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Annual Report 2008 3 Ad Hoc Study Committees: Activities and Membership When a sponsor requests that the Space Studies Board (SSB) conduct a study, an ad hoc committee is established for that purpose. The committee terminates when the study is completed. These study committees are subject to the Federal Advisory Committee Act, Section 15, because they provide advice and recommendations to the federal government. The SSB and/or one of its standing committees provide oversight for ad hoc study committee activities. Ten ad hoc committees were organized, met, or released studies during 2008. (Activities and membership are summarized below.) In addition, two ad hoc committees that produced reports in 2007 were formally disbanded in 2008: the Committee on Assessing the Solar System Exploration Program and the Committee to Review the NASA Astrobiology Institute. Their reports were summarized in the 2007 annual report. In December 2008, the National Research Council (NRC) Governing Board Executive Committee approved the prospectus for a study on the National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s (NASA’s) suborbital research activities. The SSB is now in the process of forming a committee to conduct a study of suborbital flight activities, including the use of sounding rockets, aircraft, and high-altitude balloons, and suborbital reusable launch vehicles, as well as related training, education, and workforce issues. Preparation for a decadal survey in life and physical sciences space research got under way in December 2008 with widely disseminated solicitations for steering committee nominations in fields ranging from developmental biology to spacecraft engineering. The decadal survey is expected to establish priorities and provide recommendations for life and physical sciences space research, including research that will enable exploration missions in microgravity and partial gravity for the 2010-2020 decade. ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS DECADAL SURVEY COMMITTEE (ASTRO2010) The Board on Physics and Astronomy (BPA), in cooperation with SSB, began preparations for the next decadal survey for astronomy and astrophysics, Astro2010. Astro2010 will survey the field of space- and ground-based astronomy and astrophysics, recommending priorities for the most important scientific and technical activities of the decade 2010-2020. In September 2008, former SSB member and Committee on Astronomy and Astrophysics co-chair Roger Blandford was appointed to chair the Astro2010 survey committee. Dr. Blandford, NRC staff, and members of BPA and SSB prepared a slate of nominations for the rest of the committee. The Astro2010 survey committee held its first meeting December 5-6, 2008, in Washington, D.C. The committee discussed congressional and White House perspectives on the decadal survey with staff from the Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation; the House Committee on Science and Technology; the Office of Science and Technology Policy; and the Office of Management and Budget. The committee also received
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Annual Report 2008 briefings from agency sponsors, including John Morse, NASA Headquarters; Craig Foltz, National Science Foundation; and Dennis Kovar, Department of Energy. The committee provided an opportunity for public comment during the meeting and established a Web site, including calls for community input. The steering committee will be assisted in its work by a series of nine panels that will address various topics. The committee will be responsible for synthesizing the panel inputs, determining priorities and recommendations, and preparing the final report which will have two volumes (a main committee report and a volume that will contain reports from the panels). Steering Committee Membership Roger D. Blandford, Stanford University (chair) Martha P. Haynes, Cornell University (co-vice chair) John P. Huchra, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (co-vice chair) Marcia J. Rieke, University of Arizona (co-vice chair) Steven J. Battel, Battel Engineering Lars Bildsten, University of California, Santa Barbara John E. Carlstrom, University of Chicago Debra M. Elmegreen, Vassar College Joshua Frieman, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory Fiona A. Harrison, California Institute of Technology Timothy M. Heckman, Johns Hopkins University Lynne Hillenbrand, California Institute of Technology Robert C. Kennicutt, Jr., University of Cambridge Jonathan I. Lunine, University of Arizona Claire E. Max, University of California, Santa Cruz Dan McCammon, University of Wisconsin, Madison Steven M. Ritz, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Juri Toomre, University of Colorado, Boulder Scott D. Tremaine, Institute for Advanced Study Michael S. Turner, University of Chicago Neil de Grasse Tyson, American Museum of Natural History Paul Adrian Vanden Bout, National Radio Astronomy Observatory A. Thomas Young, Lockheed Martin Corporation (retired) Donald C. Shapero, Director, Board on Physics and Astronomy Michael Moloney, Associate Director, Board on Physics and Astronomy (study director) Brant Sponberg, Associate Director, Space Studies Board Robert Riemer, Senior Program Officer, Board on Physics and Astronomy Brian Dewhurst, Program Officer, Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board David Lang, Program Officer, Board on Physics and Astronomy Carmela Chamberlain, Program Associate, Space Studies Board Caryn Knutsen, Program Associate, Board on Physics and Astronomy LaVita Coates-Fogle, Senior Program Assistant, Board on Physics and Astronomy HELIOPHYSICS PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT The ad hoc Heliophysics Performance Assessment Committee was formed to study the alignment of NASA’s Heliophysics Science Division with previous NRC advice—primarily the 2003 solar and space physics decadal survey, The Sun to the Earth—and Beyond: A Decadal Research Strategy in Solar and Space Physics. Addressing, in particular, how well NASA’s current program addresses the strategies, goals, and priorities outlined in the decadal survey and other relevant NRC reports; NASA’s progress toward realizing these strategies, goals, and priorities; and any actions that could be taken to optimize the science value of the program in the context of current and forecasted resources available. The study does not revisit or alter the scientific priorities or mission recommendations provided
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Annual Report 2008 in the 2003 decadal survey, but may provide guidance about implementing the recommended mission portfolio in preparation for the next decadal survey. The Heliophysics Performance Assessment Committee met on April 22-24, 2008, at the National Academies’ Keck Center in Washington, D.C., to receive presentations from and conduct discussions with congressional staff, NASA staff, and former members of the committees that produced the solar and space physics decadal survey and two other NRC mid-decade surveys in astronomy and astrophysics and solar system exploration. The committee held its second meeting June 9-11 at the High Altitude Observatory in Boulder, Colorado, where it received presentations from NASA’s Mission Operating Working Groups, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administraiton’s (NOAA’s) Space Environment Center, and the NRC’s Committee on Solar and Space Physics. The committee also conducted site visits to the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center and the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory on May 13, where it received briefings on relevant programs and missions. The committee met August 25-27 at the National Academies’ Beckman Center in Irvine, California, to begin writing its report. The committee finished writing its report in late December. The report has entered review and is expected to be released in early February 2009. Membership Stephen A. Fuselier, Lockheed Martin Advanced Technology Center (co-chair) Roderick A. Heelis, University of Texas, Dallas (co-chair) Thomas Berger, Lockheed Martin Solar and Astrophysics Laboratory George Gloeckler, University of Maryland, College Park Jack R. Jokipii, University of Arizona Krishan Khurana, University of California, Los Angeles Dana Warfield Longcope, Montana State University Gang Lu, High Altitude Observatory Kristina A. Lynch, Dartmouth College Frank B. McDonald, University of Maryland, College Park Michael Mendillo, Boston University Robert E. Palmer, Independent Consultant Gary P. Zank, University of California, Riverside Brant L. Sponberg, Associate Director and Senior Program Officer, Space Studies Board (study director) Arthur A. Charo, Senior Program Officer, Space Studies Board Carmela J. Chamberlain, Program Associate, Space Studies Board NEAR-EARTH OBJECT SURVEYS AND HAZARD MITIGATION STRATEGIES An ad hoc Committee on Near-Earth Object Surveys and Hazard Mitigation Strategies was formed under the auspices of the SSB and the Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board (ASEB) to undertake a two-phase study to review the two NASA reports, 2006 Near-Earth Object Survey and Detection Study and Near-Earth Object Survey and Deflection Analysis of Alternatives: Report to Congress, and other relevant literature and provide recommendations that will address two major issues: (1) determining the best approach to completing the near-Earth object (NEO) census required by Congress to identify potentially hazardous NEOs larger than 140 meters in diameter by the year 2020 and (2) determining the optimal approach to developing a deflection strategy and ensuring that it includes a significant international effort. Both tasks will include an assessment of the costs of various alternatives, using independent cost estimating. Task 1 will be addressed by the Survey/Detection Panel, and Task 2 will be addressed by the Mitigation Panel. The steering group held its first meeting at the National Academies’ Keck Center on December 9-11, 2008. The steering group’s second meeting will take place at Arecibo, Puerto Rico, in May 2009. The Survey/Detection Panel held its first meeting at the National Academies’ Keck Center on January 28-30, 2009, and will hold its second meeting April 20-22 at the Lunar and Planetary Laboratory in Tucson, Arizona. The committee’s Mitigation Panel will be appointed in early March and will hold its first meeting in late March 2009.
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Annual Report 2008 Steering Group Membership Irwin I. Shapiro, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (chair) Michael A’Hearn, University of Maryland, College Park (vice chair) Faith Vilas, Multiple-Mirror Telescope Observatory at Mt. Hopkins, Arizona (vice chair) Andrew F. Cheng, Johns Hopkins University, Applied Physics Laboratory Frank Culbertson, Jr., Orbital Sciences Corporation David C. Jewitt, University of Hawaii, Manoa Stephen Mackwell, Lunar and Planetary Institute H. Jay Melosh, University of Arizona Joseph Rothenberg, Universal Space Network Dwayne A. Day, Program Officer, Space Studies Board (co-study director) Paul Jackson, Associate Program Officer, Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board (co-study director) David H. Smith, Senior Program Officer, Space Studies Board Rodney N. Howard, Senior Program Assistant, Space Studies Board NEW OPPORTUNITIES IN SOLAR SYSTEM EXPLORATION The ad hoc Committee to Review New Opportunities in Solar System Exploration was formed to conduct an analysis of a number of issues that relate to NASA’s next New Frontiers Announcement of Opportunity (AO) and provide criteria and guiding principles for determining the list of candidate missions. At the request of the sponsor, NASA’s Science Mission Directorate (SMD), the study’s statement of task was revised to reflect SMD’s new interest in possibly including Mars in the New Frontiers program. In addition to its original requirements, the study will make recommendations about whether Mars mission proposals should be considered in the New Frontiers AO, or remain separate, as has been true historically. The committee delivered its report, Opening New Frontiers in Space: Choices for the Next New Frontiers Announcement of Opportunity, to NASA on March 4 and publicly released the report on March 12, 2008. On the day of its public release, Planetary Science Division director Jim Green announced that NASA had accepted all of the report’s recommendations, which increase the number of mission options for the next New Frontiers AO. However, NASA later announced that it would not follow the recommendation for considering other options outside of the eight recommended in the report. The final version of the New Frontiers AO may be delayed due to budget considerations. Membership Reta F. Beebe, New Mexico State University (co-chair) Warren W. Buck, University of Washington (co-chair) Douglas P. Blanchard, NASA Johnson Space Center (retired) Robert D. Braun, Georgia Institute of Technology Bernard F. Burke, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Alan Delamere, Ball Aerospace and Technologies Corporation (retired) Rosaly M. Lopes-Gautier, Jet Propulsion Laboratory Stephen Mackwell, Lunar and Planetary Institute Timothy J. McCoy, Smithsonian Institution Ralph L. McNutt, Jr., Johns Hopkins University, Applied Physics Laboratory Sandra Pizzarello, Arizona State University Gerald Schubert, University of California, Los Angeles Donna L. Shirley, Managing Creativity John Spencer, Southwest Research Institute Elizabeth P. Turtle, Johns Hopkins University, Applied Physics Laboratory Dwayne A. Day, Program Officer, Space Studies Board (study director) Celeste A. Naylor, Senior Program Assistant, Space Studies Board
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Annual Report 2008 PLANETARY PROTECTION REQUIREMENTS FOR MARS SAMPLE RETURN MISSIONS An ad hoc Committee on Planetary Protection Requirements for Mars Sample Return Missions was formed to review and update the 1997 NRC report Mars Sample Return: Issues and Recommendations in the light of new findings about Mars and recent advances in the biological sciences. The committee met twice in 2008—at Arizona State University in Tempe, Arizona, on August 12-14, 2008, and at the National Academy of Sciences Building in Washington, D.C., on September 8-10, 2008. Both meetings were devoted to presentations on planetary protection policies and practices, planning activities for a Mars sample return mission, biosecurity issues, scientific advances in the study of the martian environment, and life in extreme terrestrial environments. A draft of the committee’s report, Assessment of Planetary Protection Requirements for Mars Sample Return Missions, was sent out to external reviewers for comment in early December. Delivery of the report to NASA is expected in the first quarter of 2009. Membership Jack D. Farmer, Arizona State University (chair) James F. Bell III, Cornell University Kathleen C. Benison, Central Michigan University William V. Boynton, University of Arizona Sherry L. Cady, Portland State University F. Grant Ferris, University of Toronto Duncan MacPherson, Jet Propulsion Laboratory Margaret S. Race, SETI Institute Mark H. Thiemens, University of California, San Diego Meenakshi Wadhwa, Arizona State University David H. Smith, Senior Program Officer, Space Studies Board (study director) Rodney N. Howard, Senior Program Assistant, Space Studies Board RADIOISOTOPE POWER SYSTEMS Radioisotope power systems, such as radioisotope thermoelectric generators, provide electric power to NASA spacecraft traveling to the outer planets and on other missions where solar arrays are not a viable option. An ad hoc Committee on Radioisotope Power Systems was formed to assess the technical readiness and programmatic balance of NASA’s radioisotope power systems technology portfolio in terms of its ability to support NASA’s near- and long-term mission plans. In addition, the study will also examine related public and private infrastructure and the effectiveness of other federal agencies involved in relevant R&D. The study will also review strategies for reestablishing domestic production of plutonium-238 (Pu-238), which serves as the fuel for radioisotope power systems. The committee held three meetings in 2008: September 18-19 at the National Academies’ Keck Center in Washington, D.C.; October 27-29 at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California; and December 11-12 at the National Academy of Sciences Building in Washington, D.C. During these meetings, the committee collected information on NASA’s needs for radioisotope power systems; related research and development by NASA, the Department of Energy, and industry; and the options available to the Department of Energy for meeting NASA’s needs for Pu-238. The committee also prepared a tentative set of findings and recommendations and a preliminary draft of its final report. As part of the information collection effort, small groups of committee members also conducted site visits at NASA’s Glenn Research Center (October 10), the Idaho National Laboratory (October 15), and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (November 13). The committee’s final meeting will be held January 12-13, 2009, at the National Academies’ Arnold and Mabel Beckman Center in Irvine, California. Membership William W. Hoover, Independent Consultant (co-chair) Ralph L. McNutt, Jr., Johns Hopkins University, Applied Physics Laboratory (co-chair)
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Annual Report 2008 Douglas M. Allen, Schafer Corporation Samim Anghaie, University of Florida Reta F. Beebe, New Mexico State University Warren W. Buck, University of Washington Beverly A. Cook, Jet Propulsion Laboratory Sergio B. Guarro, The Aerospace Corporation Roger D. Launius, Smithsonian Institution Frank B. McDonald, University of Maryland, College Park Alan R. Newhouse, Independent Consultant Joseph A. Sholtis, Jr., Sholtis Engineering and Safety Consulting Spencer R. Titley, University of Arizona Emanuel Tward, Northrop Grumman Space Technology Earl Wahlquist, U.S. Department of Energy (retired) Alan C. Angleman, Senior Program Officer, Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board (study director) Dwayne A. Day, Program Officer, Space Studies Board Sarah M. Capote, Program Associate, Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board (through November 2008) Celeste A. Naylor, Senior Program Assistant, Space Studies Board (from November 2008 through January 2009) Andrea M. Rebholz, Senior Program Assistant, Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board (from February 2009) RATIONALE AND GOALS FOR THE U.S. CIVIL SPACE PROGRAM An ad hoc Committee on Rationale and Goals for the U.S. Civil Space Program was organized under the auspices of the SSB and the ASEB, with funding support from The National Academies Presidents’ Committee, to prepare a report to advise the nation on key goals and critical issues in 21st century U.S. civil space policy. The committee will, inter alia, analyze the rationale for U.S. efforts in space and the elements comprising leadership in this area; examine the balance and interfaces between fundamental scientific research in space, human space exploration, and applications of space technology and civil space systems for societal benefits; assess the role that commercial space companies can play in fulfilling national space goals and the proper role of the government in facilitating the emergence and success of commercial space companies; and recommend options for government attention to address and potentially resolve problems that the committee might identify. The committee will identify issues that are critically important to the future vitality and progress of the U.S. civil space program and recommend options to address and resolve critical issues. At its information-gathering and discussion meetings on October 5-7, 2008, and December 3-5, 2008, the committee heard perspectives from several federal agencies (NASA, NOAA, the Department of Defense, and the Federal Aviation Administration) and other guest experts on a wide range of topics—including Earth observations, space exploration and science, advanced technology, national security, entrepreneurship, foreign policy, and public interest—all in the context of the study charge. The committee will meet again on January 13-15, 2009. Membership Lester L. Lyles, The Lyles Group (chair) Raymond S. Colladay, Lockheed Martin Astronautics (retired) (co-vice chair) Lennard A. Fisk, University of Michigan (co-vice chair) Jay Apt, Carnegie Mellon University James B. Armor, Jr., The Armor Group, LLC Wanda M. Austin, The Aerospace Corporation David Baltimore, California Institute of Technology Robert Bednarek, SES NEW SKIES Joseph A. Burns, Cornell University Pierre Chao, Renaissance Strategic Advisors Kenneth S. Flamm, University of Texas, Austin Joan Johnson-Freese, U.S. Naval War College
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Annual Report 2008 Paul D. Nielsen, Carnegie Mellon University Michael S. Turner, University of Chicago Thomas H. Vonder Haar, Colorado State University George T. Whitesides,* National Space Society Joseph K. Alexander, Senior Program Officer, Space Studies Board (co-study director) Brian D. Dewhurst, Program Officer, Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board (co-study director) Carmela J. Chamberlain, Program Associate, Space Studies Board Lewis Groswald, Policy Intern, Space Studies Board Victoria Swisher, Research Assistant, Space Studies Board ROLE AND SCOPE OF MISSION-ENABLING ACTIVITIES IN NASA’S SPACE AND EARTH SCIENCE MISSIONS The ad hoc Committee on the Role and Scope of Mission-Enabling Activities in NASA’s Space and Earth Science Missions was formed to study mission-enabling activities, which traditionally encompass much of NASA’s research and analysis programs and which include support for theory, modeling, and data analysis; suborbital flights and complementary ground-based programs; and advanced mission and instrumentation concept studies. The committee will identify the appropriate roles for mission-enabling activities and metrics for assessing their effectiveness; evaluate how, from a strategic perspective, decisions should be made about balance between mission-related and mission-enabling elements of the overall program; and evaluate the balance between various elements within the mission-enabling component. The committee held a conference-call organizational meeting on October 28, 2008, and the first full committee meeting will be at the National Academies’ Beckman Center in Irvine, California, on January 21-23, 2009. Membership Lennard A. Fisk, University of Michigan (chair) Bruce H. Margon, University of California, Santa Cruz (vice chair) Mark R. Abbott, Oregon State University Steven J. Battel, Battel Engineering Yvonne C. Brill, Independent Consultant Donald Brownlee, University of Washington Richard Chapas, Battelle Eastern Science and Technology Center Martin H. Israel, Washington University Conilee G. Kirkpatrick, HRL Laboratories, LLC Jennifer A. Logan, Harvard University Robyn Millan, Dartmouth College Richard R. Paul, Boeing Phantom Works (retired) Guenter Riegler, NASA Ames Research Center (retired) Mark V. Sykes, Planetary Science Institute Joseph K. Alexander, Senior Program Officer, Space Studies Board (study director) Victoria Swisher, Research Associate, Space Studies Board Linda Walker, Senior Project Assistant, Space Studies Board SCIENCE OPPORTUNITIES ENABLED BY NASA’S CONSTELLATION SYSTEM The ad hoc Committee on Science Opportunities Enabled by NASA’s Constellation System was formed under the auspices of SSB and ASEB to assess potential space and Earth science mission concepts that could take advantage of the capabilities of the Constellation System of launch vehicles and spacecraft that is being developed * Resigned from committee November 2008.
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Annual Report 2008 by NASA. The committee analyzed mission concepts provided by NASA and mission concepts submitted in response to a Request for Information from the committee to the space and Earth science communities. At its February 20-22, 2008, meeting at the Keck Center in Washington, D.C., the committee was briefed on the Ares I and Ares V rockets and the results of 11 “Vision Mission” studies conducted for NASA from 2005 to 2006. The committee’s March 17-19, 2008, meeting at the Beckman Center in Irvine, California, was entirely devoted to writing the committee’s interim report. The interim report, Science Opportunities Enabled by NASA’s Constellation System: Interim Report, was delivered to NASA in late April and publicly released in early May. At its June 9-11, 2008, meeting in Boulder, Colorado, the committee evaluated responses from the scientific community to its request for information. At its August 4-6, 2008, meeting in Woods Hole, Massachusetts, the committee heard briefings on the value of Ares V for planetary missions from Tom Spilker, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, and on robotic servicing of the Orbital Express mission from Tracey Espero, Boeing. The remainder of the meeting was devoted to report writing. The committee delivered a prepublication version of its final report, Launching Science: Science Opportunities Provided by NASA’s Constellation System, to NASA on November 14, 2008; a published version is expected in February 2009. Membership George A. Paulikas, The Aerospace Corporation (retired) (chair) Kathryn C. Thornton, University of Virginia (vice chair) Claudia J. Alexander, Jet Propulsion Laboratory Steven V.W. Beckwith, University of California System Mark A. Brosmer, The Aerospace Corporation Joseph A. Burns, Cornell University Cynthia A. Cattell, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis Alan Delamere, Ball Aerospace and Technologies Corporation (retired) Margaret Finarelli, George Mason University Todd Gary, Tennessee State University Steven Howell, National Optical Astronomy Observatories Arlo U. Landolt, Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College Franklin D. Martin, Martin Consulting, Inc. Spencer R. Titley, University of Arizona Carl Wunsch, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Dwayne A. Day, Program Officer, Space Studies Board (study director) Rodney N. Howard, Senior Program Assistant, Space Studies Board STRATEGY TO MITIGATE THE IMPACT OF SENSOR DESCOPES AND DEMANIFESTS ON THE NPOESS AND GOES-R SPACECRAFT The ad hoc Committee on A Strategy to Mitigate the Impact of Sensor Descopes and Demanifests on the NPOESS and GOES-R Spacecraft was formed shortly before the SSB held a June 2007 workshop on Options to Ensure the Climate Record from the NPOESS and GOES-R Spacecraft. NASA and NOAA requested that the NRC form this ad hoc committee to carry out a fast turn-around follow-on study that would (1) prioritize capabilities, especially those related to climate research that were lost or placed at risk following recent changes to NPOESS and the GOES-R series of polar and geostationary environmental monitoring satellites and (2) present strategies to recover these capabilities. The committee met in October and December 2007 and released a prepublication version of its report in July 2008. In late August 2008, a final version of the report, Ensuring the Climate Record from the NPOESS and GOES-R Spacecraft: Elements of a Strategy to Recover Measurement Capabilities Lost in Program Restructuring, was published. For convenience, this report also has an appendix that reproduces the final, edited version of the report from the June 2007 workshop, Options to Ensure the Climate Record from the NPOESS and GOES-R Spacecraft: A Workshop Report. The report’s Summary is reprinted in Chapter 5.
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Annual Report 2008 Membership Antonio J. Busalacchi, Jr., University of Maryland, College Park (chair) Philip E. Ardanuy, Raytheon Information Solutions Judith A. Curry, Georgia Institute of Technology Craig J. Donlon, Meteorological Office Hadley Centre for Climate Prediction and Research Judith L. Lean, Naval Research Laboratory Berrien Moore III, Climate Central R. Steven Nerem, University of Colorado, Boulder Anne W. Nolin, Oregon State University Jay S. Pearlman, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc. Joyce E. Penner, University of Michigan James F.W. Purdom, Colorado State University Carl F. Schueler, Raytheon Company (retired) Graeme L. Stephens, Colorado State University Christopher S. Velden, University of Wisconsin, Madison Robert A. Weller, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution Frank J. Wentz, Remote Sensing Systems Arthur A. Charo, Senior Program Officer, Space Studies Board (study director) Theresa M. Fisher, Program Associate, Space Studies Board