APPENDIX A
Examples of Tsunami Sources That Threaten the United States

Estimates of tsunami losses and heights are from the NOAA tsunami database.1

Source

Tsunamis

Unknowns

FAULTS—Seismic slip on faults generates tsunamis directly by displacing the floors of water bodies. The slip can also generate tsunamis indirectly through shaking that triggers slides; a category of source treated separately below. Tsunamis most commonly result from slip on the subduction-zone faults that convey one tectonic plate beneath another.

Aleutian-Alaskan subduction zone—Along about 2,500 km of its length, ruptured almost completely in a series of earthquakes between 1938 and 1965.2

The zone’s largest 20th-century tsunamis, both on nearby coasts and on distant ones, were generated during the Aleutian earthquake of 1946 and the Alaskan earthquake of 1964. The far-field part of the 1946 tsunami, chiefly generated directly by faulting,3 caused most of Hawaii’s recorded tsunami deaths. Similarly, the greatest tsunami in Washington, Oregon, and California written history originated off Alaska with tectonic displacement during the 1964 earthquake. Judging from geologic records of predecessors to the 1964 earthquake during the last 6,000 years (Fig. 3-3c),4 ocean-wide tsunamis from the 1964 source recur at irregular intervals averaging close to 600 years.

How often do Aleutian sources spawn tsunamis comparable in far-field size to the tsunamis of 1946 and 1964? How much are recurrence intervals lengthened by aseismic slip in the fault-rupture areas? Will the next large tsunami from the 1964 source recur sooner than average because the 1964 earthquake ended a recurrence interval close to 900 years, about 300 years longer than average? How persistent are the lateral limits of Aleutian-Alaskan fault ruptures of the 20th century as boundaries that define individual tsunami source areas?5

Cascadia subduction zone—1,100 km long. Confirmed as a tsunami hazard by geophysical and geological research in the 1980s and 1990s.6

The main nearby tsunami source for Washington, Oregon, and northern California. Also among the main distant sources for Hawaii.7 Intervals between the zone’s great earthquakes (of estimated magnitude 8.0 or 9.0) average close to 500 years and range from a few centuries to a millennium (Fig. 3-3d).8,9 The most recent of Cascadia’s great earthquakes, of estimated magnitude 8.7-9.2,10 spawned an ocean-wide tsunami in A.D. 1700 (Fig. 2f).

What proportion of Cascadia’s great earthquakes produce unusually large tsunamis by attaining magnitude 9.0?9,11,12 How do those proportions vary along the length of the subduction zone? What partial-length ruptures should be assumed by tsunami modelers?13 What parts of the zone are likely to augment tsunamis on nearby shores by producing greater than average deformation of the ocean floor?12



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APPENDIX A Examples of Tsunami Sources That Threaten the United States Estimates of tsunami losses and heights are from the NOAA tsunami database.1 Source Tsunamis Unknowns FAULTS—Seismic slip on faults generates tsunamis directly by displacing the floors of water bodies. The slip can also generate tsunamis indirectly through shaking that triggers slides; a category of source treated separately below. Tsunamis most commonly result from slip on the subduction-zone faults that convey one tectonic plate beneath another. Aleutian- The zone’s largest 20th-century tsunamis, How often do Aleutian sources spawn Alaskan both on nearby coasts and on distant tsunamis comparable in far-field size subduction ones, were generated during the Aleutian to the tsunamis of 1946 and 1964? zone—Along earthquake of 1946 and the Alaskan How much are recurrence intervals about 2,500 km earthquake of 1964. The far-field part of the lengthened by aseismic slip in the of its length, 1946 tsunami, chiefly generated directly fault-rupture areas? Will the next large by faulting,3 caused most of Hawaii’s ruptured almost tsunami from the 1964 source recur completely recorded tsunami deaths. Similarly, the sooner than average because the in a series of greatest tsunami in Washington, Oregon, 1964 earthquake ended a recurrence earthquakes and California written history originated off interval close to 900 years, about between 1938 Alaska with tectonic displacement during 300 years longer than average? How and 1965.2 the 1964 earthquake. Judging from geologic persistent are the lateral limits of records of predecessors to the 1964 Aleutian-Alaskan fault ruptures of earthquake during the last 6,000 years (Fig. the 20th century as boundaries that 3-3c),4 ocean-wide tsunamis from the 1964 define individual tsunami source areas?5 source recur at irregular intervals averaging close to 600 years. Cascadia The main nearby tsunami source for What proportion of Cascadia’s great subduction Washington, Oregon, and northern earthquakes produce unusually zone—1,100 California. Also among the main distant large tsunamis by attaining sources for Hawaii.7 Intervals between the magnitude 9.0?9, 11, 12 How do those km long. Confirmed as a zone’s great earthquakes (of estimated proportions vary along the length tsunami hazard magnitude 8.0 or 9.0) average close to of the subduction zone? What by geophysical 500 years and range from a few centuries partial-length ruptures should be to a millennium (Fig. 3-3d).8, 9 The most assumed by tsunami modelers?13 and geological research in recent of Cascadia’s great earthquakes, of What parts of the zone are likely to estimated magnitude 8.7-9.2,10 spawned an the 1980s and augment tsunamis on nearby shores 1990s.6 ocean-wide tsunami in A.D. 1700 (Fig. 2f ). by producing greater than average deformation of the ocean floor?12 0

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APPENDIX A Source Tsunamis Unknowns Caribbean A tsunami in 1946, which caused an What is the tsunami potential of the subduction estimated 1,790 deaths in the Dominican plate boundary north and northeast zone—Faults Republic, resulted from a thrust earthquake of Puerto Rico, and of a probable on or near the plate boundary.14 A tsunami from oblique backthrust south of the island (Muertos Trough)?15 What far-field convergence in 1867, with some 30 fatalities in the between the Virgin Islands, was generated during an tsunami hazard does the plate North America earthquake southeast of Puerto Rico in the boundary pose to the U.S. Atlantic seaboard?16 and Caribbean Anegada Trough (Fig. 3-1b). plates near Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands Subduction The 1837 and 1960 tsunamis each took What factors enabled this subduction zone off some 60 lives in Hawaii. The 1960 tsunami zone to produce the outsize earthquake and tsunami of 1960,20 south-central also produced strong currents in Los Chile—Source Angeles–Long Beach Harbor. In the and what do these factors imply for of largest known source area of the 1960 tsunami, a swath tsunami hazards from subduction earthquake, of of ocean floor almost 100 km by 800 km zones—including the Kuril, Japan, 1960, and of a probably rose 2 m or more during the 1960 and Mariana examples below—that mainshock.18 Tsunamis like the big one in predecessor in are not known to have produced 183717 1960 may have recurred at roughly four- earthquakes of magnitude 9.0 yet may be capable of doing so?21, 22 century intervals, on average, during the last 2,000 years (Fig. 3-3b). 19 Subduction The tsunami from the 2006 earthquake How large were the unusually large zone along the caused an estimated $700,000 in damage in Kuril earthquakes inferred from Crescent City, California.23 Kuril Trench— geological signs of tsunamis and postseismic uplift in Hokkaido?24, 25 Produced earthquake of Mw 8.3 in 2006 Subduction In simulations with unit sources having Is the Japan Trench limited to zone along the 1 m of seismic slip on fault-rupture patches earthquakes as large as those in its written historical record?26 Japan Trench— 50 km by 100 km, Crescent City’s greatest No measured tsunami threat from the western Pacific earthquake is the subduction zone along the Japan Trench.23 larger than Mw 8.322 Mariana Simulated for earthquakes as large as What is the maximum plausible subduction Mw 9.3 to make hazard assessments for earthquake from the Mariana nearby Guam27 and distant Pearl Harbor.7 zone—No subduction zone, classically measured considered a place where plates are earthquake weakly coupled and the interplate larger than thrust earthquakes consequently of Mw 7.221 or 7.722 modest size?28 0

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Appendix A Source Tsunamis Unknowns Source of the The 1755 tsunami was noted in the How did the 1755 tsunami affect 1755 Lisbon Caribbean, from Barbados northwestward Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands? tsunami— to Cuba. Its maximum estimated Caribbean Does it account for overwash of Offshore faulting height is 7 m. The tsunami is unknown Anegada, in the British Virgin Islands related to from ports along the U.S. Atlantic seaboard, northeast of Puerto Rico (Fig. 3-3e)? collision of the probably because of shielding by submarine How often can tsunamis like the one Nubian (African) hills that directed the transatlantic waves in 1755 be expected? and Eurasian northwestward toward Newfoundland and plates29 southwestward toward the Caribbean and Brazil.30 Seattle fault— Six-meter uplift along the Seattle fault How often does the Seattle fault One of several generated a tsunami in Puget Sound during produce earthquakes like the one an earthquake about 1,100 years ago.32 faults capable 1,100 years ago? Do tsunamis result of displacing The same earthquake set off slides in Lake from slip limited to the Seattle fault’s Washington.33 waters of Puget backthrusts, which have a post-glacial Sound.31 history of repeated earthquakes?34 SLIDES—Most slides that set off tsunamis have been triggered by earthquake or, less commonly, by volcanic eruption. Several grand examples: • ituya Bay, Alaska, 1958—An earthquake-induced rockslide in 1958 set off a giant wave that trimmed L trees to an altitude of 525 m.35 • unda Strait, Indonesia, 1883—The explosion of Krakatau triggered a tsunami that killed an estimated S 35,000 persons.36 • orth Sea, 8,000 years ago—The Storegga slide displaced 2,400-3,200 km3 of ocean-bottom materials37 N and generated waves known from tsunami deposits in Norway and Scotland.38, 39 • ig Island of Hawaii, 120,000 years ago—Flank collapse produced tsunami run-ups to heights of B hundreds of meters.40 A catastrophic ancestor to the local Hawaiian tsunamis that killed 46 persons in 1846 and 2 in 1975.41 Slide-generated tsunamis rarely amount to much on distant shores. Compared with the areas of ocean floor displaced by faulting during great subduction zone earthquakes, their source areas are usually compact. Slides therefore yield tsunami waves of short period that diminish rapidly with distance. This decrease helps limit the hazards to the U.S. Atlantic coast from flank collapse in the Canary Islands, off West Africa.42 Alaskan slides The separate tsunamis from the Chenaga, What do these slides imply for Puget during the 1964 Seward, Valdez, and Whitter slides together Sound deltas as potential tsunami sources?31 earthquake— account for 79 of the 106 Alaskan deaths Slides at from tsunamis that the 1964 earthquake Chenaga,43 Kenai triggered (Fig. 3-2e). Most of the slides Lake,44 Seward,45 resulted from shaking-induced failures of Valdez,46 and deltas. Whittier47 0

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APPENDIX A Source Tsunamis Unknowns Slides off The 1918 tsunami, which caused roughly What slides are poised to generate Puerto Rico— 40 deaths, may have resulted from an tsunamis elsewhere on the steep earthquake-induced slide.49 The slide submarine slopes off Puerto Rico?50 Aided by a wealth of steep extends from a headscarp at 1,200 m slopes (Fig. 3-1b) depth to a terminus at 4,200 m in Mona and by active Passage, the strait between Puerto Rico and Hispaniola. It likely displaced 10 km3 of faults associated with the nearby water. plate boundary48 Volcanic debris A tsunami in Cook Inlet resulted from a How many of Augustine’s debris flows—Hot and debris avalanche off erupting Augustine avalanches, a dozen of which have cold debris flows Volcano in 1883. Sedimentary deposits reached Cook Inlet in the last 2,000 into Cook Inlet suggest that Augustine and Redoubt years alone, sent tsunamis onto and Bristol Bay, Volcanoes triggered additional Cook Inlet now-populated parts of the Kenai tsunamis in the last 4,000 years,51 and that Peninsula?54 Alaska; debris avalanche at a caldera-forming eruption of Aniakchak Mount St. Helens Volcano generated a tsunami 3,500 years ago in Bristol Bay.52 The debris avalanche at the outset of the May 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens, upon entering Spirit Lake, set off a tsunami that reached heights of 250 m above the former lake level.53 Slides off The Palos Verdes slide serves as a poster How do southern California’s nearby southern child for southern California’s near-field sources of tsunamis compare, in California— tsunami hazard. Other potential sources probability and size, with its distant Include the Palos include a submarine slide near Santa causes of lesser inundation? Verdes slide, of Barbara and offshore faults with known 0.8 km3 with a or inferred Quaternary displacement.56-61 headscarp 5 km The Palos Verdes slide occurred close to 7,500 years ago.55 off the coast near Los Angeles (Fig. 3-1c)55 0

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Appendix A Source Tsunamis Unknowns Slides off the Submarine slides are “considered the How probable are these slides today? edge of the primary source of potential tsunamis along Most of the slides off the U.S. Atlantic the U.S. Atlantic coast.”15 The Currituck slide, U.S. Atlantic coast occurred at least 5,000 years with an estimated volume of 165 km3, is continental ago, the notable exception being among the largest of these.63 Its simulated shelf— Cover Canada’s Grand Banks slide, one-third of tsunamis originate with peak-to-trough which generated a tsunami that the continental amplitudes of several tens of meters. The took 28 lives in Newfoundland in 1929.65 The Currituck slide dates to slope and rise waves crest about 6 m above sea level as roughly 25,000-50,000 years ago.66 off New England, they overtop the sandy barrier between the one-sixth off the Atlantic Ocean and Currituck Sound, North Probabilities aside, simulating slides Carolina.64 Middle Atlantic, like Currituck requires uncertain and one- estimates of slide size, speed, and eighth off the duration, all factors in the slide’s Southeast62 effectiveness at generating a tsunami.64 Slumps and No confirmed tsunamis. Tsunami hazard As with the slides off the U.S. Atlantic slides beneath inferred from a slump with a volume of coast, are the Gulf of Mexico examples 50-60 km3 in the northwestern Gulf of the Gulf of mainly relicts from times of lowered Mexico.70 sea level?69 Mexico—Some generated by rise of salt domes,67 others at scarps in carbonate rocks,68 still others by ice-age lowering of sea level69 Slides ascribed Skagway: Wave heights said 5-6 m high in Causes considered for the Skagway inlet and 9-11 m high at shore; one fatality.71 to human slide include natural failure as well as dock construction.71 activity— Northeast Washington: Waves up to 20 m Includes high from shores of the reservoir behind Grand Coulee Dam,72 smaller examples from construction summer 2009.73 at Skagway, Alaska,71 and fluctuation of the level of a reservoir in northeast Washington State72 

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APPENDIX A REFERENCES 1. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. 2010. NOAA/WDC Historical Tsunami Database at NGDC. [Online]. Available: http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/hazard/tsu_db.shtml. [2010, March 17]. 2. Wesson, R.L., O.S. Boyd, C.S. Mueller, and A.D. Frankel. 2008. Challenges in making a seismic hazard map for Alaska and the Aleutians: Active tectonics and seismic potential of Alaska. Geophysical Monograph 179:385-397. 3. Okal, E.A. and H. Hebert. 2007. Far-field simulation of the 1946 Aleutian tsunami. Geophysical Journal International 169:1229-1238. 4. Carver, G. and G. Plafker. 2008. Paleoseismicity and neotectonics of the Aleutian Subduction Zone–An overview. In Active Tectonics and Seismic Potential of Alaska, Freymueller, J.T., P.J. Haeussler, R. Wesson, and G. Ekstrom (Eds). American Geophysical Union, Washington, DC. 5. Shennan, I., R. Bruhn, and G. Plafker. 2009. Multi-segment earthquakes and tsunami potential of the Aleutian megathrust. Quaternary Science Reviews 28(1-2):7-13. 6. Atwater, B.F., M.R. Satoko, S. Kenji, T. Yoshinobu, U. Kazue, and D.K. Yamaguchi. 2005. The Orphan Tsunami of 1700: Japanese Clues to a Parent Earthquake in North America. University of Washington Press, Seattle, Washington. 7. Tang, L., C. Chamberlin, E. Tolkova, M. Spillane, V.V. Titov, E.N. Bernard, and H.O. Mofjeld. 2006. Assessment of Potential Tsunami Impact for Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. NOAA Technical Memorandum OAR PMEL-131 36, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Silver Spring, Maryland. 8. Atwater, B.F., M.P. Tuttle, E.S. Schweig, C.M. Rubin, D.K. Yamaguchi, and E. Hemphill-Haley. 2004. Earthquake recurrence inferred from paleoseismology. Developments in Quaternary Science 1:331-350. 9. Goldfinger, C., K. Grijalva, R. B�rgmann, A.E. Morey, J.E. Johnson, C.H. Nelson, J. Gutiérrez-Pastor, A. Ericsson, E. Karabanov, J.D. Chaytor, J. Patton, and E. Grácia. 2008. Late Holocene rupture of the northern San Andreas Fault and possible stress linkage to the Cascadia Subduction Zone. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America 98(2):861-889. 10. Satake, K., K. Wang, and B.F. Atwater. 2003. Fault slip and seismic moment of the 1700 Cascadia earthquake inferred from Japanese tsunami descriptions. Journal of Geophysical Research 108(B11):1-17. 11. Nelson, A.R., H.M. Kelsey, and R.C. Witter. 2006. Great earthquakes of variable magnitude at the Cascadia subduction zone. Quaternary Research 65(3):354-365. 12. Priest, G.R., C. Goldfinger, K. Wang, R.C. Witter, Y. Zhang, and A.M. Baptista. 2009. Confidence levels for tsunami-inundation limits in northern Oregon inferred from a 10,000-year history of great earthquakes at the Cascadia subduction zone. Natural Hazards 1-47. 13. Uslu, B., J.C. Borrero, L.A. Dengler, and C.E. Synolakis. 2007. Tsunami inundation at Crescent City, California generated by earthquakes along the Cascadia subduction zone. Geophysical Research Letters 34:L20601. 14. Dolan, J.F. and D.J. Wald. 1998. The 1943-1953 north-central Caribbean earthquakes: Active tectonic setting, seismic hazards, and implications for Caribbean-North America plate motions. Geological Society of America Special Paper 326:143-169. 15. ten Brink, U.S. 2009. Tsunami hazard along the U.S. Atlantic coast. Marine Geology 264:1-3. 16. Geist, E.L. and T Parsons. 2009. Assessment of source probabilities for potential tsunamis affecting the U.S. Atlantic coast. Marine Geology 264:98-108. 17. Barrientos, S.E. 2007. Earthquakes in Chile. In The Geology of Chile, Moreno, T. and W. Gibbons (Eds.). The Geological Society, London, England, United Kingdom. 18. Moreno, M.S., J. Bolte, J. Klotz, and D. Melnick. 2009. Impact of megathrust geometry on inversion of coseismic slip from geodetic data: Application to the 1960 Chile earthquake. Geophysical Research Letters 36:L16310. 19. Cisternas, M., B.F. Atwater, F. Torrejón, Y. Sawai, G. Machuca, M. Lagos, A. Eipert, C. Youlton, I. Salgado, T. Kamataki, M. Shishikura, C.P. Rajendran, J.K. Malik, Y. Rizal, and M. Husni. 2005. Predecessors of the giant 1960 Chile earthquake. Nature 437:404-407. 20. Kanamori, H. 2006. Lessons from the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake: Extreme natural hazards. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences 364(1845):1927-1945. 

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Appendix A 21. Stein, S. and E.A. Okal. 2007. Ultralong period seismic study of the December 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and implications for regional tectonics and the subduction process: The 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake and the Indian Ocean tsunami. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America 97(1A):S279-S295. 22. McCaffrey, R. 2008. Global frequency of magnitude 9 earthquakes. Geology 36(3):263-266. 23. Dengler, L., B. Uslu, A. Barberopoulou, J. Borrero, and C.E. Synolakis. 2008. The vulnerability of Crescent City, California, to tsunamis generated by earthquakes in the Kuril Islands region of the northwestern Pacific. Seismological Research Letters 79(5):608-619. 24. Nanayama, F., K. Satake, R. Furukawa, K. Shimokawa, B.F. Water, K. Shingeno, and S. Yamaki. 2003. Unusually large earth- quakes inferred from tsunami deposits along the Kuril Trench. Nature 424:660-663. 25. Sawai, Y., K Sataki, T. Kamataki, H. Nasu, M. Shishikura, B.F. Atwater, B.P. Horton, H.M. Kelsey, T. Nagumo, and M. Yamaguchi. 2004. Transient uplift after a 17th-century earthquake along the Kuril subduction zone. Science 306(5703):1918-1920. 26. Hashimoto, C., A. Noda, T. Sagiya, and M. Matsu’ura. 2009. Interplate seismogenic zones along the Kuril-Japan trench inferred from GPS data inversion. Nature Geoscience 2:141-144. 27. Arcas, D., B. Uslu, V.V. Titov, and C. Chamberlin. 2008. Tsunami hazard assessment in Guam. EOS, Transactions, American Geophysical Union 89:OS42B-06. 28. Uyeda, S. and H. Kanamori. 1979. Back-arc opening and the mode of subduction. Journal of Geophysical Research 84(B3):1049-1061. 29. Baptista, M.A. and J.M. Miranda. 2009. Evaluation of the 1755 earthquake source using tsunami modeling: The 1755 Lisbon earthquake: Revisited. Geotechnical, Geological and Earthquake Engineering 7:425-432. 30. Barkan, R., U.S. ten Brink, and J. Lin. 2009. Far field tsunami simulations of the 1755 Lisbon earthquake: Implications for tsunami hazard to the U.S. East Coast and the Caribbean. Marine Geology 264:109-122. 31. González, F.I., B.L. Sherrod, B.F. Atwater, A.P. Frankel, S.P. Palmer, M.L. Holmes, R.E. Karlin, B.E. Jaffe, V.V. Titov, H.O. Mofjeld, and A.J. Venturato. 2003. Puget Sound Tsunami Sources—2002 Workshop Report. U.S. National Tsunami Hazard Mitiga- tion Program, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Silver Spring, Maryland. 32. Bucknam, R.C., E. Hemphill-Haley, and E.B. Leopold. 1992. Abrupt uplift within the past 1700 years at southern Puget Sound, Washington. Science 258(5088):1611-1614. 33. Jacoby, G.C., P.L. Williams, and B.M. Buckley. 1992. Tree ring correlation between prehistoric landslides and abrupt tectonic events in Seattle, Washington. Science 258(5088):1621-1623. 34. Kelsey, H.M., B.L. Sherrod, A.R. Nelson, and T.M. Brocher. 2008. Earthquakes generated from bedding plane-parallel reverse faults above an active wedge thrust, Seattle fault zone. Geological Society of America Bulletin 120:1581-1597. 35. Miller, D.J. 1960. Giant waves in Lituya Bay, Alaska. U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 0354 C:51-86. 36. Simkin, T. and R.S. Fiske (Eds.).1983. Krakatau 1883: The Volcanic Eruption and Its Effects. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC. 37. Haflidason, H., R. Lien, H.P. Sejrup, C.F. Forsberg, and P. Bryn. 2005. The dating and morphometry of the Storegga Slide. Marine and Petroleum Geology 22(1-2):123-136. 38. Bondevik, S., J. Mangerud, S. Dawson, A. Dawson, and O. Lohne. 2003. Record-breaking height for 8000-year-old tsunami in the North Atlantic. EOS Transactions American Geophysical Union 84(31):289-293. 39. Smith, D.E., S. Shi, R.A. Cullingford, A.G. Dawson, S. Dawson, C.R. Firth, I.D.L. Foster, P.T. Fretwell, B.A. Haggart, L.K. Holloway, and D. Long. 2004. The Holocene Storegga Slide tsunami in the United Kingdom. Quaternary Science Reviews 23(23-24):2291-2321. 40. McMurtry, G.M., G.J Fryer, D.R. Tappin, I.P. Wilkinson, M. Williams, J. Fietzke, D. Garbe-Schoenberg, and P. Watts. 2004. Megatsunami deposits on Kohala Volcano, Hawaii, from flank collapse of Mauna Loa. Geology 32(9):741-744. 41. Goff, J., W.C. Dudley, M.J. de Maintenon, G. Cain, and J.P. Coney. 2006. The largest local tsunami in 20th century Hawaii. Marine Geology 226(1-2):65-79. 42. Gisler, G., R. Weaver, and M.L. Gittings. 2006. SAGE calculations of the tsunami threat from La Palma. Science of Tsunami Hazards 24(4):288-301. 43. Plafker, G., R. Kachadoorian, E.B. Eckel, and L.R. Mayo. 1969. Effects of the earthquake of March 27, 1964 on various com- munities. U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper P 0542-G:G1-G50. 

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APPENDIX A 44. McCulloch, D.S. 1966. Slide-induced waves, seiching, and ground fracturing caused by the earthquake of March 27, 1964, at Kenai Lake, Alaska. U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper P 0543-A:A1-A41. 45. Lemke, R.W. 1967. Effects of the earthquake of March 27, 1964, at Seward, Alaska. U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 0542-E:E1-E43. 46. Coulter, H.W. and R.R. Migliaccio. 1966. Effects of the earthquake of March 27, 1964 at Valdez, Alaska. U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 0542-C:C1-C36. 47. Kachadoorian, R. 1965. Effects of the earthquake of March 27, 1964, at Whittier, Alaska. U.S. Geological Survey Profes- sional Paper 0542-B:B1-B21. 48. ten Brink, U.S., W. Danforth, C. Polloni, B. Andrews, P. Lianes, S. Smith, E. Parker and T. Uozumi. New seafloor map of the Puerto Rico trench helps assess earthquake and tsunami hazards. EOS Transactions, American Geophysical Union 85(37):349-360. 49. Lopez-Venegas, A.M., U.S. ten Brink, and E.L. Geist. 2008. Submarine landslide as the source for the October 11, 1918 Mona Passage tsunami: Observations and modeling. Marine Geology 254:35-46. 50. ten Brink, U.S., E.L. Geist, P. Lynett, and B. Andrews. 2006. Submarine slides north of Puerto Rico and their tsunami potential. In Caribbean Tsunami Hazards, Mercado, A. and P. Liu (eds.). World Scientific Publishers, Singapore. 51. Beget, J., C. Gardner, and K. Davis. 2008. Volcanic tsunamis and prehistoric cultural transitions in Cook Inlet, Alaska: Volcanoes and human history. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 176(3):377-386. 52. Waythomas, C.F. and C.A. Neal. 1998. Tsunami generation by pyroclastic flow during the 3500-year B.P. caldera-forming eruption of Aniakchak Volcano, Alaska. Bulletin of Volcanology 60(2):110-124. 53. Voight, B., H. Glicken, R.J. Janda, and P.M. Douglass. 1981. Catastrophic rockslide avalanche of May 18: The 1980 eruptions of Mount St. Helens, Washington. U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1250:347-377. 54. Waythomas, C.F., P. Watts, and J.S. Walder. 2006. Numerical simulation of tsunami generation by cold volcanic mass flows at Augustine Volcano, Alaska. Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences (NHESS) 6:671-685. 55. Normark, W.R., M. McGann, and R. Sliter. 2004. Age of Palos Verdes submarine debris avalanche, southern California. Marine Geology 203(3-4):247-259. 56. McCulloch, D.S. 2004. Evaluating earthquake hazards in the Los Angeles region: An earth-science perspective. In Evaluat- ing Tsunami Potential, Ziony, J.I. (Ed.). U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1360:375-413, Washington, DC. 57. Borrero, J.C., M.R. Legg, and C.E. Synolakis. 2004. Tsunami sources in the Southern California Bight. Geophysical Research Letters 31:L13211. 58. Lee, H.J., H.G. Greene, B.D. Edwards, M.A. Fisher, and W.R. Normark. 2009. Submarine landslides of the Southern California Borderland. In Earth Science in the Urban Ocean: The Southern California Continental Borderland , Special Paper Geological Society of America 454:251-269, Boulder, Colorado. 59. Ryan, H.F., M.R. Legg, J.E. Conrad, and R.W. Sliter. 2009. Recent faulting in the Gulf of Santa Catalina: San Diego to Dana Point. In Earth Science in the Urban Ocean: The Southern California Continental Borderland, Special Paper Geological Society of America 454:291-315, Boulder, Colorado. 60. Fisher, M.A., C.C. Sorlien, and R.W. Sliter. 2009. Potential earthquake faults offshore Southern California, from the eastern Santa Barbara Channel south to Dana Point. In Earth Science in the Urban Ocean: The Southern California Continental Borderland, Special Paper Geological Society of America 454:271-290, Boulder, Colorado. 61. Barberopoulou, A., J.C. Borrero, B. Uslu, N. Kalligeris, J.D. Goltz, R.I. Wilson, and C.E. Synolakis. 2009. New maps to improve California tsunami preparedness. EOS, Transactions, American Geophysical Union 90(16):137-138. 62. Twichell, D.C., J.D. Chaytor, U.S. ten Brink, and B. Buczkowski. 2009. Morphology of late Quaternary submarine landslides along the U.S. Atlantic continental margin. Marine Geology 264:4-15. 63. Locat, J., H.J. Lee, U.S. ten Brink, D. Twichell, E.L. Geist, and M. Sansoucy. 2009. Geomorphology, stability and mobility of the Currituck slide. Marine Geology 264(1-2):28-40. 64. Geist, E.L., P.J. Lynett, and J.D. Chaytor. 2009. Hydrodynamic modeling of tsunamis from the Currituck landslide. Marine Geology 264(1-2):41-52. 65. Lee, H.J. 2009. Timing of occurrence of large submarine landslides on the Atlantic Ocean margin. Marine Geology 264(1-2):53-64. 

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Appendix A 66. Prior, D.B., E.H. Doyle, and T. Neurauter. 1986. The Currituck Slide, Mid-Atlantic continental slope: Revisited. Marine Geology 73(1-2):25-45. 67. Tripsanas, E.K., W.R. Bryant, and B.A. Phaneuf. 2004. Slope-instability processes caused by salt movements in a complex deep-water environment, Bryant Canyon area, northwest Gulf of Mexico. AAPG Bulletin 88(6):801-823. 68. Mullins, H.T., A.F. Gardulski, and A.C. Hine. 1986. Catastrophic collapse of the West Florida carbonate platform margin. Geology 14(2):167-170. 69. Lowrie, A., C.B. Lutken, and T.M. McGee. 2004. Multiple outer shelf deltas and downslope massive mass-wastings char- acterize the Mississippi Canyon, northern Gulf of Mexico. Transactions Gulf Coast Association of Geological Societies 54:383-392. 70. Trabant, P., P. Watts, F.L. Lettieri, and G.A. Jamieson. 2001. East Breaks slump, Northwest Gulf of Mexico. In Proceedings Offshore Technology Conference, Houston, Texas. 71. Rabinovich, A.B., R.E. Thomson, E.A. Kulikov, B.D. Bornhold, and I.V. Fine. 1999. The landslide-generated tsunami Novem- ber 3, 1994, in Skagway Harbor, Alaska: A case study. Geophysical Research Letters 26:3009-3012. 72. Jones, F.O., D.R. Embody, W.L. Peterson, and R.M. Hazlewood. 1961. Landslides along the Columbia River valley, north- eastern Washington. U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 367:1-98. 73. http://www.krem.com/topstories/stories/krem2-082509-landslide__.116caba52.html. 

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