael E. 1998. “Clusters and Competition: New Agendas for Govern- ment and Institutions.” In Michael E. Porter, ed. On Competition. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press. Powell, J. W. 1999. Business Planning and Progress of Small Firms Engaged in Technology Development through the Advanced Technology Program. NISTIR 6375. National Institute of Standards and Technology/U.S. De- partment of Commerce. Powell, Walter W., and Peter Brantley. 1992. “Competitive cooperation in bio- technology: Learning through networks?” In N. Nohria and R. G. Eccles, eds. Networks and Organizations: Structure, Form and Action. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press. Pp. 366-394. Price Waterhouse. 1985. Survey of Small High-tech Businesses Shows Federal SBIR Awards Spurring Job Growth, Commercial Sales. Washington, DC: Small Business High Technology Institute. Reid, Gavin C., and Julia A. Smith. 2007. Risk Appraisal and Venture Capital in High Technology New Ventures. New York: Routledge. Roberts, Edward B. 1968. “Entrepreneurship and technology.” Research Man- agement (July): 249-266. Rogelberg, S., C. Spitzmüeller, I. Little, and S. Reeve. 2006. Understanding Response Behavior to an Online Special Survey Topics Organizational Sat- isfaction Survey.” Personnel Psychology 59:903-923. Romer, P. 1990. “Endogenous technological change.” Journal of Political Economy 98:71-102.

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APPENDIX E 192 Rosa, Peter, and Allison Dawson. 2006. “Gender and the commercialization of university science: Academic founders of spinout companies.” Entrepre- neurship & Regional Development 18(4):341-366. July. Rosenberg, N. 1969. “The Direction of Technological Change: Inducement Mechanisms and Focusing Devices.” Economic Development and Cultural Change, 18:1-24. Rosenbloom, R., and Spencer, W. 1996. Engines of Innovation: U.S. Industrial Research at the End of an Era. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press. Rubenstein, A. H. 1958. Problems Financing New Research-Based Enterprises in New England. Boston, MA: Federal Reserve Bank. Ruegg, Rosalie, and Irwin Feller. 2003. A Toolkit for Evaluating Public R&D Investment Models, Methods, and Findings from ATP’s First Decade. NIST GCR 03-857. Ruegg, Rosalie, and Patrick Thomas. 2007. Linkages from DoE’s Vehicle Tech- nologies R&D in -Advanced Energy Storage to Hybrid Electric Vehicles, Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles, and Electric Vehicles. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Energy/Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. Sahlman, W. A. 1990. “The structure and governance of venture capital organi- zations.” Journal of Financial Economics 27:473-521. Saxenian, Annalee. 1994. Regional Advantage: Culture and Competition in Sili- con Valley and Route 128. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. SBIR World. SBIR World: A World of Opportunities. Available online at . Scherer, F. M. 1970. Industrial Market Structure and Economic Performance. New York: Rand McNally College Publishing. Schumpeter, J. 1950. Capitalism, Socialism, and Democracy. New York: Harper and Row. Scotchmer, S. 2004. Innovation and Incentives. Cambridge MA: MIT Press. Scott, J. T. 1998. “Financing and leveraging public/private partnerships: The hurdle-lowering auction.” STI Review 23:67-84. Scott, J. T. 2000. “An Assessment of the Small Business Innovation Research Program in New England: Fast Track Compared with Non-Fast Track.” In National Research Council. The Small Business Innovation Research Pro- gram: An Assessment of the Department of Defense Fast Track Initiative. Charles W. Wessner, ed. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. Sheehan, Kim. 2001. “E-mail Survey Response Rates: A Review.” Journal of Computer Mediated Communication 6(2). Siegel, D., D. Waldman, and A. Link. 2004. “Toward a Model of the Effective Transfer of Scientific Knowledge from Academicians to Practitioners: Qualitative Evidence from the Commercialization of University Technolo- gies.” Journal of Engineering and Technology Management 21(1-2).

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APPENDIX E 193 Silverstein, S. C., H. H. Garrison, and S. J. Heinig. 1995. “A Few Basic Eco- nomic Facts about Research in the Medical and Related Life Sciences.” FASEB 9:833-840. Society for Prevention Research. 2004. Standards of Evidence: Criteria for Effi- cacy, Effectiveness and Dissemination. Available online at . Sohl, Jeffrey. 1999. Venture Capital 1(2). Sohl, Jeffery, John Freear, and W.E. Wetzel Jr. 2002. “Angles on Angels: Fi- nancing Technology-Based Ventures—An Historical Perspective.” Venture Capital: An International Journal of Entrepreneurial Finance 4(4). Solow, R. S. 1957. “Technical Change and the Aggregate Production Function.” Review of Economics and Statistics 39:312-320. Stiglitz, J. E., and A. Weiss. 1981. “Credit rationing in markets with incomplete information.” American Economic Review 71:393-409. Stokes, Donald E. 1997. Pasteur’s Quadrant: Basic Science and Technological Innovation. Washington, DC: The Brookings Institution. Stowsky, J. 1996. “Politics and Policy: The Technology Reinvestment Program and the Dilemmas of Dual Use.” Mimeo. University of California. Tassey, Gregory. 1997. The Economics of R&D Policy. Westport, CT: Quorum Books. Tibbetts, R. 1997. “The Role of Small Firms in Developing and Commercializ- ing New Scientific Instrumentation: Lessons from the U.S. Small Business Innovation Research Program,” in J. Irvine, B. Martin, D. Griffiths, and R. Gathier, eds. Equipping Science for the 21st Century. Cheltenham UK: Ed- ward Elgar Press. Tirman, John. 1984. The Militarization of High Technology. Cambridge, MA: Ballinger. Tyson, Laura, Tea Petrin, and Halsey Rogers. 1994. “Promoting entrepreneur- ship in Eastern Europe.” Small Business Economics 6:165-184. University of New Hampshire Center for Venture Research. 2007. The Angel Market in 2006. Available online at . U.S. Congress, House Committee on Science, Space, and Technology. 1992. SBIR and Commercialization: Hearing Before the Subcommittee on Tech- nology and Competitiveness of the House Committee on Science, Space, and Technology, on the Small Business Innovation Research [SBIR] Pro- gram. Testimony of James A. Block, President of Creare, Inc. Pp. 356-361. U.S. Congress. House Committee on Science, Space, and Technology. 1992. The Small Business Research and Development Enhancement Act of 1992. House Report (REPT. 102-554) Part I (Committee on Small Business).

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APPENDIX E 194 U.S. Congress. House Committee on Science, Space, and Technology. 1998. Unlocking Our Future: Toward a New National Science Policy: A Report to Congress by the House Committee on Science, Space, and Technology. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office. Available online at . U.S. Congress. House Committee on Small Business. Subcommittee on Work- force, Empowerment, and Government Programs. 2005. The Small Business Innovation Research Program: Opening Doors to New Technology. Testi- mony by Joseph Hennessey. 109th Cong., 1st sess., November 8. U.S. Congress. House Committee on Science, Space, and Technology. Sub- committee on Technology and Innovation. 2007. Hearing on “Small Busi- ness Innovation Research Authorization on the 25th Program Anniversary.” Testimony by Robert Schmidt. April 26. U.S. Congress. Senate Committee on Small Business. 1999. Senate Report 106- 330. Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program. August 4, 1999. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. U.S. Congress. Senate Committee on Small Business. 1981. Small Business Research Act of 1981. S.R. 194, 97th Congress. U.S. Congress. Senate Committee on Small Business. 1999. Senate Report 106- 330. Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program. August 4. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. U.S. Congress. Senate Committee on Small Business. 2006. Strengthening the Participation of Small Businesses in Federal Contracting and Innovation Research Programs. Testimony by Michael Squillante. 109th Cong., 2nd sess., July 12. U.S. Congressional Budget Office. 1985. Federal financial support for high- technology industries. Washington, DC: U.S. Congressional Budget Office. U.S. Department of Education. 2005. “Scientifically-Based Evaluation Methods: Notice of Final Priority.” Federal Register 70(15):3586-3589. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. 1981. Protecting Human Subjects: Untrue Statements in Application. 21 C.F.R. §314.12 U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Critical Path Initiative. Available online at . U.S. General Accounting Office. 1987. Federal research: Small Business Inno- vation Research participants give program high marks. Washington, DC: U.S. General Accounting Office. U.S. General Accounting Office. 1989. Federal Research: Assessment of Small Business Innovation Research Program. Washington, DC: U.S. General Accounting Office. U.S. General Accounting Office. 1992. Federal Research: Small Business Inno- vation Research Program Shows Success but Can Be Strengthened. RCED– 92–32. Washington, DC: U.S. General Accounting Office.

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APPENDIX E 195 U.S. General Accounting Office. 1997. Federal Research: DoD’s Small Busi- ness Innovation Research Program. RCED–97–122, Washington, DC: U.S. General Accounting Office. U. S. General Accounting Office. 1998. Federal Research: Observations on the Small Business Innovation Research Program. RCED–98–132. Washing- ton, DC: U.S. General Accounting Office. U.S. General Accounting Office. 1999. Federal Research: Evaluations of Small Business Innovation Research Can Be Strengthened. RCED–99–198, Wash- ington, DC: U.S. General Accounting Office. U.S. Government Accountability Office. 2006. Small Business Innovation Re- search: Agencies Need to Strengthen Efforts to Improve the Completeness, Consistency, and Accuracy of Awards Data, GAO-07-38, Washington, DC: U.S. Government Accountability Office. U.S. Government Accountability Office. 2006. Small Business Innovation Re- search: Information on Awards made by NIH and DoD in Fiscal years 2001-2004. GAO-06-565. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Accountabil- ity Office. U.S. Public Law 106-554, Appendix I–H.R. 5667—Section 108. U.S. Small Business Administration. 1992. Results of Three-Year Commerciali- zation Study of the SBIR Program. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. U.S. Small Business Administration. 1994. Small Business Innovation Develop- ment Act: Tenth-Year Results. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. U.S. Small Business Administration. 1998. “An Analysis of the Distribution of SBIR Awards by States, 1983-1996.” Washington, DC: Small Business Administration. U.S. Small Business Administration. 2003. “Small Business by the Numbers.” SBA Office of Advocacy. May. U.S. Small Business Administration. 2006. Frequently Asked Questions, June 2006. Available online at . U.S. Small Business Administration. 2006. “Small Business by the Numbers.” SBA Office of -Advocacy. May. Venture Economics. 1988. Exiting Venture Capital Investments. Wellesley, MA: Venture -Economics. Venture Economics. 1996. “Special Report: Rose-colored asset class.” Venture Capital Journal 36 (July):32-34. VentureOne. 1997. National Venture Capital Association 1996 annual report. San Francisco: -VentureOne. Wallsten, S. J. 1996. The Small Business Innovation Research Program: En- couraging Technological Innovation and Commercialization in Small Firms. Unpublished working paper. Stanford University. Wallsten, S. J. 1998. “Rethinking the Small Business Innovation Research Pro- gram,” in Investing In Innovation. L. M. Branscomb and J. Keller, eds., Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

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APPENDIX E 196 Washington Technology. 2007. “Top 100 Federal Prime Contractors: 2004.” May 14. Weiss, S. 2006. “The Private Equity Continuum.” Presentation at the Executive Seminar on Angel Funding, University of California at Riverside, Decem- ber 8-9, Palm Springs, CA. Wessner, Charles W. 2004. Partnering Against Terrorism. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.