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Liquid Transportation Fuels from Coal and Biomass: Technological Status, Costs, and Environmental Impacts
depth. This is the report of the Panel on Alternative Liquid Transportation Fuels. (See Appendix C for information on the panel members.)
DEMAND FOR LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS
Transport activity is one of the key components of continued economic growth and social stability in industrialized societies. Demand for transportation fuels increases around the world as economies grow. Oil has been the primary source of liquid transportation fuels since the early 1900s largely because of its favorable energy density, ease of distribution, low cost, and abundance. The world demand for oil has increased from 11 million barrels per day of oil equivalent (MBDOE) in 1950 to 57 MBDOE in 1970 to about 85 MBDOE in 2009 and is projected to be 116 MBDOE in 2030 (ExxonMobil, 2008; IEA, 2009). From 1985 to 2005, global energy demand for transportation increased by an average of 2.2 percent per year (ExxonMobil, 2007), and it is expected to increase by an average of 1.4 percent per year from 2005 to 2030 (Figure 1.1) (ExxonMobil, 2008). As seen in late 2008 and early 2009, oil demand dropped rapidly as the global economy
FIGURE 1.1Worldwide demand for energy for transportation, 1980–2030.
Reprinted from ExxonMobil, 2008. Copyright 2008, with permission from ExxonMobil.