TABLE Sy.1 Estimated Costs of Fuel Products With and Without a CO2 Equivalent Price of $50/tonne

Fuel Product

Cost Without CO2 Equivalent Price ($/bbl of gasoline equivalent)

Cost With CO2Equivalent Price of $50/tonne ($/bbl of gasoline equivalent)

Gasoline at crude-oil price of $60/bbl

75

95

Gasoline at crude-oil price of $100/bbl

115

135

Cellulosic ethanol

115

110

Biomass-to-liquid fuels without carbon capture and storage

140

130

Biomass-to-liquid fuels with carbon capture and storage

150

115

Coal-to-liquid fuels without carbon capture and storage

65

120

Coal-to-liquid fuels with carbon capture and storage

70

90

Coal-and-biomass-to-liquid fuels without carbon capture and storage

95

120

Coal-and-biomass-to-liquid fuels with carbon capture and storage

110

100

Note: Numbers are rounded to the nearest $5.

to-liquid fuels per day will require the permitting and construction of tens to hundreds of conversion plants and the associated fuel transport and delivery infrastructure. It will take more than a decade for these alternative fuels to penetrate the U.S. market. In addition, investments in alternative fuels have to be protected against crude-oil price fluctuations.

Integrated geologic CO2 storage is key to producing liquid fuels from coal with greenhouse gas life-cycle emissions comparable to those of gasoline. Commercial demonstrations of coal-to-liquid and coal-and-biomass-to-liquid fuel conversion technologies with integrated geologic CO2 storage should proceed immediately if the goal is to deploy commercial plants by 2020. Detailed scenarios for market penetration of U.S. biofuels and coal-to-liquid fuels should be developed to clarify the hurdles and challenges facing full feedstock use and to establish the enduring policies required. Current government and industry programs should be evaluated to determine whether emerging biomass and coal conversion technologies can further reduce U.S. oil consumption and greenhouse gas emissions over the next decade.



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