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Index (Page numbers in italic refer to boxed text not B referenced in text.) Berggren, David, 170–172 Boise State University, 110–111 A Boston Museum of Science, 53 Building Math, 79, 83–84, 85, 92–93, Abstraction, 136 99 America COMPETES Act, 15 Building Structures with Young Children, American Association for the Advancement 87, 92, 99 of Science, 15, 165 American Institute of Chemical Engineering, 31 C American Institute of Electrical Engineers, 30–31 California State University, 111–112 American Institute of Mining Engineers, 31 Cal Teach, 111–112 American Society for Engineering Center for Innovation in Engineering and Education, 33 Science Education, 53 recommendations for, 9, 10, 160 Challenge-based environments, 54 American Society of Civil Engineers, 30 Children Designing and Engineering, 76, American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 81, 83–84, 87, 92, 98 30 Chunking strategy, 129 Analysis, in design process, 83–86 City Technology, 81, 84, 85, 86, 91, 93, 100, Apprenticeship training, 30 102 Army Corps of Engineers, 29 Cognitive load theory, 129 Cognitive processes 211

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212 INDEX abstraction, 136 Core engineering concepts and skills, benefits of engineering education, 53 22–23, 41–43, 76–77, 119–121 critical thinking, 93 drawing and representing, 133–137 current understanding of engineering effective teaching strategies, 140–142 education, 140–141 experimenting and testing, 137–141 design process approach to problem- necessary skills, 133 solving, 4, 37, 39–41 See also Optimization of design; engineering habits of mind, 5–6, 152 Systems thinking experimentation and testing, 137–140 Creativity, 5, 152 implications for engineering education, Credentialing for engineering education, 9 23 Critical thinking, 93 multivariable analysis, 128–130, 138 Cunningham, Christine, 112 optimization concepts, student capacity Curricula, K–12 engineering for understanding, 128 beads and thread model, 76–77 recognition of emergent properties, benefits of engineering instruction 125–127 in math and science achievement, role of modeling, 88 53–55 scientific inquiry, 39–41 case studies, 169–179 structure-behavior-function analysis, current shortcomings, 7–8, 20, 155–156 122–125 data sources, 72–73 systems thinking, 5, 42, 91–92 demographic diversity in, 101–103, 161 systems thinking, student capacity for, descriptive summaries of, 74, 75–76 122–127 design process in, 82–92 trade-offs, student capacity to educational goals, 92–94 understand, 130–133 implementation and costs, 95–99 Coherence in educational systems, 12, in-depth reviews of, 74–76 163–164 mathematics content, 77–80 Collaboration modeling in, 87 in current engineering curricula, 85 optimization in, 89 as engineering habit of mind, 5, 152 programs reviewed, 74, 94–95 in engineering profession, 31 recommendations for diversity in research and development, 20 promotion, 10, 161 shortcomings of current STEM recommendations for research, 7, education, 20 154–155 College of New Jersey, 110 research objectives, 3, 21, 71 Colorado State University, 110 science content, 80–81 Communication state-mandated standards, 163 as engineering habit of mind, 5, 152 STEM connections in, 8, 157 goals of education for engineering strategies for incorporating engineering profession, 31 education, 10–11, 162–164 Computer-aided design, 133 systems concepts in, 91–92 Computer modeling, 87 teaching approaches with, 94, 99–101 Constraints influencing design, 25, 38, technology content, 82 39–40, 43, 86–87 trade-offs in, 89–90 variety of programs, 76

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INDEX 213 D E Decentralized thinking, 126 Economic analysis, 85 Denver School of Science and Technology, Emergent properties, 125–127 175–179 Engineering is Elementary, 53, 76, 80, 81, Department of Education, U.S., 15, 52 83–84, 85, 87, 91, 93, 98, 99, 100, 101 recommendations for, 8–9, 13, 158 Engineering Our Future New Jersey, 51–52, Design and Discovery curriculum, 76, 81, 56 84, 85, 87, 91, 100, 101, 102 Engineering profession Design-Based Science curriculum, 54–55 challenges for, in 21st century, 36, 37 Designing for Tomorrow, 84, 86, 92, 93, curricula designed as preparation for, 100–101, 102 93 Design process definition and scope of activities, 27–28 analysis in, 83–86 demographics, 33, 34 benefits of instruction in, 56–57 design process approach to problem- characteristics, 4, 38, 40–41, 151 solving, 4, 37–41 cognitive components, 37 evolution of education and training for, current K–12 engineering curricula, 29–30, 31–33 82–92 future challenges and opportunities, definition for engineers, 38 44–45 economic considerations, 85 habits of mind, 5–6, 152 education benchmarks, 61 historical origins and development, effective teaching strategies, 141–142 28–31 emphasis on, in engineering education, international comparisons, 34–36 4, 151 international competition, 44–45 experimentation and testing, 137–140 K–12 engineering education promoting modeling in, 42, 87–88, 134 interest in, 57–60 rules and principles, 38 predictive analysis in, 42–43 scientific method and, 39–41 professional societies, 30–31 as social enterprise, 120 public perception and understanding STEM education and, 8–9, 151–152 of, 55–56 steps, 38–39, 120 role of, 36 See also Constraints influencing design; science and mathematics in, 43–44 Optimization of design; Systems systems thinking in, 42 thinking use of modeling in, 42 Discover Engineering summer camp, workforce diversity, 10, 34, 44, 161 58–59 Engineering Projects in Community Diversity in engineering education and Service, 171 workforce Engineering technology programs, 34 current state, 10, 34, 44, 160 Engineering the Future, 78, 81, 85, 100, 101 curricula design to promote, 101–103 Ethical thinking, 5–6, 152 rationale for promoting, 161 Experimentation and testing, 137–140 recommendations for, 10, 160 Exploded views, 133 strategies for promoting, 161 Exploring Design and Engineering, 93 trends, 44 Drawing and representing, 133–137

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214 INDEX F International comparisons engineering workforce, 34–36 Failure analysis, 85–86, 92 K–12 engineering curricula, 72 Full Option Science System, 78, 90, 91, 98, math and science education, 17–18, 52 101 pre-university engineering education, Functional decomposition, 129–130 115–118 International Technology Education Association, 18, 32, 33, 61, 163 G Introduction to Engineering Design, 83–84 Gateway to Technology, 76, 81, 83–84, 86, Invention, Innovation, and Inquiry, 86, 87, 88, 90, 93, 101–102 90, 93 H K Habits of mind, engineering, 5–6, 152 K–12 engineering education Heffron, Mark, 177 benefits, 1, 23, 49–51 Heffron, Terry, 177 case studies, 169–179 High Tech High, 169–172 challenges to effective implementation, 149 core concepts, 22–23, 41–43, 76–77, I 119–121 current implementation, 1, 2, 6, 20, Impact of engineering education initiatives 149–150, 152–153 current understanding, 6–7, 154 curricula. See Curricula, K–12 improved learning in math and science, engineering 51–55, 154 design emphasis, 4–5 increased awareness of engineering development of drawing and tasks and profession, 55–56 representing skills, 133–137 increased technological literacy, 60–62 effective teaching strategies, 140–142 limitations of current data on, 63–64 full integration in STEM education, 11, potential benefits, 1, 23 49–51 13, 162, 164–167 recommendations for research, 7, future prospects, 6, 154, 161–162, 167 154–155 goals, 3, 5–6, 45 research objectives, 3 grade-level benchmarks, 61 student interest in engineering careers, impact. See Impact of engineering 57–60 education initiatives See also Learning outcomes implications for post-secondary Industrial arts, 32, 33 education, 164 Industrial design, 88 increased awareness of engineering Infinity Project, 76, 79–80, 83, 87–88, 91, tasks and profession through, 55–56 92, 93, 99–100, 102 increased technological literacy as result Insights, 93 of, 60–62 INSPIRES, 113 informal activities, 72 Integrated Mathematics, Science, and international comparison of programs, Technology, 53 115–118

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INDEX 215 math and science achievement promoting engineering habits of mind, enhanced by, 51–55, 154 5–6, 152 methodology for assessing current state recommendations for research, 7, of, 2, 22 154–155 objectives of research on, 3, 21–22, research goals, 119–120 24–26 student capacity for multivariable origins, 6 analysis, 128–130, 138 principles of, 4–6, 151–152 student capacity for systems thinking, in promoting engineering careers, 122–127 57–60 technology education goals, 18 recommendations for diversity understanding of trade-offs, 130–133 promotion, 10, 161 See also Impact of engineering recommendations for research, 7, 8–9, education initiatives 12, 154–155, 158, 164, 166 Legacy cycles, 54 research needs, 2, 3–4, 7, 20–21, 71 Lesley University, 111 scope, 6, 152–154 shortcomings of research base, 63–64 standards and models of M implementation, 2, 12, 20, 156 STEM interaction, 2, 3, 5, 8–9, 150, Making representations, 135–136 156–159 Material World Modules, 79, 80, 81, 85, 93, strategies for implementation, 10–11, 98, 100 162–164 Mathematical modeling, 42–43, 80, 87–88 student engagement and learning, 119, to understand trade-offs, 131 120 Mathematics instruction technical education and, 33 benefits of engineering education in, See also Curricula, K–12 engineering; 51–55, 56–57, 154, 157 Learning outcomes current concerns, 15–18 Kurtz, Bill, 176 in engineering education, 31, 77–80, 151–152, 157 international comparison, 118 principles of engineering education L and, 5 Learning-by-design, 140 scope, 17, 77 Learning outcomes See also STEM education current concerns, 16–18 Mathematizing, 130 current understanding of, 119 Math Out of the Box, 54 development of drawing and Memory representing skills, 133–137 cognitive load theory, 129 development of skills for strategies for multivariable analysis, experimentation and testing, 129–130 137–140 Military engineering, 29–30 engineering skills, 133 Minorities goals for STEM education, 13 benefits of engineering instruction goals of K–12 engineering education, 3, in math and science achievement, 22 53–54

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216 INDEX curricula design to promote P engineering among, 101 in engineering workforce, 10, 34, 44 PLTW. See Project Lead the Way limitations of current research on Post-secondary education reform, 164 engineering education, 63–64 Predictive analysis, 42–43 recommendations for curricula design, Principles of K–12 engineering education, 10, 161 4–6, 151–152 Modeling, engineering concept of Problem-based learning, 140 in current curricula, 87–88 Professional development for teachers to enhance understanding of structure- characteristics of successful programs, behavior-function, 124–125 104–105 role of, 42, 87, 137–138 current programs and utilization, 1, 6, role of mathematics in, 42, 157 9, 103–112, 153, 159–160 skills development, 134, 135, 137 future challenges, 164 teaching strategies, 141–142 importance of, in K–12 engineering Models and Designs, 79, 101–102 education, 71–72 Multivariable analysis, 128–130, 138 in-service programs, 104–105, 159 obstacles to, 112–113 pre-service initiatives, 105–112, 159 N recommendations for improving, 9–10, 12, 160 National Academies, 15, 18 Project Lead the Way (PLTW), 51, 59, 76, National Academy of Engineering, 78–79, 93, 95–98, 102–103, 110, 170. 36, 37 See also Gateway to Technology National Assessment Governing Board, 62 Public perception and understanding National Assessment of Education of engineering profession, 55–56 Progress, 52, 62 National Center for Engineering and Technology Education, 10, 104–105 R National Science Board, 15 National Science Foundation, 16 Representations, 42, 135–137 recommendations for, 8–9, 13, Reverse engineering, 91–92 158, 166 Rising Above the Gathering Storm: No Child Left Behind Act, 18, 163 Energizing and Employing America for a Brighter Economic Future, 18 Runkle, John D., 32 O Ryerson University, 58 Optimism, 5, 152 Optimization of design S in current curricula, 89 definition, 43, 89, 127–128 Sandlin, Rick, 173 engineering concepts in, 121, 128 Schemas, 129 multivariable analysis in, 128–130 Science, technology, engineering, and student capacity for learning, 128 mathematics (STEM) education trade-offs in, 43, 89–90, 128, 130–133 benefits of K–12 engineering education, 1, 6–7, 150

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INDEX 217 component subjects, 17 STEM. See Science, technology, conceptual evolution, 16 engineering, and mathematics current concerns, 2, 12–13, 15–16, 150, education 166 Stevens Institute of Technology, 53 definition of STEM literacy, 13, 166 Structure-behavior-function, 121, 122–125 full integration of engineering in, 11, Summer Bridging Program, 60 13, 162, 164–167 Sustainable design, 36 future prospects, 14, 167 Systems thinking interaction with K–12 engineering current curricula design, 91–92 education, 2, 3, 5, 8–9, 150, 151–152, definition, 42, 91 156–157 emergent properties framework, interconnections among component 125–127 subjects, 20 engineering concepts, 42, 121 learning outcome goals, 13, 15 in engineering design process, 121–122 recommendations for research, 7, 8–9, as engineering habit of mind, 5, 152 13, 154–155, 158–159, 164, 166 structure-behavior-function teacher training for, 111–112 framework, 121, 122–125 Science education student capacity for, 122–127 benefits of engineering education in, 51–55, 56–57, 154 current concerns, 15–18 T in engineering education, 31, 80–81, 151–152, 157 Teaching international comparison, 118 classroom time for design activities, 141 principles of engineering education cognitive strategies to enable and, 5 multivariable thinking, 128–130 scope, 17, 80 content knowledge for, 103 See also STEM education curricula design and, 94, 99–101 Science for All Americans, 40–41 to develop drawing and representing Scientific method, 39–41, 137–138 skills, 134–137 Siloed teaching, 12–13, 20, 167 effective strategies in engineering Sketching, to facilitate multivariable education, 140–142 analysis, 130 engineering presented as applied Specifications, design, 38, 43 science, 119 Sputnik era, 31 to enhance recognition of emergent Stand-alone engineering courses, 11, 162 properties, 127 Standards for Technological Literacy: to enhance skills for experimentation Content for the Study of Technology, and testing, 138–140 18, 32, 38, 61, 159 to enhance understanding of structure- Standards of instruction for engineering behavior-function, 124–125 education to enhance understanding of trade-offs, current shortcomings, 2, 20, 156 131–132 state mandates, 163 importance of, in K–12 engineering strategies for developing, 163–164 education, 71–72 StarLogo, 125–126 iterative modeling, 141–142 State-mandated education standards, 163 sequencing of instruction, 142

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218 INDEX teacher understanding of engineering Trade-offs, in design process, 43, 89–90, concepts, 112–113 128, 130–133 See also Curricula, K–12 engineering; Trends in International Mathematics and Learning outcomes; Professional Science Study, 17–18 development for teachers Technically Speaking: Why All Americans Need to Know More About U Technology, 60 Technicians, engineering, 34 University of California, 111–112 Technologists, engineering, 34 University of Texas, 112 Technology education US FIRST, 172 civic responsibility and, 60 UTeach, 112 current implementation, 2, 9, 18–19 in current K–12 engineering curricula, 82, 158 W current shortcomings, 18–19 Walden University, 111 in engineering education, 151–152, Women 158–159 benefits of engineering instruction engineering instruction in, 32–33, in math and science achievement, 158–159 53–54 goals, 18 curricula design to promote increased technological literacy as result engineering among, 101–103, 160 of engineering instruction, 60–62 in engineering workforce, 10, 34, 44 international comparison, 118 interest in engineering careers, 58–59 principles of engineering education limitations of current research on and, 5 engineering education, 63–64 scope, 17, 18, 19 recommendations for curricula design, teachers, 61 160 See also STEM education Woodward, Calvin M., 31–32 Tech Tally: Approaches to Assessing A World in Motion, 77–78, 79, 81, 83, 85, Technological Literacy, 62 87, 89–90, 92, 93, 98, 101–102 TERC, 111 Texarkana Independent School District, 173–175 Y Texas A&M University, 173–175 Young Scientist Series, 81, 83–84, 90, 99