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Technology, Policy, Law, and Ethics Regarding U.S. Acquisition and Use of Cyberattack Capabilities Appendix A Biographies of Committee Members and Staff COMMITTEE MEMBERS William A. Owens, Co-chair, is the chair and CEO of AEA Holdings based in Hong Kong. He retired as vice chair and chief executive officer of Nortel on November 15, 2005. Before joining Nortel in 2004, Admiral Owens was chief executive officer and chair of Teledesic LLC and president, chief operating officer, and vice chair of Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC). Before joining SAIC, he was vice chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff and the second ranking military officer in the United States. He had responsibility for the reorganization and restructuring of the armed forces in the post–Cold War era. Widely recognized for bringing commercial high technology into the Department of Defense for military applications, the admiral was the architect of the Revolution in Military Affairs (RMA), an advanced systems technology approach to military operations that is the most significant change in the system of requirements, budgets, and technology for the four armed forces since World War II. From 1991 to 1993, he was the deputy chief of Naval Operations for Resources, Warfare Requirements and Assessments. Admiral Owens served as commander of the U.S. Sixth Fleet in 1990 and 1991. Between 1988 and 1991, he served as senior military assistant to Secretaries of Defense Frank Carlucci and Dick Cheney, the senior military position in the Office of the Secretary of Defense. In 1988, the admiral was the director of the Office of Program Appraisal for the secretary of the Navy. In 1987, he served as commander of Submarine Group Six, the Navy’s largest submarine group, with 20 strategic ballistic missile
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Technology, Policy, Law, and Ethics Regarding U.S. Acquisition and Use of Cyberattack Capabilities submarines, 45 nuclear attack submarines, and more than 15,000 men and women. Earlier in his career, he commanded Submarine Squadron Four, the USS Sam Houston, and the USS City of Corpus Christi. Admiral Owens has written more than 50 articles on national security and wrote the book High Seas. His latest book, Lifting the Fog of War, was published in April 2000 and revised and republished in 2008. He is a 1962 graduate of the U.S. Naval Academy and holds a B.S. in mathematics. He also holds bachelor’s and master’s degrees in politics, philosophy, and economics from Oxford University and a master’s degree in management from George Washington University. The admiral is the founder of Extend America, a 5-year state wireless telecommunications venture, and also sits on the public boards of Polycom, Wipro, and Daimler AG as well as the private boards of Intelius, Force 10 Networks, Unifrax, and AEA Investors LLC. Owens is a member of several philanthropic boards including the Carnegie Foundation, the Brookings Institution, and the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center. He is also a member of the Canadian Council of Chief Executives and the Council on Foreign Affairs. Kenneth W. Dam, Co-chair, University of Chicago, has devoted his career to public policy issues, both as a practitioner and as a professor. He served as deputy secretary (the second-ranking official) in the Department of Treasury (2001-2003) and in the Department of State (1982-1985). In 1973 he was executive director of the Council on Economic Policy, a White House office responsible for coordinating U.S. domestic and international economic policy. From 1971 to 1973 he served as assistant director for national security and international policy at the Office of Management and Budget. He began his Washington career as law clerk to U.S. Supreme Court Justice Charles E. Whittaker (1957-1958). Professor Dam’s entire academic career has been devoted to the University of Chicago, beginning in 1960 and extending, with various leaves of absence, to the present. From 1980 to 1982 he served as provost of the University of Chicago. Most of his academic work has centered on law and economics, particularly with respect to international issues. Professor Dam’s other activities include serving as IBM vice president for law and external relations (1985-1992) and as president and chief executive officer of the United Way of America for a 6-month period in 1992. He has extensive experience as an arbitrator. The professor is a member of the board of the Brookings Institution and serves as a senior fellow of that organization. He is a member of the Shadow Financial Regulatory Committee and of the National Research Council’s Science, Technology and Law Panel. He has been elected to membership in the American Law Institute and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. He was chair of the German-American Academic Council and a board member of a number of non-profit institutions, including the Council on Foreign Relations (New
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Technology, Policy, Law, and Ethics Regarding U.S. Acquisition and Use of Cyberattack Capabilities York) and the Chicago Council on Foreign Relations. He currently serves on the board of the Financial Services Volunteer Corps. Professor Dam served for 13 years on the board of Alcoa. He received a B.S. in 1954 from the University of Kansas, a J.D. in 1957 from the University of Chicago, and an LL.D. (hon.) in 1983 from the New School for Social Research. The professor served as chair for the CSTB committee that produced the report Cryptography’s Role in Securing the Information Society, and he served on the CSTB committee that produced the report Global Networks and Local Values: A Comparative Look at Germany and the United States. Thomas A. Berson, president of Anagram Laboratories, has spent his career working both the defensive and the offensive sides of the information security battle. After stints as a researcher, a cold warrior, and Silicon Valley entrepreneur, Dr. Berson founded Anagram Laboratories, a thriving information security consultancy that is celebrating its 23rd anniversary in 2009. He is attracted most strongly to security issues raised at the confluence of technology, business, and world events. His client base includes Salesforce.com (disruptive at the center of the net) and Skype (disruptive at the edge). Dr. Berson is a student of Sun Tzu’s Art of War and its applicability to modern information conflict. Dr. Berson was the first person to be named a fellow of the International Association for Cryptologic Research. His citation reads, “for visionary and essential service and for numerous valuable contributions to the technical, social, and commercial development of cryptology and security.” Dr. Berson was an editor of the Journal of Cryptology for 14 years. He is a past chair of the IEEE Technical Committee on Security and Privacy and a past president of the International Association for Cryptologic Research. He earned a B.S. in physics from the State University of New York in 1967 and a Ph.D. in computer science from the University of London in 1977. He was a visiting fellow in mathematics at the University of Cambridge and is a life member of Clare Hall, Cambridge. Dr. Berson has been a member of two previous National Research Council committees: the Committee on Computer Security in the Department of Energy and the Committee to Review DOD C4I Plans and Programs. Gerhard Casper is president emeritus of Stanford University and the Peter and Helen Bing Professor in Undergraduate Education at Stanford. He is also a professor of law, a senior fellow at the Freeman Spogli Institute for International Studies, and a professor of political science (by courtesy). Mr. Casper studied law at the Universities of Freiburg and Hamburg, where, in 1961, he earned his first law degree. He attended Yale Law School, obtaining a master of laws degree in 1962. He then returned to Freiburg, where he received his doctorate in 1964. He has been awarded honorary doctorates, most recently in law from Yale and in philosophy from Uppsala. In the fall of 1964, Mr. Casper emigrated to
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Technology, Policy, Law, and Ethics Regarding U.S. Acquisition and Use of Cyberattack Capabilities the United States, spending 2 years as an assistant professor of political science at the University of California at Berkeley. In 1966, he joined the faculty of the University of Chicago Law School, and between 1979 and 1987 served as its dean. In 1989, Mr. Casper was appointed provost of the University of Chicago. He served as president of Stanford University from 1992 to 2000. Mr. Casper has written and taught primarily in the fields of constitutional law, constitutional history, comparative law, and jurisprudence. From 1977 to 1991, he was an editor of the Supreme Court Review. His books include a monograph on legal realism (Berlin, 1967), an empirical study of the Supreme Court’s workload (Chicago, 1976, with Richard A. Posner), and Separating Power (Cambridge, Mass., 1997), concerning the separation of powers practices at the end of the 18th century in the United States. About the Stanford presidency, he wrote Cares of the University (Stanford, 1997). He is also the author of numerous scholarly articles and occasional pieces. He has been elected to the American Law Institute (1977), the International Academy of Comparative Law, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences (1980), the Ordre pour le mérite for Sciences and the Arts (1993), and the American Philosophical Society (1996). At present, Mr. Casper serves as a member of the board of trustees of the Central European University in Budapest as well as a member of the board of trustees of the American Academy in Berlin. He is also a member other boards, including the Council of the American Law Institute and the Committee for Economic Development. From 1998 to 2005, he was a member of the Trilateral Commission and, from 2000 to 2008, he served as a successor trustee of Yale University. David D. Clark, NAE, has worked at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology’s (MIT’s) Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, where he is currently a senior research scientist in charge of the Advanced Network Architecture Group, since receiving his Ph.D. from MIT in 1973. Dr. Clark’s research interests include networks, network protocols, operating systems, distributed systems, and computer and communications security. After receiving his Ph.D., he worked on the early stages of the ARPANET and on the development of token ring local area network technology. Since the mid-1970s, Dr. Clark has been involved in the development of the Internet. From 1981 to 1989, he acted as chief protocol architect in this development and chaired the Internet Activities Board. His current research looks at redefinition of the architectural underpinnings of the Internet, and the relation of technology and architecture to economic, societal, and policy considerations. He is helping the U.S. National Science Foundation organize its Future Internet Design program. In the security area, Dr. Clark participated in the early development of the multilevel secure Multics operating system. He developed an information security model that stresses integrity of data rather than
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Technology, Policy, Law, and Ethics Regarding U.S. Acquisition and Use of Cyberattack Capabilities disclosure control. Dr. Clark is a fellow of the Association for Computing Machinery and the IEEE and is a member of the National Academy of Engineering. He received the ACM SIGCOMM award and the IEEE award in international communications, as well as the IEEE Hamming Award for his work on the Internet. He is a consultant to a number of companies and has served on a number of technical advisory boards. Dr. Clark was the past chair of the Computer Science and Telecommunications Board (CSTB) at the National Research Council. He chaired the committee that produced the CSTB report Computers at Risk: Safe Computing in the Information Age. Dr. Clark also served on the committees that produced the CSTB reports Toward a National Research Network, Realizing the Information Future: The Internet and Beyond, and The Unpredictable Certainty: Information Infrastructure Through 2000. Dr. Clark graduated from Swarthmore College in 1966 and received a Ph.D. from MIT in 1973. Richard L. Garwin, NAS/NAE/IOM, is an IBM fellow emeritus at the Thomas J. Watson Research Center and an adjunct professor of physics at Columbia University. Dr. Garwin is a physicist with expertise in intelligence and in nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons and defenses. From 1994 to 2001 he chaired the Arms Control and Nonproliferation Advisory Board at the Department of State. Dr. Garwin received the Enrico Fermi Award of the President and the Department of Energy (1996) and the R.V. Jones Intelligence Award of the U.S. government intelligence community (1996). In 2003 he received the National Medal of Science and in 2000 was named by the National Reconnaissance Office as one of its 10 founders of national reconnaissance. Dr. Garwin’s publications include Megawatts and Megatons: The Future of Nuclear Power and Nuclear Weapons (2003); Megawatts and Megatons: A Turning Point for the Nuclear Age? (2001); Control of Nuclear Arms at Crossroads (2000); A Defense That Will Not Defend (2000); Boost-Phase Intercept: A Better Alternative (2000); Feux Follets et Champignons Nucléaires (1997); and Management and Disposition of Excess Weapons Plutonium (1994). Dr. Garwin has a Ph.D. and an M.S. in physics from the University of Chicago (1949, 1948) and a B.S. in physics from Case Western Reserve University (1947). He has never been a member of any private boards. Many of his papers and much testimony is posted at http://www.fas.org/RLG/. Jack L. Goldsmith III has been a professor of law at Harvard Law School since 2004. In 2003-2004 he was the assistant attorney general in the U.S. Department of Justice’s Office of Legal Counsel. At that time he was also a professor of law at the University of Virginia Law School. Before that he served on the faculty of the University of Chicago Law School and as special counsel to the General Counsel in the Department of Defense. Earlier Mr. Goldsmith was an associate professor at the University of Virginia Law School from 1994 to 1997. Mr. Goldsmith received a B.A.
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Technology, Policy, Law, and Ethics Regarding U.S. Acquisition and Use of Cyberattack Capabilities in philosophy summa cum laude from Washington and Lee University in 1984, a B.A. in philosophy, politics, and economics from Oxford University in 1986, a J.D. from Yale Law School in 1989, and a diploma in private international law from The Hague Academy of International Law in 1992. After law school he clerked for Judge J. Harvie Wilkinson of the United States Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit, Justice Anthony M. Kennedy of the Supreme Court of the United States, and Judge George A. Aldrich of the Iran-U.S. Claims Tribunal. He also previously has served as an associate at Covington & Burling. Mr. Goldsmith’s scholarly interests include international law, foreign relations law, national security law, conflict of laws, and civil procedure. Carl G. O’Berry is with the Boeing Company, where he is vice president of Network-Centric Architectures. He retired from the U.S. Air Force as a lieutenant general in August 1995. Until December 1998 he was vice president and director of planning and information technology for the Space and Systems Technology Group at Motorola, where he was responsible for groupwide strategic and long-range planning and executive management of group information technology solutions and services. In addition, he was responsible for information technology architectures and road maps, new information technology business development, and leadership of information technology innovation and process reengineering. He was previously deputy chief of staff for Command, Control, Communications and Computers at U.S. Air Force headquarters, a position from which he directed Air Force-wide information systems planning and policy development. Earlier in his Air Force career, he served as commander of the Air Force Rome Air Development Center and as joint program manager of the World-Wide Military Command and Control System Information System. He also led the development and field testing of an airborne radar sensing/tracking system that was the forerunner of the Joint Surveillance and Target Attack Radar System. He has a master’s degree in systems management from the Air Force Institute of Technology and a bachelor’s degree in electrical engineering from New Mexico State University. He served on the NRC committee that produced Realizing the Potential of C4I: Fundamental Challenges. Jerome H. Saltzer, NAE, is a professor of computer science, emeritus, in the Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science at MIT. A member of that department since 1961, he helped formulate the original undergraduate curriculum in computer science and led the development of the core subject on the engineering of computer systems. At the MIT Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory he designed one of the earliest widely used word-processing systems; he participated in the development of the Multics system, for which he designed the kernel thread package and with students and colleagues developed the security
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Technology, Policy, Law, and Ethics Regarding U.S. Acquisition and Use of Cyberattack Capabilities mechanisms and what would today be known as a microkernel; and together with David Clark and David Reed, he articulated the end-to-end argument, a key organizing principle of the Internet. He was also involved in the design of a token-passing ring local area network, the networking of personal computers, the Kerberos single-login authentication system, and digital library systems. Dr. Saltzer was technical director of MIT Project Athena, a system for undergraduate education and an early example of a system organization now called “cloud computing.” Throughout his work, he has had a particular interest in the impact of computer systems on privacy and the risks of depending on fragile technology. Dr. Saltzer is a fellow of the IEEE and the AAAS; a member of the Association for Computing Machinery, the ACM Committee on Computers and Public Policy, and the Catalog Raisonné Scholars Association; a former member of the Computer Science and Telecommunications Board of the National Research Council; and a former member of the mayor’s Telecommunications Advisory Board for the City of Newton, Massachusetts. Dr. Saltzer received an S.B. (1961), an S.M. (1963), and an Sc.D. (1966), from MIT, all in the field of electrical engineering. Mark Seiden is a consultant with MSB Associates. Previously he was a senior consultant with Cutter’s Business-IT Strategies Practice and a member of the Leadership Group of the Cutter Consortium’s Risk Management Intelligence Network. He has consulted since 1983 in the areas of security, network, and software engineering to companies worldwide, with clients including start-ups, major computer and communication companies, financial institutions, law firms, UN agencies, online content providers, ISPs, research organizations, and non-profits. As an independent consultant and in varying roles at Securify (also known as the Kroll O’Gara Information Security Group), his most recent projects have included design, architecture, and implementation for e-business systems; security for online financial transaction processing and distributed document-processing systems; custom firewalls based on open-source components; finding computer criminals; and penetration testing the network and physical security of deployed systems, enterprises, and collocation facilities. Mr. Seiden has 35 years’ programming experience. He has been a Unix and mainframe system programmer; written Macintosh applications; spent time at IBM Research, Xerox Parc, Bell Labs, and Bellcore; and has taught at the university level. Mr. Seiden has been on the board of directors of two user groups and is on the Technical Advisory Board of Counterpane Security Systems. Mr. Seiden has an M.S. in computer science/electrical engineering from Columbia University and as an undergraduate at Columbia studied math, music, and linguistics. Sarah Sewall is the director of the Carr Center at the John F. Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University and lecturer in public policy,
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Technology, Policy, Law, and Ethics Regarding U.S. Acquisition and Use of Cyberattack Capabilities and she also directs the Carr Center’s Program on National Security and Human Rights. During the Clinton administration, Ms. Sewall served in the Department of Defense as the first deputy assistant secretary for Peacekeeping and Humanitarian Assistance. From 1987 to 1993, she served as senior foreign policy adviser to Senate Majority Leader George J. Mitchell, was a delegate to the Senate Arms Control Observer Group, and was on the Senate Democratic Policy Committee. Ms. Sewall has also worked at a variety of defense research organizations and as associate director of the Committee on International Security Studies at the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. She was lead editor of The United States and the International Criminal Court: National Security and International Law (2000) and has written widely on U.S. foreign policy, multilateralism, peace operations, and military intervention. Her current research focuses on the civilian in war and includes facilitating a dialogue between the military and human rights communities on the use of force. Walter B. Slocombe practices in Caplin & Drysdale’s office in Washington, D.C. He served as undersecretary of defense for policy from 1994 to 2001, and as senior advisor for national defense in the Coalition Provisional Authority for Iraq in 2003. In 2004, President Bush appointed him to the Commission on the Intelligence Capabilities of the United States Regarding Weapons of Mass Destruction. He served on the National Security Council staff in 1969-1970, and as principal deputy assistant secretary of defense for international security affairs in 1977-1979 and deputy undersecretary for policy in 1979-1981. He has also been a member of various advisory or governing boards of several academic and defense analysis institutions and government agencies, including a panel of the National Security Agency’s advisory board. Mr. Slocombe was awarded the Department of Defense’s Distinguished Public Service Medal (1981, 1995, 1997, 2001, 2004) and its Joseph Kruzel Award for Distinguished Service in the Pursuit of Peace (2000) and has been named an honorary submariner by the Fleet Submarine Force. His international service has been recognized by awards from the Polish, German, and Korean governments. Mr. Slocombe has published numerous articles and monographs on tax law issues and on defense policy and organization. He is a 1963 graduate of Princeton University, attended Balliol College Oxford as a Rhodes Scholar, and in 1968 received his law degree from Harvard Law School where he was note editor of the Law Review. William O. Studeman retired from the U.S. Navy in 1995 with the rank of admiral. A top-level military manager and government leader, his flag positions included director of the Navy Long-Range Planning Group and executive secretary of the Advanced Technology Panel of the CNO Executive Board, director of naval intelligence, and director of the National Security Agency. In 1992, President Bush nominated him to
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Technology, Policy, Law, and Ethics Regarding U.S. Acquisition and Use of Cyberattack Capabilities the political position of deputy director of Central Intelligence. Between 1992 and 1995, Mr. Studeman served as deputy to Robert Gates, James Woolsey, and John Deutch and served twice for extended periods as the acting director of Central Intelligence. In this capacity, he was the intelligence community’s representative to the President’s Management Council and responsible for implementing the National Performance Review for downsizing, streamlining, and reengineering the federal government. He has conducted extensive operational intelligence tours overseas. Some of his key tours included duty as executive assistant to both the director of naval intelligence and the vice chief of naval operations; officer in charge of the Atlantic Fleet Ocean Surveillance Information Center; commanding officer of the Navy Operational Intelligence Center, and assistant chief of staff for intelligence, U.S. Sixth Fleet staff at Gaeta, Italy. In addition to his management and ISR experience, he has extensive background in antisubmarine warfare, C4ISR, information warfare, and homeland security. In 2005, he retired from Northrop Grumman Mission Systems, where he was sector vice president and deputy general manager for intelligence and information superiority, and where he also coordinated the sector’s homeland security activities and technology partnerships. Before joining TRW (which was acquired by Northrop Grumman in December 2002) in September 1996, Mr. Studeman worked for a year consulting on defense, intelligence, information infrastructure, security, and management issues, following 34 years of career military service. He is a distinguished graduate of the Defense Intelligence School, the Naval War College, and the National War College. He received a bachelor’s degree in history from the University of the South, a master’s degree in public and international affairs from George Washington University, and numerous honorary degrees. Mr. Studeman also serves on numerous government boards, including the Defense Science Board and the Presidential Commission on WMD. Michael A. Vatis is a partner in the New York office of Steptoe & Johnson LLP. His practice focuses on the Internet, e-commerce, and technology matters, with special emphasis on issues involving security, intelligence, and law enforcement. He also is an experienced appellate litigator. Mr. Vatis has spent most of his career addressing cutting-edge issues at the intersection of law, policy, and technology. He was the founding director of the National Infrastructure Protection Center at the FBI, the first government organization responsible for detecting, warning of, and responding to cyberattacks, including computer crimes, cyberterrorism, cyber-espionage, and information warfare. Before that, Mr. Vatis served as associate deputy attorney general and deputy director of the Executive Office for National Security in the Department of Justice, where he advised the attorney general and deputy attorney general and coordi-
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Technology, Policy, Law, and Ethics Regarding U.S. Acquisition and Use of Cyberattack Capabilities nated the department’s activities involving counterterrorism, intelligence, and cybercrime. In that capacity, he also helped lead the development of the nation’s first policies on critical infrastructure protection. Mr. Vatis served as special counsel at the Department of Defense, where he handled sensitive legal and policy issues for the secretary and deputy secretary of defense and the general counsel, receiving the Secretary of Defense Award for Excellence. After leaving the government in 2001, Mr. Vatis served as the first director of the Institute for Security Technology Studies at Dartmouth, a federally funded counterterrorism and cybersecurity research institute. He was simultaneously the founding chairman of the Institute for Information Infrastructure Protection (I3P). I3P, a consortium of leading cybersecurity research organizations, worked with industry, government, and academia to develop a comprehensive research and development agenda to improve the security of the nation’s computer and communications networks. Mr. Vatis also served as the executive director of the Markle Task Force on National Security in the Information Age, a highly influential group of technology company executives, former government officials, and civil libertarians that examined how the government could more effectively use information and technology to combat terrorism while preserving civil liberties. He was the principal author of the group’s second report, whose recommendations were adopted by the 9/11 Commission and included in the 2004 Intelligence Reform Act. Mr. Vatis has regularly testified before congressional committees on counterterrorism, intelligence, and cybersecurity issues. He is also interviewed on television, radio, and in print media and has been a guest lecturer at many prestigious law schools and universities and a frequent speaker at industry conferences worldwide. STAFF MEMBERS Herbert S. Lin, the study director, is chief scientist for the National Research Council’s Computer Science and Telecommunications Board, where he has been a study director for major projects on public policy and information technology. These studies include a 1996 study on national cryptography policy (Cryptography’s Role in Securing the Information Society), a 1991 study on the future of computer science (Computing the Future), a 1999 study of Defense Department systems for command, control, communications, computing, and intelligence (Realizing the Potential of C4I: Fundamental Challenges), a 2000 study on workforce issues in high technology (Building a Workforce for the Information Economy), a 2002 study on protecting kids from Internet pornography and sexual exploitation (Youth, Pornography, and the Internet), a 2004 study on aspects of the FBI’s information technology modernization program (A Review of the FBI’s Tril-
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Technology, Policy, Law, and Ethics Regarding U.S. Acquisition and Use of Cyberattack Capabilities ogy IT Modernization Program), a 2005 study on electronic voting (Asking the Right Questions About Electronic Voting), a 2005 study on computational biology (Catalyzing Inquiry at the Interface of Computing and Biology), a 2007 study on privacy and information technology (Engaging Privacy and Information Technology in a Digital Age), a 2007 study on cybersecurity research (Toward a Safer and More Secure Cyberspace), and a 2009 study on health care information technology (Computational Technology for Effective Health Care). Before his NRC service, he was a professional staff member and staff scientist for the House Armed Services Committee (1986-1990), where his portfolio included defense policy and arms control issues. He received his doctorate in physics from MIT. Apart from his CSTB work, he is published in cognitive science, science education, biophysics, and arms control and defense policy. He also consults on K-12 math and science education. Ted Schmitt was a consultant for the Computer Science and Telecommunications Board of the National Research Council until 2008. He was involved in the CSTB projects on offensive information warfare, biometrics, and wireless technology. Recently completed projects he worked on include a review of health IT standards efforts at the Office of the National Coordinator for Health IT, a comprehensive exploration of cybersecurity and the use of IT to enhance disaster management. Before joining CSTB, Mr. Schmitt was involved in the development of the digital media industry and played an active role in various related media standards groups. Prior to that, he served as technical director at a number of small technology companies in Germany, Sweden, and the United States. He started his career in 1984 as a software engineer for IBM, earning two patents and several technical achievement awards. Mr. Schmitt received an M.A. in international science and technology policy from George Washington University. He received a B.S. in electrical engineering in 1984 and a B.A. in German in 1997 from Purdue University, and he studied at the University of Hamburg, Germany.