abstraction, 136

benefits of engineering education, 53

critical thinking, 93

current understanding of engineering education, 140141

design process approach to problem-solving, 4, 37, 3941

engineering habits of mind, 56, 152

experimentation and testing, 137140

implications for engineering education, 23

multivariable analysis, 128130, 138

optimization concepts, student capacity for understanding, 128

recognition of emergent properties, 125127

role of modeling, 88

scientific inquiry, 3941

structure-behavior-function analysis, 122125

systems thinking, 5, 42, 9192

systems thinking, student capacity for, 122127

trade-offs, student capacity to understand, 130133

Coherence in educational systems, 12, 163164

Collaboration

in current engineering curricula, 85

as engineering habit of mind, 5, 152

in engineering profession, 31

in research and development, 20

shortcomings of current STEM education, 20

College of New Jersey, 110

Colorado State University, 110

Communication

as engineering habit of mind, 5, 152

goals of education for engineering profession, 31

Computer-aided design, 133

Computer modeling, 87

Constraints influencing design, 25, 38, 3940, 43, 8687

Core engineering concepts and skills, 2223, 4143, 7677, 119121

drawing and representing, 133137

effective teaching strategies, 140142

experimenting and testing, 137141

necessary skills, 133

See also Optimization of design;

Systems thinking

Creativity, 5, 152

Credentialing for engineering education, 9

Critical thinking, 93

Cunningham, Christine, 112

Curricula, K–12 engineering

beads and thread model, 7677

benefits of engineering instruction in math and science achievement, 5355

case studies, 169179

current shortcomings, 78, 20, 155156

data sources, 7273

demographic diversity in, 101103, 161

descriptive summaries of, 74, 7576

design process in, 8292

educational goals, 9294

implementation and costs, 9599

in-depth reviews of, 7476

mathematics content, 7780

modeling in, 87

optimization in, 89

programs reviewed, 74, 9495

recommendations for diversity promotion, 10, 161

recommendations for research, 7, 154155

research objectives, 3, 21, 71

science content, 8081

state-mandated standards, 163

STEM connections in, 8, 157

strategies for incorporating engineering education, 1011, 162164

systems concepts in, 9192

teaching approaches with, 94, 99101

technology content, 82

trade-offs in, 8990

variety of programs, 76



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