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Frontiers in Crystalline Matter: From Discovery to Technology Frontiers in Crystalline Matter FROM DISCOVERY TO TECHNOLOGY Committee for an Assessment of and Outlook for New Materials Synthesis and Crystal Growth Board on Physics and Astronomy Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS Washington, D.C. www.nap.edu
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Frontiers in Crystalline Matter: From Discovery to Technology THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, N.W. Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This project was supported by the Department of Energy under Award No. DE-FG02-06ER46271 and the National Science Foundation under Award No. 0551196. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-13800-0 International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-13800-0 Cover: The technique of x-ray diffraction has long been one of the primary tools used to determine the atomic and molecular structures of crystalline materials and films. The diffraction pattern shown on the left is of the molecular compound N-(p-chlorobenzylidene)-p-chloroaniline, and the crystal structure associated with that pattern is shown in the background. Data for figures courtesy of Richard Welberry, Eric Chan, and Aidan Heerdegen (Australian National University) and Peter Chupas (Argonne National Laboratory); work performed at the Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory. Additional copies of this report are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, N.W., Washington, DC 20055; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area); Internet, http://www.nap.edu; and the Board on Physics and Astronomy, National Research Council, 500 Fifth Street, N.W., Washington, DC 20001; Internet, http://www.national-academies.org/bpa. Copyright 2009 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America
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Frontiers in Crystalline Matter: From Discovery to Technology THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES Advisers to the Nation on Science, Engineering, and Medicine The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org
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Frontiers in Crystalline Matter: From Discovery to Technology COMMITTEE FOR AN ASSESSMENT OF AND OUTLOOK FOR NEW MATERIALS SYNTHESIS AND CRYSTAL GROWTH PAUL S. PEERCY, University of Wisconsin at Madison, Chair COLLIN L. BROHOLM, Johns Hopkins University ROBERT J. CAVA, Princeton University JAMES R. CHELIKOWSKY, University of Texas at Austin ZACHARY FISK, University of California at Irvine PATRICK D. GALLAGHER, National Institute of Standards and Technology LAURA H. GREENE, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign ERIC D. ISAACS, Argonne National Laboratory PETER B. LITTLEWOOD, University of Cambridge LAURIE E. McNEIL, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill JOEL S. MILLER, University of Utah LOREN PFEIFFER, Bell Laboratories, Alcatel-Lucent RAMAMOORTHY RAMESH, University of California at Berkeley ARTHUR P. RAMIREZ, University of California at Santa Cruz HIDENORI TAKAGI, University of Tokyo DAN J. THOMA, Los Alamos National Laboratory Staff DONALD C. SHAPERO, Director, Board on Physics and Astronomy MICHAEL H. MOLONEY, Associate Director NATALIA J. MELCER, Senior Program Officer JAMES C. LANCASTER, Program Officer BETH MASIMORE, Christine Mirzayan Science and Technology Policy Graduate Fellow CARYN J. KNUTSEN, Program Associate ALLISON McFALL, Senior Program Assistant
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Frontiers in Crystalline Matter: From Discovery to Technology SOLID STATE SCIENCES COMMITTEE BARBARA JONES, IBM Almaden Research Center, Chair MONICA OLVERA de la CRUZ, Northwestern University, Vice-Chair DANIEL AROVAS, University of California at San Diego COLLIN L. BROHOLM, Johns Hopkins University PAUL CHAIKIN, New York University GEORGE CRABTREE, Argonne National Laboratory ELBIO DAGOTTO, University of Tennessee and Oak Ridge National Laboratory DUANE DIMOS, Sandia National Laboratories ANDREA J. LIU, University of Pennsylvania JOSEPH ORENSTEIN, University of California at Berkeley ARTHUR P. RAMIREZ, University of California at Santa Cruz RICHARD A. REGISTER, Princeton University MARK STILES, National Institute of Standards and Technology DALE J. VAN HARLINGEN, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign FRED WUDL, University of California at Santa Barbara Staff DONALD C. SHAPERO, Director, Board on Physics and Astronomy MICHAEL MOLONEY, Associate Director JAMES C. LANCASTER, Program Officer LAVITA COATES-FOGLE, Senior Program Assistant BETH DOLAN, Financial Associate
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Frontiers in Crystalline Matter: From Discovery to Technology BOARD ON PHYSICS AND ASTRONOMY MARC A. KASTNER, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Chair ADAM S. BURROWS, University of Arizona, Vice-Chair JOANNA AIZENBERG, Harvard University JAMES E. BRAU, University of Oregon PHILIP H. BUCKSBAUM, Stanford University PATRICK L. COLESTOCK, Los Alamos National Laboratory RONALD C. DAVIDSON, Princeton University ANDREA M. GHEZ, University of California at Los Angeles PETER F. GREEN, University of Michigan LAURA H. GREENE, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign MARTHA P. HAYNES, Cornell University JOSEPH HEZIR, EOP Group, Inc. MARK H. KETCHEN, IBM Thomas J. Watson Research Center ALLAN H. MacDONALD, University of Texas at Austin PIERRE MEYSTRE, University of Arizona HOMER A. NEAL, University of Michigan JOSE N. ONUCHIC, University of California at San Diego LISA J. RANDALL, Harvard University CHARLES V. SHANK, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (retired) MICHAEL S. TURNER, University of Chicago MICHAEL C.F. WIESCHER, University of Notre Dame Staff DONALD C. SHAPERO, Director MICHAEL H. MOLONEY, Associate Director ROBERT L. RIEMER, Senior Program Officer JAMES C. LANCASTER, Program Officer DAVID B. LANG, Program Officer CARYN J. KNUTSEN, Program Associate LAVITA COATES-FOGLE, Senior Program Assistant BETH DOLAN, Financial Associate
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Frontiers in Crystalline Matter: From Discovery to Technology Preface The National Research Council of the National Academies convened the Committee for an Assessment of and Outlook for New Materials Synthesis and Crystal Growth to assess current work and new opportunities in the United States in the field of the discovery and growth of crystalline materials. The Solid State Sciences Committee of the Board on Physics and Astronomy developed the charge for this study in consultation with the study’s sponsors at the Department of Energy and the National Science Foundation. The committee was charged to define the research areas in this field, to determine the health of activities in the United States in those areas, to identify future opportunities, and then to suggest strategies to best meet those opportunities. The complete charge is reproduced in Appendix A. The committee that prepared this report is composed of experts from the many academic disciplines falling within this field and includes members from the different types of institutions—academic, government, and industrial research laboratories—involved with this research (see Appendix B for biographical sketches of the committee members). The full committee met in person three times (see Appendix C) to address its charge. The committee formed subgroups to study specific areas in further detail and to develop the text of the final report. At its meetings, the committee heard from experts in the field and from the federal agencies that support research in this field. Conference calls and e-mail correspondence were used to coordinate the work of the committee between meetings. This final report reflects not only the committee’s concerns regarding the current level of activity in the United States in this field but also its enthusiasm and excitement for research opportunities presented now and in the foreseeable future in these areas.
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Frontiers in Crystalline Matter: From Discovery to Technology As committee chair, I am grateful to the committee members for their wisdom, cooperation, and commitment to ensuring the development of a comprehensive report. Paul S. Peercy, Chair Committee for an Assessment of and Outlook for New Materials Synthesis and Crystal Growth
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Frontiers in Crystalline Matter: From Discovery to Technology Acknowledgment of Reviewers This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report: Meigan Aronson, Stony Brook University/Brookhaven National Laboratory, Gregory S. Boebinger, National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Ian Fisher, Stanford University, Patrick A. Lee, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Allan MacDonald, University of Texas at Austin, Cherry A. Murray, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Mark R. Pinto, Applied Materials, Inc., Nicola Spaldin, University of California at Santa Barbara, and Yoshinori Tokura, University of Tokyo. Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations, nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The
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Frontiers in Crystalline Matter: From Discovery to Technology review of this report was overseen by Paul Fleury, Yale University. Appointed by the National Research Council, he was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution.
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Frontiers in Crystalline Matter: From Discovery to Technology Contents SUMMARY 1 1 INTRODUCTION 7 Focus and Scope of This Report, 7 Organization of the Report, 11 Historical Examples of Crystal Growth and Technology, 11 Example from Metallurgy: Single-Crystal Superalloys for Jet Engine Turbine Blades, 15 Example from Information Technology: Single-Crystal Silicon for Microelectronics, 17 Example in the Area of Thin Films: Gallium Arsenide-Based Heterostructures, 22 Example of High Temperature Superconductivity, 29 Concluding Comments, 31 2 SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY OF CRYSTALLINE SYSTEMS 33 Grand Challenges in the Science and Technology of Crystalline Materials, 37 Grand Challenge 1: Development of Next-Generation Crystalline Materials—New States of Matter and New Materials—for Future Information and Communications Technologies, 38 Scaffold Structures, 39
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Frontiers in Crystalline Matter: From Discovery to Technology Low-Dimensional Structures, 41 Structures Leading to Strong Competition of Internal Forces, 42 Multifunctional Structures, 47 New Behavior in Artificial Structures and Interfaces, 50 Bulk Crystalline Matter Discovery Challenges, 53 Grand Challenge 2: Creation of New Crystalline Materials for Energy Production and Conversion, 55 Band-Gap Engineering for Solar Energy and Solid-State Lighting, 56 Superconductivity for Electricity Delivery, 59 Catalysts for Fuel and Hydrogen Storage, 64 Needed Crystal Growth Capability for Energy Conversion and Storage, 64 Grand Challenge 3: Evolution in the Capacity to Create Crystalline Materials by Design, 66 Theoretical and Computational Approaches to Materials by Design, 67 Areas of Success in Creating Materials by Design, 71 Materials with High Strength and Toughness: The Next Generation of Steels, 73 New Materials and Crystals for Sensors and Detectors, 73 Decoupling Electron and Phonon Transport: The Search for High-Efficiency Thermoelectrics, 76 Materials-by-Design Challenges, 77 Applied Crystal Growth for Technology Development, 79 Crystalline Materials for Next-Generation Technologies, 80 New Growth Techniques, 83 Role of Characterization for New Crystalline Materials Discovery, 85 Laboratory-Scale Materials Characterization Tools, 85 National Facilities for Materials Characterization, 86 Opportunities Through Crystalline Matter Discovery, 92 3 THE STATUS OF ACTIVITIES IN THE DISCOVERY AND GROWTH OF CRYSTALLINE MATERIALS 95 Education and Training, 95 Impact of the Decline of Education and Training Opportunities in the Field, 96 Findings on Education and Training, 100 Role of Industry in Crystal Growth, 100 Historical Leadership Shifts Since the Mid-1990s, 100 Findings on the Role of Industry in Crystal Growth, 104
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Frontiers in Crystalline Matter: From Discovery to Technology Innovation and Discovery, 105 Superconducting Materials, 105 Magnetic Materials, 109 Intermetallics, 111 Findings on Innovation and Discovery, 113 Breadth and Depth of Research in the Discovery and Growth of Crystalline Materials, 114 U.S. Funding for Discovery and Growth of Crystalline Materials Research, 115 Survey of Experts in the Discovery and Growth of Crystalline Materials, 116 Support for Discovery and Growth of Crystalline Materials Activities, 118 Findings on Support for Discovery and Growth of Crystalline Materials Activities, 120 International Activities, 121 Centers for the Discovery and Growth of Crystalline Materials Research, 122 Research Support, 123 Small Cultural Gap Separating Disciplines, 124 Findings on International Activities, 124 4 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 126 Comprehensive Solution to Enhance Competitiveness, 127 Increasing Agency Engagement in Advancing the Discovery of New Crystalline Materials and New Methods of Crystal Growth, 128 Advancing the State of the Art in the Discovery and Growth of Crystalline Materials, 130 Sustaining Expertise in the Discovery and Growth of Crystalline Materials, 131 Changing the Culture, 132 Improving Interaction and Cooperation Within the Discovery and Growth of Crystalline Materials Community, 133 One Possible Implementation Plan, 135 Creation of a Crystalline Materials Network, 136 Large Centers of Expertise, 139 University-Based Programs or Centers, 141 Summary, 142
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Frontiers in Crystalline Matter: From Discovery to Technology APPENDIXES A Charge to the Committee 145 B Biographies of Committee Members 146 C Meeting Agendas 153 D Synthesis Techniques 157 E Classes of Materials 169 F Working Draft of Policies and Procedures for a Crystalline Materials Network 171 G Educational Role of Centers of Expertise for Discovery and Growth of Crystalline Materials 174