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Electricity from Renewable Resources: Status, Prospects, and Impediments B Panel Biographical Information Lawrence T. Papay (NAE) is currently a consultant with a variety of clients in electric power and other energy areas. His expertise and knowledge range across a wide variety of electric system technologies, from production to transmission and distribution, utility management and systems, and end-use technologies. He has held positions including senior vice president for the Integrated Solutions Sector, Science Applications International Corporation, and senior vice president and general manager of Bechtel Technology and Consulting. He also held several positions at Southern California Edison, including senior vice president, vice president, general superintendent, and director of research and development (R&D), with responsibilities for areas such as bulk power generation, system planning, nuclear power, environmental operations, and development of the organization and plans for the company’s R&D efforts. Dr. Papay’s professional affiliations currently include or have included the Electric Power Research Institute’s Research Advisory Committee; and the Atomic Industrial Forum; the U.S. Department of Energy’s Energy Research Advisory Board, Laboratory Operation Board, and Environmental Management Advisory Board; the Department of Homeland Security S&T Advisory Committee; and chair of the California Council on Science and Technology and the Renewable Energy Institute. He is a member of the National Academy of Engineering. He received a B.S. degree in physics from Fordham University and S.M. and Sc.D. degrees in nuclear engineering from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Allen J. Bard (NAS) is professor of chemistry and biochemistry and holds the Norman Hackerman/Welch Regents Chair in chemistry at the University of Texas,
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Electricity from Renewable Resources: Status, Prospects, and Impediments Austin. His research interests include electro-organic chemistry, photo-electro-chemistry, electrogenerated chemiluminescence, electroanalytical chemistry, and fuel cells. His interests include energy policy related to fossil fuels and renewable energy sources. He has published widely and is the winner of numerous honors and awards, including the Willard Gibbs Award, the Pauling Award, and the Priestley Metal. He was president of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemists and served as editor-in-chief of the Journal of the American Chemical Society from 1982 to 2001. He is a member of the National Academy of Sciences. He has served on the National Research Council’s (NRC’s) Energy Engineering Board (EEB), and has also served as chair of the Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology and chair of the EEB Committee on Potential Applications of Concentrated Solar Photons. He received a Ph.D. degree in chemistry from Harvard University. Rakesh Agrawal (NAE) is a Winthrop E. Stone Distinguished Professor in the School of Chemical Engineering at Purdue University. Previously, he was an Air Products Fellow at Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., where he worked from 1980 to 2004. A major thrust of his research is related to energy issues and includes novel processes for fabrication of low-cost solar cells, biomass and coal to liquid fuel conversion, hydrogen production from renewable resources, and energy systems analysis. His research interests include basic and applied research in gas separations, process development, synthesis of distillation column configurations, adsorption and membrane separation processes, novel separation processes, gas liquefaction processes, cryogenics, and thermodynamics. He holds more than 116 U.S. and 500 foreign patents. These patents are used in more than 100 chemical plants with a capital expenditure in excess of a billion dollars. He has authored 66 technical papers and given many lectures and presentations. He chaired the Separations Division and the Chemical Technology Operating Council of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE) and also a Gordon Conference on Separations. He was a member of the NRC Committee on Alternatives and Strategies for Future Hydrogen Production and Use. He is currently a member of the AIChE’s board of directors and also its Energy Commission. He is also a member of the NRC Board on Energy and Environmental Systems (BEES). He has received several awards, including the J & E Hall Gold Medal from the Institute of Refrigeration (U.K.); Presidential Citation for Outstanding Achievement from the University of Delaware; and from the AIChE the Gerhold, Excellence in Industrial Gases Technology, Institute Lecture, Chemical Engineering Practice, and Fuels and
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Electricity from Renewable Resources: Status, Prospects, and Impediments Petrochemicals Division awards. Dr. Agrawal received a B.Tech. from the Indian Institute of Technologies in Kanpur, India; a M.Ch.E. from the University of Delaware; and an Sc.D. in chemical engineering from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. William Chameides (NAS) is the dean of the Nicholas School of the Environment and Earth Sciences at Duke University. He is the former chief scientist for Environmental Defense, and before that the Smithgall Chair and Regents Professor of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences at the Georgia Institute of Technology. His research interests include atmospheric chemistry, tropospheric gas-phase and aqueous-phase chemistry; air pollution; global chemical cycles; biospheric-atmospheric interaction; and global and regional environmental change. His NRC service includes chair of the Committee on Atmospheric Chemistry and the Committee on Ozone-Forming Potential of Reformulated Gasoline, and a member of the Committee on Tropospheric Ozone Formation and Measurement. Dr. Chameides is a member of the National Academy of Sciences and a former member of the NRC Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology. He received a B.A. degree from the State University of New York at Binghamton and M.Ph. and Ph.D. degrees in geology and geophysics from Yale University. Jane H. Davidson is professor of mechanical engineering at the University of Minnesota and director of the Solar Energy Laboratory. Her current areas of research include solar systems for residential buildings, efficiency in building envelopes, and solar thermochemical cycles to produce fuels. She is a past editor of the Journal of Solar Energy Engineering and chair of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Solar Energy Division. She has served as an elected member of the boards of the American Solar Energy Society (ASES) and the Solar Rating and Certification Corporation. Her efforts in research and engineering education have been recognized with the 2007 American Solar Energy Society Charles Greeley Abbot Award, the 2005 University of Minnesota Distinguished Women Scholar Award in Science and Engineering, the 2004 ASME John I. Yellott Award, and the 2000 John Tate Award for Excellence in Undergraduate Advising. She is a fellow of ASME and ASES. She has B.S. and M.S. degrees in engineering science and mechanics from the University of Tennessee and a Ph.D. degree in mechanical engineering from Duke University.
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Electricity from Renewable Resources: Status, Prospects, and Impediments J. Michael Davis is associate laboratory director for Energy and Environment at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), where he is responsible for ensuring that PNNL’s energy and environmental programs continue to deliver outstanding science and technology solutions to the most important energy and environmental issues facing the nation and the DOE. Mr. Davis is known nationally as a spokesperson for hydrogen, renewable energy, and energy efficiency policy and technology issues. He has provided leadership for energy-related businesses and organizations, including responsibilities as president and CEO, serving as assistant secretary of energy, as president of the Solar Energy Industries Association, and as chair of the National Hydrogen Association. Mr. Davis also served as an associate professor of mathematics and civil engineering at the U.S. Air Force Academy (USAFA) following service in Vietnam. He received his B.S. degree in civil engineering from the USAFA and his M.S. degree from the University of Illinois. Kelly R. Fletcher is the energy business program manager at GE Global Research. During his 18-year career in the nuclear energy division of GE Energy, he held various technical and leadership positions, including responsibility for regulatory services, e-business, strategic marketing, business development, and quality. In 2005, Mr. Fletcher was appointed general manager of nuclear technology where he managed activities for GE’s nuclear products and services related to new product introduction, R&D, and intellectual property management. In 2006, he was appointed to the position of advanced technology leader for sustainable energy at GE Global Research, in which he is responsible for technology and business development in key sustainable energy areas—advanced energy storage, hydrogen technologies, CO2-free power generation, and concepts for advanced nuclear power plants. Mr. Fletcher received his B.S. and M.S. degrees in nuclear engineering from the University of California, Berkeley. Charles F. Gay was named corporate vice president and general manager of the Solar Business Group at Applied Materials in 2006. An industry veteran with 30-plus years of experience in the solar industry, Dr. Gay is responsible for establishing and building Applied Materials’ solar business. Dr. Gay is also a co-founder of the Greenstar Foundation, an organization that delivers solar power and Internet access for health, education, and microenterprise projects to small villages in the developing world. Dr. Gay began his career in 1975 designing solar power system components for communications satellites at Spectrolab, Inc., and later joined ARCO Solar, where he established the research and development program and led
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Electricity from Renewable Resources: Status, Prospects, and Impediments the commercialization of single-crystal silicon and thin-film technologies. In 1990, Dr. Gay became president and chief operating officer of Siemens Solar Industries. From 1994 to 1997 he served as director of the DOE’s National Renewable Energy Laboratory, the world’s leading laboratory for energy efficiency and renewable energy research and technology. In 1997, Dr. Gay served as president and chief executive officer of ASE Americas, Inc., and in 2001 became chair of the advisory board at SunPower Corporation. He holds numerous patents for solar cell and module construction and is the recipient of the Gold Medal for Achievement from the World Renewable Energy Congress. Dr. Gay has a doctorate degree in physical chemistry from the University of California, Riverside. Charles H. Goodman had a long career in electric utility research and development with Southern Company—primarily with regard to developing and improving power generation technologies and in addressing their associated public policy issues. His many contributions span heat transfer, emissions controls, environmental science, and advanced generation technologies. Prior to retirement in 2007 he was the senior vice president for generation policy for Southern Company. His responsibilities included serving as chair of the board for the FutureGen Industrial Alliance. Prior to 2006 he held the position of senior vice president of research and environmental policy. In that position he served as the chief environmental officer for Southern Company. He also directed R&D, environmental policy, environmental research, and compliance strategy development efforts for Southern Company. He served for many years on the Electric Power Research Institute’s (EPRI) Research Advisory Committee and was chair of its Environment Sector Council. He is a member of the National Research Council/National Academy of Sciences Board on Energy and Environmental Systems. He served on the NRC Committee on Programmatic Review of DOE’s Office of Power Technology, which reviewed the suite of renewable energy R&D technology programs. He has chaired the Environmental Staff Committee of the Business Roundtable and was a member of the Environmental Protection Agency’s Clean Air Act Advisory Committee. His responsibilities have included oversight of the Power Systems Development Facility in cooperation with the DOE. Dr. Goodman received his M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in mechanical engineering from Tulane University and his undergraduate degree from the University of Texas at Arlington. He is a fellow of ASME.
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Electricity from Renewable Resources: Status, Prospects, and Impediments Sossina M. Haile is professor of materials science and of chemical engineering at the California Institute of Technology. She earned her Ph.D. in materials science and engineering from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. As part of her studies, Dr. Haile spent 2 years at the Max Plank Institute for Solid State Research in Stuttgart, Germany, first as a Fulbright Fellow and then as a Humboldt Fellow. Before assuming her present position at Caltech in 1996, she was a member of the faculty at the University of Washington. Her research broadly encompasses solid state ionic materials and devices, with particular focus on fuel cells. She has established a new class of fuel cells based on solid acid electrolytes and demonstrated record power densities for solid oxide fuel cells. Dr. Haile has published more than 100 papers and holds several patents on these and related topics, and she has been an invited speaker at numerous national and international conferences. In 2008 she was awarded an American Competitiveness and Innovation Fellowship from the National Science Foundation in recognition of “her timely and transformative research in the energy field and her dedication to inclusive mentoring, education and outreach across many levels.” Since 2005 Dr. Haile has been a member of the NRC National Materials Advisory Board. Nathan S. Lewis is the George L. Argyros Professor of Chemistry at California Institute of Technology (Caltech). His research interests include light-induced electron transfer reactions, both at surfaces and in transition metal complexes, and the photochemistry of semiconductor-liquid interfaces. Dr. Lewis has been a faculty member at Caltech since 1988 and has served as professor since 1991. He also served as the principal investigator at the Beckman Institute Molecular Materials Resource Center at Caltech since 1992. From 1981 to 1986, he was a faculty member at Stanford University—an assistant professor from 1981 to 1985 and a tenured associate professor from 1986 to 1988. Dr. Lewis has been an Alfred P. Sloan Fellow, a Camille and Henry Dreyfus Teacher-Scholar, and a Presidential Young Investigator. He received the Fresenius Award in 1990, the ACS Award in Pure Chemistry in 1991, the Orton Memorial Lecture award in 2003, the Princeton Environmental Award in 2003, and the Michael Faraday Medal of the Royal Society of Electrochemistry in 2008. He is currently the editor-in-chief of the Royal Society of Chemistry journal, Energy & Environmental Science. Dr. Lewis has published more than 300 papers and supervised approximately 60 graduate students and postdoctoral associates. He received his Ph.D. degree in chemistry from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
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Electricity from Renewable Resources: Status, Prospects, and Impediments Karen L. Palmer is the Darius Gaskins Senior Fellow at Resources for the Future (RFF) in Washington, D.C., and the director of RFF’s Electricity and Environment Program. Dr. Palmer specializes in the economics of environmental regulation of the electricity sector and the cost-effectiveness of energy efficiency programs. Her most recent work has focused on renewable energy and controls of multi-pollutants and carbon emissions from electrical generating plants. She has done extensive work analyzing different aspects of policy design for the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative. She is co-author of the book Alternating Currents: Electricity Markets and Public Policy. Dr. Palmer previously served as an economist in the Office of Economic Policy at the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission. She received a Ph.D. degree in economics from Boston College. Jeffrey M. Peterson is currently the program manager for the Energy Resources Group at the New York State Energy Research and Authority, the primary research program for renewable and natural resource development. The goal of the program is to develop cooperative initiatives to introduce new energy and environmental technologies into the marketplace. Research projects range from partnering with New York State businesses to develop new technologies to supply the worldwide market for renewable energy, implementing a workforce training program for renewable technology, and sharing the risk of establishing new business enterprises or models to meet customer demand for renewable energy. He received B.S. and M.S. degrees in wood science and technology from the University of Massachusetts and an M.S. degree in industrial administration from Union College. Karl R. Rábago is vice president for Distributed Energy Services with Austin Energy. Formerly the director of government and regulatory affairs for AES Wind Generation, he has nearly 20 years’ experience in the renewable energy and sustainability fields, having held positions in academia, business, government, and the not-for-profit sector. He has served as a deputy assistant secretary for the DOE, as a public utility commissioner for the State of Texas, and as a managing director and principal of the energy and resources team at Rocky Mountain Institute. Mr. Rábago chairs the board of the Center for Resource Solutions, which manages the Green-e Certification program for green power and renewable energy credit products. He has a bachelor of business administration degree in business management from Texas A&M University, a juris doctorate from the University of Texas, and
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Electricity from Renewable Resources: Status, Prospects, and Impediments he holds LL.M. degrees from Pace University School of Law (environmental law) and the U.S. Army Judge Advocate General’s School (military law). Carl J. Weinberg is the principal of Weinberg Associates, which he founded in 1993 after 19 years with Pacific Gas and Electric Company where he managed the energy research and development program. Weinberg Associates was formed with the primary objective of accelerating the introduction of renewable and distributed power systems. His expertise covers technical, regulatory, policy, and environmental perspectives related to energy use. Mr. Weinberg’s most recent activities involve policy issues and their technical considerations in the restructuring of the utility industry, with particular emphasis on the concept of sustainability in a competitive framework, and the introduction of distributed resources. He serves on the boards and working level committees of numerous energy efficiency and renewable energy organizations in the public and private sectors. He was the chair of the review panel for California’s Public Interest Energy Research Program. Kurt E. Yeager is executive director of the Galvin Electricity Initiative and former president and chief executive officer of Electric Power Research Institute. Previously, he was the director of energy R&D planning for the EPA Office of Research. He also was with the MITRE Corporation as associate head of the Environmental Systems Department. Mr. Yeager was a distinguished graduate of the Air Force Nuclear Research Officer’s Program while serving 7 years on active duty. He is a fellow of the ASME and its Industry Advisory Board, a trustee of the Committee for Economic Development, and he serves on the boards of the U.S. Energy Association and the National Coalition for Advanced Manufacturing. He has served on the executive board of the National Coal Council as well as several National Academy of Engineering committees and the Energy Research Advisory Board to the secretary of energy. Mr. Yeager received a bachelor’s degree from Kenyon College.