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1 The Problem For nearly 50 years, the United States has led the world NASA is fixed, and essentially all of it is already dedicated in the scientific exploration of space. U.S. spacecraft have to support several pending missions. circled Earth; landed on the Moon and Mars; flown to and Reestablishing domestic production of 238Pu will be beyond Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune; and traveled expensive; the cost will likely exceed $150 million. Previous beyond our solar system. The spectacular images and data proposals to make this investment have not been enacted, sent back to Earth by these spacecraft have greatly expanded and cost seems to be the major impediment. However, human knowledge. Even so, there is much yet to learn from the day of reckoning has arrived. NASA has been making continued space exploration. m ­ ission-limiting decisions for some time because of the Spacecraft require electrical energy. This energy must short supply of 238Pu. Moreover, NASA has been eliminat- be available in the outer reaches of the solar system where ing RPSs as an option for some missions and delaying other sunlight is very faint. It must be available through lunar missions that require RPSs until more 238Pu becomes avail- nights that last for 14 days, through long periods of dark and able. Unless and until a new source of 238Pu is established, cold at the higher latitudes on Mars, and in high-­radiation the restricted supply of 238Pu will increasingly limit both fields such as those around Jupiter. Radioisotope power the quality and the quantity of U.S. space science in many systems (RPSs) are the only available power source that mission areas, and continued U.S. leadership in these areas can operate unconstrained in these environments for the will be at risk. long periods of time needed to accomplish many missions The Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Genera- (see Box 1.1). tor (MMRTG) is the only specific RPS currently available. RPSs generate electricity by converting heat from the Like all prior RPSs, MMRTGs convert the thermal energy natural decay of the plutonium-238 (238Pu ) radioisotope produced by the radioactive decay of 238Pu to electricity into electricity. Plutonium-238 has been produced in ­quantity using thermocouples. This is a proven technology. RPSs only for the purpose of fueling RPSs; unlike 239Pu, it is that use thermocouples have no moving parts and have unsuitable for use in nuclear weapons. In the past, the United demonstrated high reliability and long life, albeit with low States had an adequate supply of 238Pu, which was produced energy-conversion efficiency. in facilities that existed to support the U.S. nuclear weapons The Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) program. The problem is, no 238Pu has been produced in the is a new type of RPS, and it is still being developed. It uses a United States since the Department of Energy (DOE) shut Stirling engine (with moving parts) to convert thermal energy down those facilities in the late 1980s. Since then the U.S. to electricity. Stirling engine converters are much more effi- space program has had to rely on the inventory of 238Pu that cient than thermocouples. As a result, ASRGs produce more existed at that time, supplemented by the purchase of 238Pu electricity than MMRTGs, even though they require only from Russia. However, Russian 238Pu production facilities one-fourth as much 238Pu. ASRG development efforts have were also shut down many years ago, and the DOE will soon made good progress thus far, but it remains to be seen when take delivery of its last shipment of 238Pu from Russia. The a flight-qualified ASRG will be available. committee does not believe that there is any additional 238Pu (or any operational 238Pu production facilities) available any- This report focuses on large quantities of 238Pu (measured in kilograms) where in the world. The total amount of 238Pu available for necessary to fuel RPSs. It is not concerned with small quantities of 238Pu (measured in grams, milligrams, or micrograms) that are produced for research or other purposes. 

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 RADIOISOTOPE POWER SYSTEMS BOX 1.1 What Is a Radioisotope Power System? Radioisotope power systems (RPSs) are compact, rugged spacecraft power systems that provide reliable, long-lived power in harsh environments where other power systems such as solar arrays are not practical. RPSs are not nuclear reactors. They do not use nuclear fission or fusion to produce energy. Instead, they produce heat through the natural radioactive decay of plutonium-238 (238Pu). All U.S. RPSs launched to date have used solid-state thermoelectric converters to convert this heat into electricity. Such RPSs have supported 26 NASA and Department of Defense missions since 1961. Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generators, which are still under develop- ment, use a more efficient dynamic energy conversion system to generate electricity. U.S. RPSs have an outstanding safety and reliability record. RPSs have never caused a spacecraft failure, and almost 50 years of effort have been invested in the engineering, safety, analysis, and testing of RPSs. Safety features are incorporated into the design of RPSs, extensive testing has ­demonstrated that they can withstand severe conditions associated with a wide spectrum of credible accidents, and mission experience has demonstrated that they can operate continuously for decades. FINDING. Production of 238Pu. The United States has not DOE roles and responsibilities, and nuclear safety. Chapter 3 produced 238Pu since the Department of Energy shut down its examines 238Pu supply and demand and the importance of nuclear weapons production reactors in the late 1980s. immediate action to reestablish domestic production of 238Pu. Chapter 4 reviews the performance of various RPSs, related Chapter 2 provides background information on space research and development, and the importance of completing exploration, the case for using RPSs and 238Pu, NASA and the development of ASRGs with all deliberate speed.